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ECE 398RES RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS presentation by

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Title: ECE 398RES RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS presentation by


1
ECE 398RES RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
presentation by
  • Pat Chapman and George Gross
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • at the
  • PAP 2006 Annual Meeting

2
OUTLINE
  • The scope of the course
  • The course within the current energy/ environment
    context
  • The role of renewable sources
  • Course objectives and perspectives
  • Topical outline
  • The first class

3
RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • We focus on the technical, economic and
    environmental aspects of renewable and
    alternative energy systems to obtain an
    understanding of their role in meeting societys
    electricity needs
  • We analyze the full range of renewable energy
    supplies
  • The course provides a basis for understanding the
    distinctive scientific principles of renewable

4
RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • energy and the ability to provide an assessment
    of the economics and environmental impacts of
    renewable energy
  • The course covers the basics of energy
    produc-tion from renewable sources, the relevant
    thermodynamics background, the structure and
    nature of the electric transmission grid, the
    integration of renewable resources into the grid,
    environmental aspects and the regulatory
    environment for electricity

5
INCREASE IN WORLD ENERGY PRODUCTION AND
CONSUMPTION
7000
6000
5000
4000
Mton oil equivalent
3000
2000
1000
0
consumption
production
consumption
production
2000 2030
1971 2000
Source IEA 2002
1 tonne of oil equivalent (toe) 42 GJ (net
calorific value) 10034 Mcal
6
PREDOMINANCE OF OIL AND GAS
http//www.exxonmobil.com/corporate/Newsroom/Publi
cations/eTrendsSite/chapter1.asp
7
OUT OF GAS
8
PRICE OF OIL
9
MAJOR CHALLENGES IN ENERGY
  • Energy security fuel supply resources for the
    future
  • Economic growth accommodation of the developing
    nations needs
  • Environmental effects global warming and
    emission control
  • Electricity system reliability assurance of
    integrity of electric power infrastructure

10
SUSTAINABILITY
  • Sustainable development refers to living,
    product-ion and consumption in a manner and at a
    level that meets the needs of the present without
    unduly impact on the ability of future
    generations to meet their own needs
  • The World Commission on Environment and
    Development set up by the UN issued a seminal
    report in 1987 the report established the
    concept of sustainable development
  • The major thrust of the report was to explicitly
    recognize the scale and unevenness of economic

11
SUSTAINABILITY
  • development and population growth continue to
    place unprecedented pressures on the planets
    land, water and other natural resources and
    without constraints are severe enough to wipe out
    regional populations and, over the long term, to
    lead to global catastrophes
  • Sustainability is a key guiding principle of
    policy of many nations
  • The applicability at international, national,
    state and local levels varies widely

12
ROLE OF RENEWABLES IS OF GROWING IMPORTANCE
13
RENEWABLES ROLE IN THE 2004 U.S. ENERGY
SUPPLY
14
2005 RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARDS AND STATE
MANDATES
15
2005 WIND ENERGY STATUS
Maine 0.1
Washington 240
Vermont 6
Wisconsin 53
North Dakota 66
Montana 2
Minnesota 615
Michigan 2
Oregon 263
New Hampshire 0.1
South Dakota 44
Idaho 0.2
Massachusetts 1
Wyoming 285
New York 48
Iowa 632
Nebraska 14
Ohio 7
Utah 0.2
Pennsylvania 129
Illinois 81
Colorado 229
Kansas 114
West Virginia 66
California 2,096
Tennessee 29
Oklahoma 176
Arkansas 0.1
New Mexico 267
Texas 1,293
Alaska 1
Hawaii 9
total U.S. capacity installed 6740MW
Source American Wind Energy Association,
Outlook 2005
16
2003 05 GLOBAL WIND CAPACITY
70000
60000
11,769
50000
8,207
40000
MW
30000
20000
10000
0
2003
2004
2005
Source Global Wind Energy Council
17
GLOBAL INSTALLED WIND POWER CAPACITY ( MW )
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION
Africa The Middle East
Asia
Europe
Latin America Caribbean
North America
Pacific Region
Source Wind Energy Fact Sheet, American Wind
Energy Association, www.awaea.org
18
2005 INSTALLED WIND CAPACITY
Asia 7,135 MW 12
Australia 708 MW 1
Americas and Africa 10,979 MW 19
Europe 40,500 MW 68
total wind 59,322 MW
Source Global Wind Energy Council
19
2005 INSTALLED WIND CAPACITY
18,428 MW
Germany
10,027 MW
Spain
9,149 MW
USA
4,430 MW
India
3,122 MW
Denmark
1,260 MW
China
708 MW
Australia
MW
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
20,000
Source Global Wind Energy Council
20
THE TOP 20 STATES FOR WIND ENERGY POTENTIAL
10,000
1,000
100
annual energy potential ( billions of kWhs )
10
1
0.1
ND
TX
KS
SD
MT
NE
WY
OK
MN
IA
CO
NM
ID
MI
NY
IL
CA
WI
ME
MO
States
Source Wind Energy Fact Sheet, American Wind
Energy Association, www.awaea.org
21
DOE WIND PROGRAM GOALS
  • 3 /kWh in classes 4 and above onshore wind areas
  • 5 /kWh for off-shore regions

22
WIND SYSTEM CAPITAL COSTS
1600
150 kW
225 kW
1400
300 kW
1200
500 kW
600 kW
1000
1650 kW
capital costs ( /kW )
800
600
400
200
0
1989
1991
1993
1995
1996
2000
capital costs include turbine, tower, grid
connection, site preparation controls and land
23
SOLAR ENERGY
24
U.S. SOLAR INSOLATION MAP
25
2004 SOLAR ENERGY STATUS
  • Total U.S. installed PV and
  • solar thermal capacity is
    0.5 GW
  • Total world PV capacity is
    4 GW with 1.8 GW being grid
    connected
  • The nine parabolic trough plants for
    concentra-ting solar power produce energy at 12
    14 /kWh
  • The price of power from grid-connected PV systems
    is 20 30 /kWh

PV systems at APS facility in Prescott, AZ
26
DOE SOLAR PROGRAM GOALS
  • Photovoltaics 6 /kWh by 2020
  • The goal of the US DOE is to install 1000 MW of
    new concentrating solar power systems in the
    southwestern United States by 2010 with costs of
    0.07 /kWh
  • Concentrating solar power/troughs 5 /kWh by
    2012

27
FORECASTED RENEWABLE COSTS
40 30 20 10 0
100 80 60 40 20 0
PV
Wind
cents / kWh
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
15 12 9 6 3 0
10 8 6 4 2 0
Solar thermal
Biomass
Geothermal
cents / kWh
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
all costs are levelized in constant year 2000
dollars
Source NREL Energy Analysis Office
(www.nrel.gov/analysis/docs/cost_curves_2002.ppt)
28
KEY CHALLENGES IN RENEWABLE EXPANSION
  • Integration into the grid
  • interconnection
  • grid capability
  • reliability issues
  • power quality
  • Competitiveness of technology costs
  • Environmental problems
  • Development of storage technology

29
KEY CHALLENGES IN RENEWABLE EXPANSION
  • Government policies at the
  • federal
  • state
  • local
  • levels
  • Regulatory accommodation
  • permitting processes
  • back up power
  • green power differential

30
COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • Acquaint students with some basic physical
    principles used in renewable energy
  • Stress the importance of economics and
    environ-mental aspects in electricity
    developments
  • Expose students to the exciting aspects of energy

31
COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • Expose students to some of the major developments
    in renewable resources and their integration into
    the power grid
  • Provide a basic understanding of impacts of
    market forces on shaping the electricity business
  • Give students the opportunity to do a project in
    a team environment and to make a formal
    presen-tation

32
PERSPECTIVES
  • Understanding of the scientific principles
    underlying renewable resources is essential
  • Awareness of the role that renewables can play is
    important
  • Challenges in the integration of renewables are
    major

33
TOPICAL OUTLINE
  • General overview of electricity demand, supply,
    industry structure, interconnected system
    operations and state of technology
  • Nature and role of alternative generation sources
  • Review of concepts in electric circuit analysis

34
TOPICAL OUTLINE
  • Engineering aspects of alternative source
    generation technologies thermodynamics
    considerations solar resource and solar array
    systems wind resource and wind generation
    systems other renewable resource technologies
    hydro, geothermal, closed system fuel cells role
    of power electronic circuits in renewable
    technologies economics of various technologies
    environmental attributes

35
TOPICAL OUTLINE
  • Engineering principles of electrical storage
    technologies electrical vs. chemical energy
    storage batteries double-layer capacitors
    superconducting magnetic energy storage
    flywheels
  • The demand picture the nature of electrical
    loads time variation, periodicity and price
    dependence

36
TOPICAL OUTLINE
  • Demand management and energy conservation
    efficiency improvements load management
    price-responsive demand and, the role of new
    technologies
  • Electricity markets basics
  • Integration of renewable generation into the grid
  • Regulatory policy aspects

37
GRADING POLICY
  • The course grade is based on the performance of
    the student in the homework assignments, the
    quizzes, the final exam and the project
  • Students form teams and each team undertakes the
    preparation of a final project and its
    presentation to the class

38
GRADING POLICY TABLE
39
THE FIRST CLASS
  • 34 undergraduate students from ECE and other
    engineering departments
  • The project was the highlight of the course for
    many students
  • Students have become well exposed to the many
    challenges in the integration of renewable
    resources
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