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MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy

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MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy


1
MAN AND ENERGYA case for Sustainable Living
through Renewable and Green Energy
  • Ali Keyhani
  • Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • The Ohio State University
  • Columbus, OH-43210
  • keyhani.1_at_osu.edu

2
ABSTRACT
  • Energy technologies have a central role in social
    and economic developments at all scales.
  • Energy is closely linked environmental pollution,
    degradation to economic development and quality
    of living.
  • We are dependent on nonrenewable fossil fuels
    that have been and will continue to be major
    cause of pollution and climatic change.
  • Petroleum supplies are dwindling.
  • Thus finding sustainable alternatives is an
    urgent concern.

3
.ABSTRACT
  • Challenges
  • To develop technology for integration, control of
    renewable energy sources, control of energy
    consumption and load management.
  • To empower energy user for a sustainable living.
  • Developing Distributed Generation system where
    energy user is also an energy producer.

4
ABSTRACT
  • In this talk, an overview of humankind energy use
    is presented.
  • Man and Energy --- the past.
  • Man and Energy--- the last hundred years.
  • Man and Energy---the future
  • Then the talk, focuses on some of the challenges
    and efforts needed to harness renewable energy
    sources for a sustainable human society.

5
MAN HISTORY
  • Early human forays into the Middle East from
    Africa around 100,000 to 150,000 years ago.
  • These early settlers were replaced by
    Neanderthals in the region about 80,000 years
    ago.
  • Possible triggers for migration increase in
    population, a change in diet, the acquisition of
    language and climatic change.
  • Around 40,000 years ago, grip of Ice Age
    loosened, temperature became warmer, humans moved
    into Central Asia and multiplied quickly.

6
MAN HISTORY
  • 35,000 years ago small groups of people left
    Central Asia for Europe. Cold temperatures kept
    them there.
  • They became paler and shorter than their African
    ancestors.
  • 15000 years ago, one small clan of arctic
    dwellers followed the reindeer herd over the
    Bering Strait land bridge to North America.

7
MAN HISTORY
  • Some time in the past, random mutations, which
    can happen naturally and be harmless, marked a
    new begging.
  • Climate changes may have coaxed humans out of
    Africa and encouraged Neanderthals already living
    there to spread outward into other parts of Asia
    and southeastern Europe.
  • But a climatic reversal also could have turned
    the tables.

8
MAN HISTORY
  • Europe and Northern Asia were experiencing a cool
    era at that time, and even hearty Neanderthals
    probably would have found the warmer climates to
    the south enticing.
  • They pushed back probably from the Caucasus
    region to the north, and drove the humans then
    living there into retreat Bar-Yosef suggested.
  • Only a second advance by humans thousands of
    years laterone that was more permanently
    successfulultimately settled the question of
    which species would prevail.

9
CLIMATE FACTOR
  • A major mystery in the story of human evolution
    is how climate affected the environment where
    creatures that regularly walked uprightthe
    hominidsfirst emerged.
  • One widely accepted theory holds that after the
    ape and hominid lineages split, the earliest
    human ancestors were forced into the expanding
    tropical grasslands of the African savanna after
    the continent's thick forests dwindled as a
    result of climate change.

10
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Primary Energy All we use comes from the sun.

Solar radiation
Key to Sustainability Utilize primary energy
resource at the same rate at which it is
naturally replenished on earth and without
externalities.
Source BMW Group,2000
11
EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY
  • Mesopotamia
  • An area geographically located between the Tigris
  • and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to
    Iraq ,
  • Khuzestan region of southwestern Iran.
  • 8000 B.C people of the area used wood
  • and wood charcoal and oil.
  • Include Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian,
  • Assyrian Empires.
  • Known as Cradle of civilization

12
EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY
  • IRON AGE
  • The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of
    Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and
    ended in 609 BC. About half a century later, the
    Babylonians and Assyrians both became provinces
    of the Persian Empire which gave way to the
    Achaemenid Empire.

  • Seal of Cyrus, the Great.(550 B.C.)

13
EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY
  • EGYPT
  • 5000 B.C, Egyptians used wood and wood charcoal
    for cooking and heat.

Inscriber Egypt. (3000BC.)
14
EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY
  • GREECE
  • 750 B.C TO 146 B.C, considered to the seminal
    culture which provided the foundation for western
    civilization.
  • Greek culture had a power influence on Roman
    Empire.

The Parthenon is the most memorable symbol of the
culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
15
EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY
  • INDIA
  • The Indus Valley Civilization (30001500 B.C)
    flourished in the Indus river valleys primarily
    in Sindh province of Pakistan, extending westward
    into Balochistan province, and in north western
    and western India.
  • According to archaeologists, wheel was
  • probably invented in around 8,000 B.C.
  • in India.

Taj mahal
Chariots belonging to the Aryans of ancient India
16
EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY
  • CHINA
  • China is one of the world's oldest continuous
    civilizations (extends 5000 years).
  • Deep Drilling of Gas Technique
  • developed in 100 B.C. The devices that
  • were used were remarkably large and
  • well crafted for time.
  • The Chineses building process was
  • dramatically sped up because of this useful
    invention. The wheelbarrow emerged in first
    century BC.

17
CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE
  • 450 B.C Herodotus described oil pits near
    Babylon.
  • 325 B.C Alexander the great used flaming
    torches of petroleum products to scare his
    enemies.
  • 1264 Marco Polo recorded visiting the Persian
    city of Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea in
    modern Azerbaijan, he saw oil being collected
    from seeps for use in medicine and lighting.
  • 1814 One of the first wells that produced oil
    which was marketed was drilled near Marietta,
    Ohio

18
CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE
  • 1895 Invention of combustion engine.
  • 1896 Henry Ford's first motorcar.
  • 1908 - Oil discovered in Persia, Anglo Persian
    Oil company formed (Later became British
    Petroleum, BP).
  • 1938 - Oil discovered in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
  • 1939-1945 - World War II - control of oil supply
    from Baku and Middle East played a huge role in
    the events of the war and the ultimate victory of
    the allies. Cutting off the oil supply
    considerably weakened Japan in the latter part of
    the war.

19
CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE
  • 1951 Anglo Iranian Oil Company nationalized.
  • 1954 Anglo-Persian Oil Company renamed British
    Petroleum.
  • 1979-1981 Oil prices rise from 13.00 to
    34.00.
  • 1986 Chernobyl - Nuclear power plant accident.
  • 2003 (Aug 14) - Major electrical failure causes
    blackout in New York State and Ontario.

20
CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE
  • 2004 (July) - US oil imports at a record 11.3MMBO
    per day.
  • 2004 - (Nov) George Bush re-elected President in
    USA.
  • 2004 (Oct 25) - Oil at a record price of 55.67
    US per barrel on concerns over high demand and
    possible supply disruptions in the Middle East
    and damage on the Gulf Coast from Hurricane Ivan
    .
  • 2008 (Jan 2) - WTI oil price briefly touches
    US100 per barrel for the first time driven by
    supply concerns and the weak US dollar.

21
Is an Oil economy Sustainable?
  • In the long run, an economy that utilizes
    petroleum as a primary energy source is not
    sustainable, because the amount of oil in the
    Earths crust is finite.
  • The history of energy use is largely one of
    substitution. In the 19th century, the worlds
    primary energy source was wood.
  • Around 1890, wood was replaced by coal. Coal
    remained the worlds largest source of energy
    until the 1960s when it was replaced by oil.
  • No one can predict the future, but the world
    contains enough petroleum resources to last at
    least until the year 2100.

22
  • The above graph shows the Hubbert predictions in
    1956 which shows the estimates of the oil
    production in the future which is compared with
    the actual production.

23
  • The world average oil production per capita from
    1920 to 1999. The curve represents the ratio of
    world oil production (O) and world population
    (Pop) i.e. ô O/(Pop) in barrels per capita per
    year (i.e. b/c/year). Note well that ô grew
    exponentially from 1920 to 1973. Next, growth was
    negligible from 1973 to the all-time peak in
    1979. Finally, from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ô
    decreased at an average rate of 1.20 per year.
    (i.e. from 5.50 b/c in 1979 to 4.32 b/c in 1999)

24
  • World average energy production per capita (ê)
    grew significantly from 1920 to its all-time peak
    in 1979.
  • Then from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ê declined at
    an average rate of 0.33 /year.

25
Introduction to Current Energy Use
  • World-Wide Total Energy Sources
  • 86.5 combustion
  • 21.1 Natural Gas
  • 32.6 oil
  • 22.2 coal
  • 10.6 traditional biomass
  • 5.7 nuclear
  • 5.5 hydro-electric
  • 2.3 renewables (other than traditional biomass)

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press
(2004)
26
Introduction to current energy use
Trends in World Total Energy Use (last 30 years)
BP website www.bp.com
27
Introduction to current Energy Use
Regional Distribution of Total Energy Use
Regional Consumption Pattern 2006 Percentage
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
North America
S. Cent. America
Europe Eurasia
Middle East
Africa
Asia Pacific
Oil remains the leading energy source in all
regions except Asia Pacific and Europe and
Eurasia. Coal dominates in the Asia Pacific
Region, while Natural Gas is the leading fuel in
Europe and Eurasia. The Asia Pacific region
accounted for two-thirds global energy
consumption last year.
28
Introduction to current Energy Use
  • World Energy Use for Electricity Generation
  • 64 combustion
  • 39 coal
  • 15 gas
  • 10 oil
  • 16 nuclear
  • 19 hydro-electric

World Nuclear Association, 2008
29
Introduction to current Energy Use
World Energy Resource Trends Year 2000

Year 2020
4051015 BTU

6101015 BTU 50 increase
Source EIA, U.S, DOE, 2007
30
Energy Sustainability Discussion
Primary Energy All We Use Comes from the Sun.
Energy sustainability requires use of resources
at the same rate at which they are naturally
replenished on earth without externalities.
Source BMW Group, 2000
31
Energy Sustainability Discussion
Earth at night - 2007
32
Energy Sustainability Discussion
Earth at night 2030
33
Electricity Consumption
34
Introduction to Current Energy Use
  • World-Wide Total Energy Sources
  • 86.5 combustion
  • 21.1 Natural Gas
  • 32.6 oil
  • 22.2 coal
  • 10.6 traditional biomass
  • 5.7 nuclear
  • 5.5 hydro-electric
  • 2.3 renewables (other than traditional biomass)

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press
(2004)
35
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • 2.5
  • A small number, BUT, at this IEA forecast average
    annual growth rate (2.5) world electricity
    demand will double by 2030
  • 75
  • IEA forecasts world carbon dioxide emissions due
    to power generation to increase over 75 from
    2002 to 2030 (from 9417 metric tons to 16771
    metric tons)
  • 1.5 billion
  • 2006 world population equals 6.7 billion. The UN
    forecasts population will grow to 8.2 Billion by
    2030. Thats another 1.5 billion people who will
    need electricityequivalent to adding 5 new USAs
    to the globe.

36
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • Current overall effectiveness of energy
    consumption is DEPRESSING
  • We Would be better off burning a lump of coal
    at home to produce light?
  • Highly poor end-use efficiency
  • - Transport emissions/efficiency challenges.
  • - End-use emissions.

37
Global Climate
  • Solar irradiation enters atmosphere primarily as
    UV radiation
  • Earth radiation to space is primarily Infra-red
    radiation
  • Composition of atmosphere affects how much energy
    is absorbed, reflected, transmitted through,.
  • Similar to a car window

IPCC, 2006 http//www.ipcc.ch/
38
Global Climate
  • Many factors influence climate One cannot prove
    that human activity is causing climate change,
    but, preponderance of evidence is certain

IPCC, 2006 http//www.ipcc.ch/
39
Co2 Emission Around the World
40
Production of CO2 Since 1700
41
Global Climate
  • Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, sea
    level continue to rise long after emissions are
    reduced.

IPCC, 2006 http//www.ipcc.ch/
42
Global Climate
  • Departures in temperatures ( degree celsius )
    from 1961-1990 average

IPCC, 2006 http//www.ipcc.ch/
43
Energy Sustainability Discussion
Source EIA, U.S., DOE, 2007
44
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • We SHOULD move towards clean energy
    Technologies
  • Green Tech and clean energy have become Wall
    Street darlings GOOD.
  • Need much more than hype.

Global Installation/Production Growth Solar,
Wind, Biofuels
Source Clean Energy, Inc.
45
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • Proven Energy Resources around the world

Reserves-to-production (R/P) R/P ratios
represent the length of time that those remaining
reserves would last if production were to
continue at the previous year's rate. It is
calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the
end of the year by the production in that
year. BP website www.bp.com
46
Energy Sustainability
Proved reserves at end 2006
47
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • Caifornia Global Climate Initiatives
  • Achieving goals will require remarkable and
    significant adoption of new technologies
    affecting all economic sectors.
  • Electricity generation sector example

Source Ferguson, CEERT, March2,2007
48
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • Oil Discovery and Production Trends

Source Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005
49
Energy Sustainability
  • Historical and projected Oil production vs.
    Region

Source Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005
50
Introduction to Current Energy Use
  • Petroleum Production
  • Projected Peak oil (2016-2028)

Source Oil and Gas Journal, 2004
51
Introduction to Current Energy Use
  • World Oil Demand Growth (change from previous
    year)

Source EIA, U.S., DOE, 2008
52
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Dish Stirling Engine
  • Uses Carnot Cycle
  • High heat capacity working fluid (usually
    Hydrogen)

53
  • The age of petroleum is coming to an end, and
    the future is dangerously insecure.
  • Oil demand will shortly exceed the production
    capacity of even the largest suppliers. The world
    economy is moving towards an uneasy transition.
  • The open question is when the peak oil usage
    occur. Can the world renewable and green sources
    of energy be able to continue the industry in the
    same way as it is at present.
  • Global warming is an engineering problem, not a
    moral crusade. Until we solve the problem, it's
    hypocrisy to pretend we can stop.

54
Remarks
  • Accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the
    solar system is about 4.55 billion years. It took
    billion of years to produce world oil, gas and
    coal reserve.
  • Recorded history of Homo Sapiens is about 5000
    years old.
  • For 5000 years, man used wood , wood charcoal ,
    wind and water power .
  • Since the industrial revolution, man has been
    using coal.
  • Man has been using oil for one hundred years.
    How long would it last?

55
Remarks
  • Man has been present on earth 5000/40000000.1
  • Man has been using energy 5000/1000005
  • Man has been using oil 100/50002
  • Results Man has populated the earth and
    exhausted it resources.

56
CONCLUSION
  • The parallel issue that is also in a concern is
    the Global warming.
  • For a sustainable life and preventing Global
    warming, man must minimizing the dependence on
    oil.
  • Renewable and Green Energy

57
Introduction
  • What is the Concept of Green Energy ?
  • Power generation using environmental-friendly
    energy sources.
  • Hydrogen Based Resources
  • Fuel cells
  • Renewable Energy Sources
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Wind power
  • Storage Devices
  • Ultra capacitors
  • Batteries
  • Flywheels

58
Distributed Generation System Technologies
59
Introduction
  • What are the Benefits of Distributed Generation
    Systems ?
  • Installation near to the local loads.
  • Power losses of distribution network can be
    reduced by reducing the power flow in the
    transmission lines.
  • On-site standby power systems during grid outages
  • Peak load shaving
  • Modular structure makes system expansion easy.
    e.g. fuel cell-micro turbine or micro
    turbine-battery systems.
  • Combined heat and power (CHP) applications.

60
Germany Solar Initiative
  • The "Feed-in Law" in Germany permits customers to
    receive preferential tariffs for solar generated
    electricity depending on the nature and size of
    the installation. Under the new tariff structure
    introduced in 2004, the base level of
    compensation for ground-mounted systems can be up
    to 45.7 euro cents/kWh. PV installations on
    buildings receive higher rates of up to 57.4 euro
    cents/kWh.

61
Germany Solar Initiative
  • The Feed-in Law fixes tariffs for approved
    renewable energy projects for a 20-year period
    from the plant commissioning and will apply
    incremental price cuts. Tariffs were initially
    set at 48.1 cents per kilowatt hour for solar
    energy, 8.6 cents per kWh for wind, from 9.6 to
    8.2 cents per kWh for biomass, 8.4 to 6.7 cents
    per kWh for geothermal and 7.2 to 6.3 cents per
    kWh for hydropower, waste and sewage gas.
  • The Feed-in Law requires that the tariff paid for
    solar electricity be reduced by 5 per year, and
    by 6.5 per annum for ground-mounted systems.

62
Germany Solar Initiative
  • Some 20,000 solar electricity systems yielding an
    output of about 145 Megawatts (MW) were installed
    in 2003, almost twice the volume installed in the
    previous year.
  • The total solar electricity capacity in Germany
    is now estimated at over 400 Megawatts. Germany
    saw slow growth in 2006, but still remains by far
    the largest PV market in the world.

63
Germany Solar Initiative
  • 968 Megawatts of PV were installed in Germany in
    2006. The German solar market generated total
    revenues of over 800 million euros in 2003.
  • The German PV industry generates over 10,000
    jobs in production, distribution and
    installation. Over 90 of solar PV installations
    are in grid-tied applications in Germany. The
    balance is off-grid (or stand alone) systems

64
Germany Solar Initiative
  • PV Installations by Year in Germany (in
    Megawatts)1990( 0.60 MW) 1991(1.00 MW)
    1992(3.10MW) 1993 (3.5 MW) 1994 (4.0 MW) 1995
    (5.9 MW) 1996 (10.6 MW) 1997 (14.5 MW) 1998 (12.6
    MW) 1999 (16.5 MW)
  • 2000 (44.0 MW) 2001 ( 80.0 MW) 2002 (83.0 MW)
    2003 (145.0 MW)

65
Germany Solar Initiative
  • The world's largest PV installation is in
    Germany, at Hemau in Bavaria. It consists of
    32,740 solar modules with a combined peak power
    output of 4 Megawatts.
  • Some German states have subsidy programs for PV
    installations that can be used in combination
    with the national Feed-in Law.

66
Germany Solar Initiative
  • German Energy and Electricity Industry German
    domestic energy sources in 1998 were Coal 46,
    Nuclear power 31, Natural Gas 14, Renewable
    Energy 6 and Oil 3. In consumption terms,
    though, oil accounted for 44, or 2.8 million
    barrels per day. Of the renewable energy segment,
    wind energy accounts for about 58, Hydropower
    30, Biomass 12, and solar and other source for
    the balance.

67
Selected Energy Statistics by Country (1998) Sourc
e International Energy Agency
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Shenzhen Sunshine Electronics Co Ltd China
4-6/F, No. 1 Building Nangang Industrial Park II
Xili Town, Nanshan District Shenzhen Guangdong
China Tel (86 755) 27653478Fax (86 755)
27653475 E Mail SunWare GmbH Co. KG Germany
Dusseldorfer Strasse 80, DE-47239, Duisburg
(Rumeln), Germany Tel 49 2151 406045 Fax 49
2151 406208 E Mail Sunworld (Shanghai) Solar
Energy Technology Co., Ltd China Rm.1501,
Tongquan Building, No.678 Gubei Road Changning
District, Shanghai, China Tel 86 21 6295
9165Fax 86 21 6295 9216E Mail
michael.hsou_at_gmail.com
77
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • Where does suns energy go?

78
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Other Solar Thermal
  • Reflecting mirrors, troughs,etc.
  • Various designs, some tracking
  • All use working fluid and turbine

79
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Photovoltaics
  • Around for at least 6 decades
  • Roots in space program (1950s)
  • Many useful applications
  • Not typically economical in central station
    generation.
  • System capital cost of approx. 4,500-9,500/kW
  • Power cost of 0.15 to 0.5/kWh
  • Intermittent power (usually requires energy
    storage)
  • Peak output often coincident with peak electrical
    demands.

80
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Large wind(gt50kW) large and utility
    applications.

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82
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Fuel Cells System operation
  • Fuel Cell Stack
  • Fuel Processing
  • Electric power Conversion
  • Balance of plant

System integration is very important for both
simple cycle hybrid fuel cell system
83
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Fuel Cell types

84
Sustainable Energy Technology
Renewable hybrid Systems
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