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Petroleum Prospecting (????)

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Title: Petroleum Prospecting (????)


1
  • Chapter 3
  • Petroleum Prospecting(????)

2
Referencesfor ????(Petroleum Prospecting)
  • Textbook 1
  • Fundamentals of Petroleum, Petroleum
    Extension Service, The University of Texas at
    Austin, Austin, Texas,1979.
  • chapter 2
  • Textbook 4
  • Hyne,N.J., Petroleum Geology, Exploration,
    Drilling and Production,
  • Penn Well Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2001.
  • -- chapter 13 14 (p. 195-232)
  • Textbook 1 chapter 2
  • SPE Energy Education

3
Text Books
  • Textbook 1
  • Fundamentals of Petroleum, Petroleum
    Extension Service, The University of Texas at
    Austin, Austin, Texas,1979.
  • Textbook 2
  • Archer, J. S., and Wall, C.G., Petroleum
    Engineeringprinciples and practice, Graham
    Trotman, MD, 1986.
  • TextBook 3
  • Donohue, D.A.T., and Lang K.R., Petroleum
    Technology, International Human Resources
    Development Corporation, Houston,1986.
  • Textbook 4
  • Hyne,N.J., Petroleum Geology, Exploration,
    Drilling and Production, Penn Well Co., Tulsa,
    Oklahoma, 2001.
  • Textbook 5
  • Devereux, S., Drilling Technology, Penn Well
    Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1999.

4
???? ????
  • 1. ?? (Introduction)
  • Textbook 2 chapter 1
  • Textbook 4 chapter 1
  • 2. ???????? (Petroleum Geology and Reservoir)
  • Textbook 1 chapter 1
  • Textbook 2 chapter 2
  • Textbook 3 chapter 4.1 4.2
  • 3.???? (Petroleum Prospecting)
  • Textbook 1 chapter 2
  • Textbook 4-- chapter 13 14
  • SPE Energy Education
  • 4.???? (Drilling Engineering)

5
Chapter 3 Petroleum Prospecting(????)
  • ????(Surface observation)
  • -by observation on earth surface
  • ???? (Geological exploration)
  • -downward projection of geologic information
  • ??????(Geochemical exploration)
  • --tracing hydrocarbons in soil and water
  • ????? (Geophysical exploration)
  • -physical measurements of gravity, magnetic
  • and seismic of subsurface

6
?????
-??????????????? -??????????? -?????????????(???
?????????) -??
7
????(Surface Observation)
  • ??(???)???
  • -???????
  • seeps (plate 13-1, 13-2, and fig.
    13-1)

8
????--Seeps

9
???? -- Seeps

10
(No Transcript)
11
????
  • ???? ?????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????(plate
    13-3)?
  • ????????????????(fig. 13-2)?
  • ?????????????????????????(fig 13-3 13-4 13-5
    13-6 13-7)?

12
???????????????????????????????????(plate 13-3)?
13
???????????????????, ??????(fig. 13-2)?
14
???? --???????????????Marker bed (fig 13-3)?
15
???? ????????(Well logs)??Marker
bed????????????????(fig 13-6)?
16
???? --?Well logs????Marker bed????????????????(fi
g 13-5)?
17
???? -- ?????????(Microfossils)????????????????(fi
g 13-4)?
18
???? -- ?????????????????????????(fig 13-7)?
19
?????? Geochemical exploration
  • Geochemistry is the application of chemistry to
    the study of the earth.
  • Geochemistry can be used to trace hydrocarbons in
    soil and water indicating of the proximity of a
    petroleum trap.
  • Geochemistry can also be used to identify the
    source rock for a specific crude oil. The crude
    oils in traps can then be correlated with source
    rocks to determine the migration path for the
    petroleum.

20
?????? to trace hydrocarbons
  • Traces of hydrocarbons in soil and water are
    often good indications of the proximity of a
    petroleum trap (fig. 13-8).
  • -- microseeps
  • -- hydrocarbon halo(??)
  • -- sniffers(???)
  • -- Vitrenite reflectance

21
?????? to trace hydrocarbons
22
Vitrenite reflectance
23
Play
  • A play is a combination of trap, reservoir rock,
    and seal that has been shown by previous
    discovered fields to contain commercial petroleum
    deposits in an area.

24
Trend
  • A trend or fairway is the area along which the
    play has been proven, and more field could be
    found. (fig 13-9).

25
Prospect -- definition
  • A prospect is the exact location where the
    geological and economic conditions are favorable
    for drilling an exploratory well.

26
Prospect -- geological factors
  • There are four major geological factors in the
    success of a particular prospect.
  • (1) There must have been a source rock that
    generated petroleum.
  • (2) There must have been a reservoir rock to
    hold the petroleum.
  • (3) There must be a trap. This includes a
    reservoir rock configuration that has four-sided
    closure, a seal on the reservoir rock, and no
    breach of the trap.
  • (4) The timing must be right. The trap had to
    be in position before the petroleum migrated the
    area.

27
Prospect - economic
  • An economic analysis of the prospect should
    include reserves and risk calculations.

28
?????
  • ?????????????????????????
  • ??????????
  • (a)?????????,???????
  • ???????????
  • (b)????????????,???
  • ?????

29
?????
  • ???????????????????????????????
  • ???? (Seismic method)
  • ??-??????????
  • ??-?????
  • ????(Gravity method )
  • -??????
  • ????(Magnetic method)
  • -???????????

30
???????
31
????(????)(Gravity Method)
  • ??????????????

????
32
??????
  • (1)The gravity pendulum(????)
  • -????(????)
  • (2)The gravimeter(???)
  • -Hocks law, ??
  • (3)The Hoyt gravimeter
  • (4)The astatized gravimeter

33
(3)The Hoyt gravimeter (4)The
astatized gravimeter

??????????????????
34
(3)The Hoyt gravimeter (4)The
astatized gravimeter

??????????????????
35
??????-?????????????????? (???????????)

36
??????-?????????????????? (???????????)

37
???????? (magnetic method)
?? -???? -?????????????? ???????? ???? ???(pa
ramagnetism) ?????????????????????????????????,??
?????????????????????????   ???(diamagnetism)
??????????????????,??????????????????????????   ?
??(ferromagnetism)???????????????????,???????????
????????????????

38
????????(magnetic method)

?????(B) ???? (H) BµH Fluxpermfield
strength µ ???
(???????) ?????
39
????
-?????????????????????????? (1)the permeability
(???) (2)the magnetization(??) -???????????(magn
etite)??(????) ?????????
???,???????????( susceptibility),k,??,
????k?? ????????? -?????????,??

40
????(Dome or anticline)

41
??????-??????????????????

42
??/?????? (Fault)

43
???? (Seismic Exploration)
  • ???? (Seismic Exploration)
  • -- ???(Seismic reflection method)
  • -- ???(Seismic refraction method)

44
???(Seismic reflection method)
  • Data Acquisition
  • Data Processing
  • Data Interpretation

45
??????
  • ??????(Data acquisition)
  • ???,
  • ????
  • ??????????
  • ?
  • ???????
  • ?
  • ???????
  • ?
  • ??????????????
  • ?
  • ???????????(????)
  • ?
  • ??????(Data processing)
  • ??????
  • ?

??
46
  • Data Acquisition

47
??????
??????(Data acquisition) ???, ????
?????????? ? ??????? ?
??????? ? ?????????????? ?
???????????(????)
48
?????????
??????(Data acquisition) ???, ????
?????????? ? ??????? ?
??????? ? ?????????????? ?
???????????(????)
49
????????
50
Vibrator Truck
51
??????Geophone??
52
????????
53
??????????????Air gun ?streammer
54
?????????
55
  • Data Processing

??????(Data processing) ?????? ?
????
56
???
57
?? ???
58
?? ???
59
?? ???(Bright spot)
60
  • Data Interpretation

61
?? ???
62
Seismic Profile (correlating with drilling data)
63
?? ??? (Salt dome)
64
???? --???????????????Marker bed (fig 13-3)?
65
???? ????????(Well logs)??Marker
bed????????????????(fig 13-6)?
66
???? --?Well logs????Marker bed????????????????(fi
g 13-5)?
67
???? -- ?????????(Microfossils)????????????????(fi
g 13-4)?
68
?? ????
69
?? ????????? (Isochron map)
70
?? ????????? (Structure map)
71
???????

???, ???? ?????? ? ???? ? ???????
??
? ???????????? ??????(????) ?
???????????? ? ????(??)???(????
?????????????)
72
????(????)-Well Logging
????
73
SP Log
  • ???????(SP Log)????????????????????????????????
  • ????????(??)??????????????????????
  • ????????????????,??????????????????,SP??????????
    ?

74
GR Log
  • ?????????????????
  • ?????(Clay)????????(??,K40)??????????????????????
    ??????
  • ????,???????,??????????????(? ??)?

75
Resistivity Log
  • ?????????(A)??????(M?N)??????,????????????????
  • ?????????????(????????????),??????????????????,???
    ??????????????????????,????????????

76
Sonic Log
  • ?????????(???????)?? 1????????????????
  • ?????????????????????(???)??????????????????,?????
    ?????

77
Density Log
  • ????????????????????,?????????????,???????????????
  • ??????????(????????),????????????????????,????????
    ????????
  • ????????????????

78
Neutron Log
  • ?????????????????????
  • ???????????????,?????????(Thermal
    velocity)?????,?????????????,??????????????????
  • ??????????????????

79
???
80
???(Stratigraphy)
  • ????(Rock Strata)?
  • --- ??(Origin)
  • --- ??(Composition)
  • --- ??(Distribution)?
  • --- ???(Succession)

81
????(Stratigraphic test, or strata test)
  • ??????????????

82
????(Stratigraphic correlation)
  • ?????,???????
  • -- ??(Strata)
  • -- ??(fossils)
  • --- ????(Rock hardness or softness)
  • --- ????(Electric data)
  • It is much easier to correlate wells because the
    data that are collected by
  • drillers logs,
  • sample logs,
  • electrical logs
  • enable the geologists to predict more precisely
    where similar rock
  • formations will occur in each case

83
Subsurface correlation
  • It is based primarily on
  • -stratigraphic continuity, or
  • -the fact that formations maintain the same
  • thickness from one well to another.
  • Any change in thickness can be a geologic
    indicator of
  • -a change in the conditions that formed the
  • strata, or
  • -may be a signal of an event that could
    cause
  • petroleum to accumulate.

84
Structure Map
85
Oil and gas discoveries
86

87
???wiggle trace ? ???
88
(No Transcript)
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