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New Smart Technologies for rural water supply WASH 2007

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New Smart Technologies for rural water supply WASH 2007 Smart Water Solutions for Drilling Pumping Storage, Ground water recharge Irrigation Treatment Connect ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Smart Technologies for rural water supply WASH 2007


1
New Smart Technologies for rural water
supply WASH 2007
2
Smart Water Solutions for
  • Drilling
  • Pumping
  • Storage, Ground water recharge
  • Irrigation
  • Treatment

3
Connect International, PRACTICA
  • Capacity building, hands on training
  • Awareness of good practises
  • Rural areas
  • 80 of MDG target group lives there.
    (worldbank)

4
Cost-Benefit of improvements in water and
sanitation (WHO)
  • 5 - 28 for 1 dollar invested
  • (avoided cost of treated case of diarrhoea,
    transport medicines, time lost)

5
Statement To reach MDG 1
  • A mayor reason for defect water rural water
    systems is the wrong technology choice

6
Why hand pumps fail
  • To complex
  • Not affordable
  • AT models failed
  • Stone-age image
  • Not efficient
  • No marketing
  • No involvement of private sector

7
Lesson learned
  • For sustainability
  • Repairability more important than quality
    (simple, affordable, available)
  • Adapt technology to people (not the other way
    around)
  • Involve private sector

8
New developments
  • Drilling

9
Rota-sludge
  • Based on hand-sludge method
  • Millions of wells in Asia
  • For sand, compact clay, wethered rock
  • 70 cheaper than machine drilling. Safer,
    deeper than hand digging

10
Baptist , Emas
  • Clay, sandstone, wethered rock
  • Till 90 m deep
  • Cost US 2- 6 per meter (incl drilling, casing
    and PVC pump)
  • 20.000 wells drilled in Latin-America

11
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12
Stone Hammer
  • hard layers
  • boulders

13
Pumping
14
Treadle Pump
  • Suction pump. Irrigation
  • 1.5 million in use
  • Cost US 15-80
  • Generates income US 100- 400 /year

15
PVC Pumps Baptist /EMAS
  • Pressure pump, domestic use
  • 1-50 meters deep
  • 20.000 installed in Bolivia
  • Cost US 10-50

16
Rope pumps
  • Rotating movement. Domestic and communal wells
  • 0-35m ( 60 m with 2 handles)
  • 2 million users
  • Cost US 20-120

17
A Model (handdug wells, Ah)
18
A model
  • Boreholes (Ab)

19
P Model (Mounted on Poles)
  • 2 inch casing

20
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21
P Model
  • 3 inch casing
  • Domestic use and irrigation

22
P model Hand dug well

23
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24
The Nicaragua case
  • 60.000 installed
  • 70 cheaper than piston pumps
  • National standard for hand pumps
  • Shift from piston pumps to rope pumps doubled
    water supply in 10 years (Africa 3, Asia 9 )
  • Sustainable for communal wells,
    90, stay working.
  • Affordable as a family pump (Generates
    220 /Year)

25
The Zimbabwe case
  • 600.000 users
  • Expanding to
    5 million users
  • Zimbabwe will
  • reach water MDG

26
The Ghana Case
  • Worldbank project
  • 80 defect after 1 year
  • errors

27
Powered by Hand
28
Pedal, Horse

29
Electric motor, gasoline engine
  • Motor

30
Wind
31
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32
Irrigation
33
Fuel efficient gasoline pumps Chinese 1.5 Hp
  • Cost US 100
  • 50 more efficient than 5 Hp pumps

34
Improved Diesel Pumps
  • Technical adaptations, results
  • Fuel reduction of 50
  • Weight reduction of 50
  • 5000 sold annually, India
  • Challenge Replace six million old pumps in India

35
Drip irrigation
36
Pepsi Drip
  • 100 / ha

37
Drum Kit, Bucket Kit
  • 70 of
  • systems
  • fail
  • 1000-2000
  • /ha

38
Nica drip
  • Hd PE hose
  • 300 - 500
  • /Ha

39
Micro tube
  • Hd PE
  • lay flat hose
  • (easy drip)
  • 200 - 400
  • /Ha

40
Storage
41
Brick cement tank
  • 1 bag of
  • cement /m3
  • 1 50 M3

42
Plastic lined tanks
  • 5-10 m3
  • 40 60 /tk
  • www.ide.com

43
Ground water recharge
  • Vertiver grass
  • Contours
  • Tube recharge

44
Tube Recharge
  • Make a hole
  • (ej with step auger)

45
  • Pass compact layer
  • Install pipe with
  • filter and cap

46
Treatment WHO network HWTS Household Water
Treatment and Safe storage
47
POU options (WHO)
-Chlorinating -SODIS -Boiling -Biosand
filters -Flocculants -Ceramic filters
48
Chlorinating
49
SODIS (Solar Desinfection)
  • Six hours of sun inactivates harmful bacteria

50
PUR Flocculant / desinfectant
51
CSC
Ceramic Filters
Nepal
Swiss - Katadyn
India
52
Filter elements
53
Advantages of ceramic filtration
Advantages of ceramic filtration
  • High efficacy in reducing microbial pathogens
  • Removes turbidity
  • Low cost
  • Easy to use and maintain
  • Storage of treated water
  • No chemicals
  • Can be combined with Carbon, other ( heavy
    metals, pesticides, arsenic)
  • Fit for local production. (Profit based
    sustainability)

54
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55
Siphon Filter
56
CSP model (Ceramic Silver impregnated Pot shaped)

Filtron
57
How it works
  • Element of clay and sawdust, after firing
    becomes porous.
  • Impregnated with colloidal silver, 0.07/
    filter)
  • Removes turbidity (lt5 NTU)
  • Small pores retain bacteria.
  • Silver inactivates bacteria up to 99.99
  • Capacity 1-3 litres / hour (20 ltr/day)

58
Production Manual Press to produce filter
elements
59
Performance
  • Efficacy
  • Complies with WHO norms for bacteria and
    turbidity (lt 5 NTU)
  • Remains effective for 2-3 years
  • Tested by
  • MIT Massachusetts Univ. of Colorado
  • Cambridge University, IDE Cambodia,..
  • Cost
  • 8 -14 US of factory
  • 1 cent / family/ day (US 3/yr)
  • Profit-based sustainability
  • Over 200.000 produced by private sector
    Nicaragua, Guatemala, Cambodia, Ghana, Used by
    CARE, Red Cross, UNICEF

60
Cost comparison
Based on daily household usage of
25L. Assumptions 1. Katadyn system 8.75 per
candle, plus 7.50 for vessels and valves.
50,000L capacity per candle per manufacturer.
Replace entire system after years. 2. Stefani
system 3.75 per candle, plus 7.50 for vessels
and valves. 5,000L capacity per candle per
manufacturer. Replace candles each year. Replace
vessels and valve after 3 years. 3. CSP filter
costs from Nicaragua, assuming replacement of
filter between 2-3 years 4. Costs from Kenya at
full cost recovery (16 bottles per household,
replaced every 6 months). 5. PUR Sachet
Manufacturers suggested retail price of 0.10
per unit. Assumes no further expenditure for
mixing and storing vessels. 6. CDC System 5.00
for special vessel, plus 3.00 for chemical
disinfectant (information per M. Sobsey, Managing
Water in the Home Accelerating Health Gains from
Improved Water Supply. Geneva World Health
Organization).
61
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62
Testing
  • Hach test
  • E coli
  • 1 US/test
  • www.hach.com

63
Cost - benefits for user
  • A 10 waterfilter, 10-50 / year
  • A 60 rope pump yields 220/Year
  • A family well doubles income

64
Cost - benefits for donor
65
Obstacles
  • Lack of awareness of new options
  • (80 of stakeholders do not know new options)
  • Simple is not easy

66
Challenge Reach MDG 7 and 1
  • Both Rope pump production and Ceramic filters
    started with relief aid
  • Local workshops were trained to produce and went
    on after aid stopped
  • Aid as a trigger

67
Options
  • Improve Quality
  • POU options
  • Increase Quantity
  • Upgrade handdug wells
  • Increase boreholes, manual technology
  • Replace broken piston pumps by rope pumps
  • Reduce Poverty
  • Irrigation, Focus on self suplly

68
POU
  • SODIS
  • CSP filter,
  • Siphon filter

69
Upgrading hand dug wells 50 100 /well
70
Replace broken piston pumps
71
by rope pumps
72
Reduce Poverty, irrigation.
  • Pump cover
  • 120 US
  • Paid in
  • 6 months

73
For sustainability build local
capacity!
Aquatis , Practica , PfP, Arrakis
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