Chapter 8 Female Reproductive System Introduction The female - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 8 Female Reproductive System Introduction The female PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3b0705-YmEzN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 8 Female Reproductive System Introduction The female

Description:

Chapter 8 Female Reproductive System Introduction The female gamete is the ovum (egg) The ovum is produced in the female gonad Ovaries Ovum leaves the ovary, travels ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1634
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 57
Provided by: mabankisd
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 8 Female Reproductive System Introduction The female


1
Chapter 8
  • Female Reproductive System

2
Introduction
  • The female gamete is the ovum (egg)
  • The ovum is produced in the female gonad
  • Ovaries
  • Ovum leaves the ovary, travels down the fallopian
    tube to the uterus
  • If sperm are present in the fallopian tube
    fertilization may occur
  • The embryo then has a 40 week gestation period
  • The embryo is termed fetus after the 2nd month of
    pregnancy

3
Introduction
  • Ova mature and are released from the ovaries
  • This begins at the onset of puberty and continues
    until menopause
  • Puberty
  • secondary sex characteristics begin to develop
  • Menopause
  • Cessation of fertility
  • Diminishing hormone production

4
Introduction
  • Women are born with all of the eggs (ova) they
    will possibly release
  • Puberty signifies that the eggs are mature and
    they begin to leave the ovary
  • If an egg becomes fertilized it may grow and
    develop in the uterus

5
Introduction
  • If fertilization occurs various hormones are
    released from the ovary and placenta
  • If there is no fertilization the resulting
    hormone changes cause the menstruation to occur
  • Bleeding and shedding of the uterine wall

6
Introduction
  • Estrogen and progesterone are the hormones
    important for pregnancy and menstruation
  • The pituitary gland releases the hormones needed
    for the function of the ovaries, breasts, and
    uterus
  • This is located at the base of the brain

7
Introduction
  • Gynecology
  • Study of the female reproductive system
  • Obstetrics
  • Specialty concerned with pregnancy and delivery
    of the fetus
  • Neonatology
  • Study and treatment of the newborn child

8
Anatomy
  • Ovaries
  • The female gonads
  • Almond shaped organs in the lower abdomen
  • Produce ova (eggs) and hormones
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Leads from each ovary to the uterus

9
Anatomy
  • Uterus
  • aka the womb
  • Muscular organ located between the urinary
    bladder and rectum
  • This is where the embryo develops

10
Anatomy
  • Uterus
  • Divided into three parts
  • Fundus
  • The upper portion
  • Corpus
  • The middle portion
  • Cervix
  • The lower neck portion

11
Anatomy
  • Cul-de-sac
  • Midway between the uterus and rectum
  • Often examined for the presence of cancerous
    growth
  • Vagina
  • Tube extending from the uterus to the exterior of
    the body

12
Anatomy
  • Bartholin glands
  • Two small round glands on either side of the
    vaginal orifice
  • Helps to lubricate the vagina
  • Clitoris
  • Similar to the penis in males
  • Composed of erectile tissue
  • Anterior to vaginal orifice and urethral meatus

13
Anatomy
  • Perineum
  • Region between the vaginal orifice and rectum
  • Can be torn during childbirth and cause injury
  • Episiotomy is often performed before delivery and
    sewn together afterwards

14
Anatomy lateral view
15
Anatomy vulva
  • Vulva
  • The external genitalia
  • Consists of
  • Labia majora
  • The outer lips of the vagina
  • Labia minora
  • The smaller inner lips
  • Hymen
  • Mucous membrane that partially covers the
    entrance to the vagina
  • Clitoris
  • Bartholin Glands

16
Anatomy vulva
17
Anatomy ovaries
  • Utero-ovarian ligament
  • Located on either side of the uterus
  • Holds the ovaries in place
  • Graafian follicles
  • Thousands contained in each ovary
  • Each follicle contains an ovum
  • Ruptures to release ovum when mature

18
Anatomy ovaries
  • Once ovum is released the graafian follicle fills
    with blood and yellow, fat like material
  • Then called corpus luteum
  • Ovulation
  • Release of ovum from ovary

19
Anatomy fallopian tubes
  • Fallopian tube
  • 5 ½ in. long duct
  • Runs from ovary to uterus
  • End has finger like structures called fimbriae
  • These catch the ovum and pull it into the tube
  • This is where fertilization will occur

20
Anatomy fallopian tubes
  • Takes 5 days for the ovum to pass through the
    fallopian tube
  • It is during this time that fertilization is most
    likely to occur
  • If the egg remains unfertilized it disintegrates
    in a day or two

21
Anatomy uterus
  • Uterus
  • Pear shaped organ
  • Muscular walls
  • Mucous membrane lining filled with blood vessels
  • Divided into three parts
  • Fundus
  • Corpus
  • Cervix

22
Anatomy uterus
  • Uterus (cont.)
  • Endometium
  • Specialized epithelial mucosa
  • Myometrium
  • Muscular layer
  • Uterine serosa
  • Outer membranous tissue
  • Serosa is outer most layer of any organ in the
    abdomen or thorax

23
Anatomy vagina
  • Cervical opening leads to the vagina
  • 3 in. long
  • Leads to the outside of the body

24
Anatomy anterior view
25
Anatomy breast
  • Breasts are accessory organs to reproduction
  • They are located on the upper anterior region of
    the thorax
  • Breasts are mammary glands composed of
  • Glandular tissue
  • Contains milk glands
  • Develop in response to hormones from ovaries
    during puberty

26
Anatomy breast
  • Composed of (cont)
  • Fibrous and fatty tissue
  • Lactiferous ducts
  • Carry milk from glandular tissue
  • Sinuses
  • Carry milk to nipple

27
Anatomy breast
  • Composed of (cont.)
  • Nipple
  • Called mammary papilla
  • Small opening for the milk to pass through
  • Areola
  • Dark pigmented area around the nipple
  • During pregnancy breasts reach their full
    development
  • Hormones from the pituitary gland stimulate
    lactation after parturition

28
Anatomy breast
29
Anatomy breast
30
Menstruation
  • Menstruation begins during puberty
  • This is called menarche
  • Menstration is happens in cycles
  • Each cycle is divided into 28 days
  • These days are grouped into 4 time periods

31
Menstrual Cycle
  • Days 1-5
  • Menstrual period
  • Period when fluid discharge is present
  • Composed of endometrial cells, glandular
    secretions, and blood

32
Menstrual Cycle
  • Days 6-12
  • Endometrium begins to repair itself
  • Estrogen is released by maturing graafian
    follicles
  • Maturing ovum finishes growth during this period

33
Menstrual Cycle
  • Days 13-14
  • Graafian follicle ruptures
  • Ovum leaves the ovary and travels slowly down the
    fallopian tube
  • Rupturing process is known as ovulation

34
Menstrual Cycle
  • Days 15-28
  • Empty follicle fills with yellow material and
    becomes corpus luteum
  • Corpus luteum functions as endocrine organ
  • Secretes estrogen and progesterone
  • These stimulate building the lining of the uterus
    for pregnancy

35
Menstrual Cycle
  • Days 15-28 (cont.)
  • If fertilization does not occur production of
    hormones ceases
  • This can cause premenstrual symptoms
  • Depression
  • Breast tenderness
  • Irritability
  • Known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • About 5 days after hormone cessation, endometrium
    breaks down and menstrual cycle begins again

36
Menstrual Cycle
37
Pregnancy
  • When fertilization occurs the ovum implants in
    the endometrium
  • The corpus luteum continues to produce
    progesterone and estrogen
  • This supports the vascular and muscular
    development of the uterine lining
  • Placenta forms within the uterine wall

38
Pregnancy
  • Placenta derived from maternal endometrium and
    the chorion
  • Outermost membrane surrounding the embryo
  • Amnion is the innermost embryonic membrane
  • Holds fetus suspended in the amniotic cavity

39
Pregnancy
40
Pregnancy
  • The amnion and amniotic fluid normally rupture
    during labor
  • This is when a womans water breaks
  • Maternal and fetal blood never mix during
    pregnancy
  • The placenta acts as a filter for nutrients,
    oxygen and waste

41
Pregnancy
  • Placenta produces its own hormone
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  • This is what is tested for with home pregnancy
    tests
  • After the baby is delivered the placenta is
    expelled
  • This is known as the afterbirth

42
Pregnancy
43
Pregnancy
44
Pathology Cervix
  • Carcinoma of the cervix
  • Cervical cancer
  • More common in women who
  • Have coitus at early age
  • Have multiple sex partners
  • History of STDs
  • Evidence of HPV
  • Detection via Pap smear
  • Treatments include conization, hysterectomy, or
    radiation therapy

45
Pathology Cervix
  • Endometriosis
  • Endometrial tissue found in abnormal locations
  • Can cause
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Pelvic pain
  • Infertility
  • Dyspanreunia
  • Treatment ranges from symptomatic relief of pain
    to hysterectomy

46
Pathology Ovaries
  • Ovarian Carcinoma
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Accounts for more deaths than those of the cervix
    and uterus combined
  • Usually discovered in advanced stages
  • Treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy and
    chemotherapy

47
Pathology Ovaries
  • Ovarian Cysts
  • Typically benign
  • Occasionally cysts need to be removed to
    distinguish between benign and malignant tumors

48
Pathology Fallopian Tubes
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  • Leading causes are gonorrhea and chlamydial
    infection
  • Can be repetitive which can lead to adhesions and
    scarring within the fallopian tubes
  • Increases risk of ectopic pregnancy and
    difficulty getting pregnant

49
Pathology Fallopian Tubes
  • PID (cont.)
  • SS
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Pain in the abdomen (LLQ RLQ)
  • Fever
  • Tenderness on palpation of the cervix
  • Antibiotics are used as treatment

50
Pathology Breast
  • Carcinoma of the breast
  • Tumor will typically spread to lymph nodes in
    axilla first
  • Once introduced to lymph nodes cancer may spread
    to other body organs
  • Tumor is usually removed as primary treatment
  • Early detection important

51
Pathology Breast
  • Carcinoma of the breast (cont.)
  • Should perform self examination every month
    starting about age 20
  • About 211,000 new cases expected in the US each
    year
  • About 1,600 men expected to develop breast cancer

52
Pathology Pregnancy
  • Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Implantation of fertilized egg anywhere besides
    normal uterine location
  • Occurs in about 1 of pregnancies
  • About 90 of those occur in the oviducts
  • Other sites include oviducts and abdominal cavity
  • All are surgical emergencies

53
Clinical Tests
  • Pap Smear
  • Physician uses a vaginal speculum, wooden spatula
    and cotton swab to take secretions from cervix
    and vagina
  • Microscopic analysis is then performed on the
    sample
  • Recommended for every woman over 18 years of age,
    or under if sexually active

54
Clinical Tests
  • Pregnancy test
  • Can be blood or urine
  • Detects presence of HCG
  • Mammography
  • X-rays of the breast to screen for cancer
  • Recommended around age 50 for a baseline and
    every 1 2 years after

55
Clinical Procedures
  • Tubal Ligation
  • A sterilization process
  • Fallopian tubes are burned or cut, and then tied
    off
  • A small incision is made in the abdomen and a
    laparoscope is inserted through which
    instrumentation can be inserted

56
Clinical Procedures
  • Cesarean Section
  • C section
  • Removal of fetus by abdominal incision
  • Indications
  • Cephalopelvic disproportion
  • Hemorrhage
  • Fetal distress
  • Breech or shoulder presentation
About PowerShow.com