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Environment and Culture in North America

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Culture Areas Geographic Area of ethnic groups with similar cultural traits. http://www.nmia.com/~jaybird/AANewsletter/southwestmap.html Names – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environment and Culture in North America


1
Environment and Culture in North America
2
Culture Areas
  • Geographic Area of ethnic groups with similar
    cultural traits.

http//www.nmia.com/jaybird/AANewsletter/southwes
tmap.html
3
Names
  • Indians
  • Holdover from the search by explorers for a route
    to the Indies.
  • Some Native Americans dislike this name.
  • Amerind, Native American, or First Nation also
    used.

4
Names
  • Names of tribes are necessarily what they called
    themselves. At the time of contact, some
    explorers used names that other groups called a
    specific group.
  • Thus, Navajo prefer Dine and Yuman prefer Quechan.

5
Geography and Culture
http//encarta.msn.com/media_461565493/Culture_Are
as_of_North_America.html
6
Environment
  • Biome
  • A larger biological community of interacting
    plants and animals, as exemplified by tundra or
    coniferous forest.
  • Habitat
  • An area of land with physical characteristics
    such as minerals, soils, rainfall, and
    temperature that affect which plants and animals
    live there.
  • Ecotone
  • A community of plants and animals found at the
    transition between biomes or other large biotic
    units characterized by a mixture of species that
    may attract predators, including humans.

7
N. A. Biomes
http//www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/tourFames.cgi?to
ur_id14051
8
Biomes
  • Tundra
  • Treeless biome
  • Ground frozen year round, permafrost

9
Tundra
  • Frozen tarn pond in alpine tundra near Dillon,
    Colorado

Images (c) by James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown
Herbarium, University of Maryland
10
Coniferous forest
  • Evergreens-pine, spruce, fir, and hemlock

Images (c) by James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown
Herbarium, University of Maryland
11
Moist Temperate Forest
  • Mostly coastal and in low mountains (less than
    9,000 ft)
  • Abundant precipitation, rain and snow 25-160 in
    (65-400 cm).
  • Cool temperatures, rarely below 5 F or above
    100 F moister and cooler in the north.

http//www.life.umd.edu/emeritus/reveal/pbio/biome
/lec35c.html
12
Temperate Deciduous Forest
  • Beech - maple - yellow poplar, oak - hickory,
    mixed pine - hardwood.
  • Cool /cold winters, warm summers.
  • Moist winters, moist summers.

http//forestry.about.com/library/tree/bl_na_biome
s_eastdec.htm Photos Courtesy of Steve Nix,
About Forestry
13
Chaparral
  • Arid, very little rain in summer.
  • Chaparral fire near Ensenada, Baja California
  • Images (c) by James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown
    Herbarium, University of Maryland

14
Cold Desert/Hot Desert Biome
  • Cold Desert-cold in winter, arid.

Cold desert of the Great Basin near Lunar Crater,
Nevada Images (c) by James L. Reveal,
Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland
15
Temperate Grassland
  • Plains, Prairies

Mid-grass prairie near Manhattan, Kansas
Images (c) by James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown
Herbarium, University of Maryland
16
Water Resources
  • Rivers, Lakes, Oceans, Sinkholes, Springs.

17
Native American Impact on the Environment
  • Environment of the past dynamic.
  • Interglacials
  • Hypsithermal
  • Prehistoric people did impact the environment.
  • Clearing forests, diverting water.

18
Culture Histories
  • Use of archaeological methods to construct
    cultural types based on culture area and
    artifacts.
  • Temporal Types
  • Artifacts with temporal signatures

19
Components
  • Component
  • An archaeological unit that includes a culturally
    homogeneous stratigraphic or spatial unit within
    a site and is thought to represent a single
    occupation of the site.

20
Phases
  • Phase
  • An archaeological unit consisting of several
    components at a number of sites defined by
    similar artifacts and other characteristics and
    found in a unique geographical area and time
    period phases are thought to loosely represent
    cultures

21
Horizons
  • Horizon
  • an archaeological unit that links phases based on
    traits of material culture that appear to have
    spread widely during a relatively short period of
    time.

22
Tradition
  • Temporal continuity in material culture the
    archaeological unit that links phases and sites
    based on general attributes of material culture
    that persist over a long period.

23
Culture History
  • PaleoIndian (Pleistocene)
  • Archaic (Beginning with Holocene, continuing
    through contact with some groups)
  • Woodland (ca 3000)
  • Mississippians, Iroquoians, Plains Village (ca
    1000)
  • Historic Period (after contact)

24
Culture Concepts
  • Band
  • Small, mobile groups
  • Wild resources
  • Little personal property

25
Culture Concepts
  • Tribe
  • Larger groups, sometimes villages
  • Kinship groups-clans
  • Big men in some groups (NW Coast)

26
Culture Concepts
  • State
  • Monarchy or democracy
  • Social Classes/castes

27
Culture Concepts
  • Egalitarian
  • Status based on age, individual, gender
  • Ranked
  • Social position inherited, nearness to chief (or
    chiefs lineage)higher status
  • Stratified
  • Sharp class distinctions

28
Themes in North American Research
  • Settlement of America?
  • Adaptation to Environment
  • Food Production?
  • Complex Cultural Systems?
  • Ethnic Identities?
  • European settlement
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