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CONTEXT FOR ORGANIZATION THEORY

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Title: CONTEXT FOR ORGANIZATION THEORY


1
CONTEXT FOR ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • PUA 703-001
  • DR. SPRINGER
  • FALL, 2007

2
KEY QUESTIONS TO ANSWERTHEORY TO PRACTICE. . .
  • WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THIS ORG?
  • HOW CAN I FIND OUT?
  • HOW CAN I USE THE INFORMATION THAT I GET?
  • MAKING CHOICES
  • MAKING SENSE OF WHERE I AM
  • WHAT KNOWLEDGE AND HOW TO APPLY

3
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF GOVT?
  • A NECESSARY EVIL?
  • TO SHOW THE WAY?
  • TO PROTECT, PRESERVE, PROMOTE?
  • TO MAKE IT WORK?
  • TO ENGAGE?

4
WHY STUDY FORMAL THEORIES?
  • USING THEORIES AS BENCHMARKS
  • QUESTIONS TO ANSWER
  • ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED
  • WHERE WE STAND
  • THOUGHTFUL RECONSTRUCTION OF HOW WE SEE THE WORLD
    AROUND US
  • EMPHACIZING AND DE-EMPHACIZING CERTAIN THINGS AND
    LEAVING SOME OUT
  • ROLE MODELS
  • REPRESENTATION OF REAL LIFE
  • MOLECULAR STRUCTURES VS MODEL CARS

5
BUILDING THEORIES
  • FROM
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PART OF THE GOVERNMENTAL
    PROCESS
  • TO
  • PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS ARE THE SAME AS BUSINESS
  • TO
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS A PROFESSIONAL FIELD
  • USUALLY FOCUSING ON
  • COMPLEX ORGS.
  • CARRYING OUT GOVERNMENT MANDATES

6
BUILDING THEORIES OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PART OF GOVERNMENTAL
    PROCESS
  • GOVT IS LIKE BUSINESS RE EFFICIENCY
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS A PROFESSION
  • COMPLEX ORGS
  • BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURES
  • AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS
  • PRINCIPAL-AGENT THEORY
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS GOVT ADMINISTRATION WITH
    AMBIGUOUS GOALS
  • SERVICE FIRST?
  • DEMOCRATIZATION OF ORG DETERMINES PUBLICNESS OF
    MGT PROCESSES

7
STACKING THE DECKAmerican Pol. Sci. Review, Vol.
81, No. 3www.jstor.org
  • SHOULD PUBLIC MGRS BIAS THE SEARCH FOR OPTIONS?
  • SHOULD POLITICIANS ANTICIPATE AND CONTROL
    SOLUTIONS?

8
REDEFINING THE FIELD
  • PROCESS NOT STRUCTURE
  • CLARIFY EARLIER PERSPECTIVES
  • POLITICAL
  • ADMINISTRATIVE
  • PROFESSIONAL
  • PUBLIC NATURE NOT GOVT SYSTEMS
  • MANAGING CHANGE PROCESSES IN PURSUIT OF PUBLICLY
    DEFINED SOCIETAL VALUES

9
REDEFINING THE FIELD
  • BRINGING TWO PERSPECTIVES TOGETHER
  • DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL THEORY
  • FREEDOM, JUSTICE AND EQUALITY
  • ORG. THEORIES
  • MANAGING CHANGE IN PURSUIT OF PUBLICLY DEFINED
    VALUES
  • CRITICAL ROLE OF PUBLIC MGR
  • INTERPERSONAL AND STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS AND
    CHANGE
  • DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIETAL VALUES
  • DEFINING ETHICAL BASIS FOR PUBLIC MGT

10
WHY STUDY FORMAL THEORIES?
  • PROVIDE A BENCHMARK
  • MORE COHERENT AND INTEGRATED UNDERSTANDING
  • MORE THAN SIMPLE OBSERVATION CONTEXT
  • MODELS AS A REP. OR REAL LIFE
  • LIKE MODEL CARS
  • LANGUAGE
  • SAID, UNSAID, SAID NEXT

11
INSIDE FORCES ON A PUBLIC AGENCY MANAGER
MORALE
EMPLOYEE/UNION DEMANDS
AGENCY HEAD
OR MANAGER
AGENCY HEAD
OR MANAGER
BUDGET CONSTRAINTS
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS.
DEMANDS OF UNITS
NEED TO MAINTAIN OR INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY
12
TWO CASES EFFICIENCY VS. EFFECTIVENESS?
  • KEN WELCH AS AN INTERN STUDIES THE RECRUITMENT
    PROCESS AND GETS TO KNOW RICK, TIM AND THE
    DIRECTOR
  • WHAT MOTIVATES EACH?
  • HOW DID HE COME TO UNDERSTAND THE BUREAUCRACY?
  • WHAT COMMUNICATION PATTERNS?
  • WHAT ROLE ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE?
  • HOW TO COPE WITH OR DIRECT ORG CHANGE?

13
TWO CASES EFFICIENCY VS. EFFECTIVENESS?
  • JOHN AND CAROL TAKE OVER A NEW HOUSING-LOAN
    PROGRAM AND DISAGREE ON APPLICATION PROCESSING
  • CUT RED TAPE OR EDUCATE?
  • HOW DOES WHERE THEY SIT DEFINE WHERE THEY STAND?

14
THE POLITICAL CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF PUBLIC
POLICY ITS ADMINISTRATION
  • WHAT IS PUBLIC POLICY
  • Public Policymaking in a Republic
  • Executive Powers
  • The Restricted View
  • Wm. Taft and Strict Constructionism
  • The Prerogative Theory
  • John Locke and Executive Privilege
  • The Stewardship Theory
  • T. Roosevelt and Actions in the Public Interest

15
THE POLITICAL CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF PUBLIC
POLICY ITS ADMINISTRATION
  • THE POLICY MAKING PROGRESS
  • Agenda Setting
  • Process of ideas bubbling up for consideration
  • Anthony Downs Preproblem, Alarmed Discovery,
    Recognition, Decline of Public Interest, Post
    Problem Phase
  • Decision Making
  • Rational
  • Intelligence, Recommending, Prescribing,
    Invoking, Application, Appraisal, and Terminating
    Phases
  • Implementation small decisions at the margin
  • Seven Reasons for Incrementalism
  • Evaluation
  • Feedback

16
RATIONAL ACCORDING TO HERMAN SIMON1958
  • MAKING OPTIMAL CHOICES IN HIGHLY SPECIFIED
    ENVIRONMENT
  • IDENTIFYING ALTERNATIVES A GIVEN
  • CONSEQUENCES FOR EACH
  • CERTAINTY, RISK, AND UNCERTAINTY
  • DECISIONMAKER CAN RANK CHOICES BASED UPON
    CONSEQUENCES
  • GOOD SELECTION POSSIBLE
  • MINIMAX RISKMAXIMUM BENEFIT AND MINIMUM
    CONSEQUENCE

17
THE POLITICAL CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF PUBLIC
POLICY ITS ADMINISTRATION
  • POWER--THE EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Pluralism
  • Assuming the shifting of power within a democracy
  • Group Theory
  • Madison Federalist Paper 10
  • Interest Groups Will Be Heard and Can Be Managed
  • Organizational Goals
  • Internal Power Relationships

18
THE POLITICAL CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT OF PUBLIC
POLICY ITS ADMINISTRATION
  • THE CULTURES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
  • The Outside Cultural Environment
  • The Inside Cultural Environment
  • Professional Socialization
  • Symbolic Management

19
THE EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND MANAGEMENT
THEORY
  • From Moses Meets a Management Consultant to New
    Public Management

20
A CHRONOLOGY
  • 400 B.C. SOCRATES MGT IS AN ART UNTO ITSELF
  • 360 B.C. ARISTOTLE CULTURAL CONTEXT
  • 1776 ADAM SMITH OPTIMAL ORGANIZATION OF PIN
    FACTOR
  • 1813 ROBERT OWEN EMPLOYEES ARE VITAL
    MACHINES
  • 1910 LOUIS BRANDEIS AND FREDERICK TAYLOR -
    SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
  • 1922 MAX WEBER BUREAUCRACY AS A STRUCTURE

21
A CHRONOLOGY
  • 1937 GULICKS POSDCORB
  • 1940 MERTON AND THE DYSFUNCTIONS OF BUREAUCRACY
  • 1946 SIMON ATTACKS THE PRINCIPLES APPROACH
  • 1948 WALDO ATTACKS THE GOSPEL OF EFFICIENCY
  • 1949 SELNICK AND TVAS COOPTATION
  • 1954 DRUCKER AND MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES
  • 1957 ARGYRIS AND THE CONFLICT BETWEEN PERSONALITY
    AND THE ORGANIZATION

22
A CHRONOLOGY
  • 1961 THOMPSON FINDS DYSFUNCTION DUE TO ABILITY
    VS AUTHORITY
  • 1962 PRESTHUS UPWARDMOBILES, INDIFFERENTS AND
    AMBIVALENTS
  • 1964 CROZIER BUREAUCRACY AS AN ORGANIZATION
    THAT CANNOT LEARN FROM ERRORS
  • 1966 BENNIS PROCLAIMS DEATH TO BUREAUCRATIC
    INSTITUTIONS
  • 1968 HERZBERG MOTIVATORS, SATISFIERS AND
    HYGIENE FACTORS
  • 1972 CLEVELAND CONTINUOUS IMPROVISATION IS
    REQUIRED
  • 1976 MACCOBY AND THE GAMESMAN
  • 1981 PFEFFER POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS

23
A CHRONOLOGY
  • 1983 ROSABETH MOSS KANTER AND THE CHANGEMASTER
  • 1988 ZUBOFF AND THE AGE OF THE SMART MACHINE
  • 1990 GAGLIARDI AND SYMBOLS AND
    ARTIFACTS
  • 1992 OSBORNE AND GAEBLER RE-INVENT GOVERNMENT
  • 1997 VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS AND BEYOND
  • 2000 SNOOK ANALYZES SYSTEMIC BREAKDOWN IN
    FRIENDLY FIRE
  • 2002 PERROW AND ORGANIZING AMERICA WEALTH,
    POWER AND ORIGINS OF CORPORATE CAPITALISM

24
MOSES CREATES FIRST BUREAUCRACY
  • JETHRO INSTEAD OF COUNSELING EVERYONE
    TEACHING ORDINANCES AND LAWS SO THEY FIND THEIR
    OWN WAY USING BASIC PRINCIPLES
  • HAVING TO DEAL WITH ONLY THE HARD CHOICES

25
EIGHT DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIZATION
  • WEBER
  • OBEY ORDERS
  • WALDO
  • STRUCTURE OF INTER-RELATIONS
  • BARNARD
  • CONSCIOUSLY COORDINATED ACTIVITIES
  • SELZNICK
  • STRUCTURAL EXPRESSION OF RATIONAL ACTION

26
EIGHT DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIZATION
  • KATZ AND KAHN
  • ENERGETIC AND INTERDEPENDENT INPUTS-OUTPUTS
  • SILVERMAN
  • SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS WITH SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS
    AND LEGITIMACY
  • COHEN, MARCH, OLSEN
  • COLLECTION OF ISSUES LOOKING FOR RESOLUTION AND
    DECISION MAKERS LOOKING FOR WORK

27
BRINGING THEORIES INTO PERSPECTIVE
  • DOMINANT METAPHORS
  • PRIMARY UNITS OF ANALYSIS
  • RELATION OF INDIVIDUAL TO ORG.
  • MEANING OF RATIONALITY
  • PRIMARY VALUES EMBODIES IN THEORITICAL
    PERSPECTIVES
  • GENERIC NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PUBLIC AND
    PRIVATE SECTOR THEORIES???

28
THREE ARENAS OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATION
  • INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATOR ACTS AS AGENT
  • INTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATOR HAS A PLACE IN THE
    ORGANIZATION
  • ORGANIZATION TO INDIVIDUAL
  • INTERACTIONS WITH INDIVIDUALS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE
    AND DISCRETION

29
BUREAUCRACY ACCORDING TO MAX WEBER
  • 1. FIXED AND OFFICIAL JURISDICTIONAL AREAS
    DEFINED BY REGULATIONS
  • 2. AUTHORITY AND SUPERVISION
  • 3. WRITTEN AND PRESERVED FILES
  • 4. EXPERT TRAINING IS ASSUMED
  • 5. OFFICIAL ACTIVITY DEMANDS AND RECEIVES FULL
    CAPACITY
  • 6. MANAGEMENT FOLLOWS STABLE, COMPLETE AND
    UNDERSTANDABLE RULES

30
POSTURE OF THE OFFICIALACCORDING TO WEBER
  • OFFICE HOLDING IS A VOCATION
  • SOCIAL ESTEEM
  • APPOINTED BY LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY
  • TENURE FOR LIFE
  • COMPENSATION AND PENSION
  • SET FOR A CAREER WITHIN HIERARCHY OF PUBLIC
    SERVICE

31
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • THE ORGINS OF PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
  • The Continuing Influence of Ancient Rome
  • The Military Heritage of Public Administration
  • Comparing Military Civilian Principles
  • The Principles Approach
  • The Cross-Fertilization of Military Civilian
    Management

32
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • Key Concepts
  • Merit system
  • Public Works
  • Police
  • Commander in Chief
  • Span of Control
  • Unity of Command

33
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • WHAT IS ORGANIZATION THEORY?
  • Classical Organization Theory
  • Production related and economic goals
  • Systematic Organization
  • Division of Labor
  • People Act Rationally
  • Adam Smith and the Pin Factory
  • Laissez-faire capitalism

34
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • THE ORGINS OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
  • Frederick W. Taylor
  • Time and Motion, Measuring Management
  • Worker Development
  • Worker Cooperation
  • Division of Work
  • Fayols General Theory of Management
  • Six Principles technical, commercial,
    financial, security, accounting, management

35
FREDERICK TAYLOR PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC
MGT.DECEMBER, 1916
  • RESTRICTING WORKER OUTPUT HURTS THE WORKER
  • PRACTICE PRECEDES THEORY
  • GOODWILL IS CREATED AMONG WORKERS
  • WORKERS ASSUME NEW BURDENS VOLUNTARILY
  • THE SCIENCE OF SHOVELING AT BETHLEHEM STEEL
  • COSTS MONEY AND JUSTIFIES PROFIT
  • MR. BARTH INCREASING WORK 2-3 TIMES THROUGH
    ANALYSIS

36
FREDERICK TAYLOR PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC
MGT.DECEMBER, 1916
  • 1ST PRINCIPLE LEARNING THE SCIENCE OF WORK BY
    STUDYING MOTION AND TIME ON THE JOB
  • 2ND PRINCIPLE SELECT AND DEVELOP WORKMEN
  • 3RD PRINCIPLE BRINGING SCIENCE TOGETHER WITH
    TRAINED WORKERS
  • 4TH PRINCIPLE DIVIDING WORK BETWEEN WORKERS AND
    MGT.

37
FAYOLS PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
  • DIVISION OF WORK
  • AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
  • DISCIPLINE
  • UNIT OF COMMAND
  • UNITY OF DIRECTION
  • SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL TO GENERAL INTEREST
  • REMUNERATION OF PERSONNEL
  • CENTRALIZATION

38
FAYOLS PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
  • CLEAR LINE OF AUTHORITY
  • ORDER
  • EUITY
  • STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL
  • INITIATIVE
  • ESPRIT DE CORPS

39
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • THE PERIOD OF ORTHODOXY- between the wars
  • Paul Applebys Polemic
  • Govt is different because Govt is Politics
  • Luther Gulicks POSDCORB

40
POSDCORB AS AN ORGANIZING PHILOSPHY
  • PRIMARY ACTIVITIES OF THE EXECUTIVE
  • CONSEQUENCE
  • EMPHACIZING MEANS OF ADMINISTRATION NOT PURPOSE
  • DICHOTOMY BETWEEN POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION
  • EFFICIENCY OF WORK IS IMPORTANT THRU DIVISION OF
    LABOR

41
POSDCORB AS AN ORGANIZING PHILOSPHY
  • PLANNING
  • ORGANIZING
  • STAFFING
  • DIRECTING
  • COORDINATING
  • REPORTING
  • BUDGETING

42
FOUR VIEWS OF ORGANIZATION
DETERMINISTIC
VOLUNTARISTIC
  • MACRO LEVEL

MICRO LEVEL
43
FOUR BUREAUCRATIC POSTURESTOWARD A COMPOSITE
APPROACH
  • APPROACH
  • FORM
  • SCOPE
  • COVERAGE
  • MOTIVE OR VALUES
  • ORIGINS
  • NET IMPACT ON PUBLIC INTEREST
  • NET IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE
  • WEBERIAN OR RESPONSIBLE
  • REPRESENTATIVE
  • PUBLIC SERVICE
  • PUBLIC CHOICE

44
ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION-MAKING
  • DECISION MAKING CHOICES
  • EFFICIENCY VS. EFFECTIVENESS
  • PRODUCTIVITY
  • WEBER LEGAL/RATIONAL (INSTRUMENTAL) AUTHORITY
  • RIGHTS AND THE ADEQUACY OF PROCESS
  • PUBLIC WELFARE ADMINISTRATORS AND THEIR CLIENTS
  • REPRESENTATION AND CONTROL OF DISCRETION
  • ROLE OF MORAL OBLIGATION/CODES OF ETHICS

45
WHAT DOES PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEAL WITH?
  • DECISIONS THAT
  • AFFECT PEOPLES LIVES
  • ARE MADE IN THE NAME OF THE PUBLIC
  • USE PUBLIC RESOURCES
  • TAME AND WICKED PROBLEMS
  • PERSONAL VS. ORGANIZATIONAL ACTION

46
FOUR QUESTIONS TO THINK ABOUT. . .
  • WHAT IS THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FRAMEWORK?
  • WHAT ARE THE THEORIES THAT APPLY TO
    ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR?
  • HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY?
  • COMPARE AND CONTRAST CLASSICAL AND NEOCLASSICAL
    APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

47
DONALD RUMSFELD AND PRISONER ABUSE AT ABU GHRAIB
- 2004
  • AS A TRUSTED OUTSIDER AND ADVISOR TO RUMSFELD
  • WHAT FACTORS BROUGHT THIS TO CRISIS?
  • TO WHOM AND FOR WHAT IS RUMSFELD MOST
    RESPONSIBLE?
  • WHAT STEPS TO TAKE TO ADDRESS AND RESOLVE THE
    CRISIS?
  • WHAT ARE THE LESSONS LEARNED?

48
MOVING FROM CLASSICAL ON. . .
  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS
  • ORGANIZATION BY DECISION SETS
  • ORGANIZATIONS AS PURPOSIVE ENTITIES
  • INTEGRATING INDIVIDUALS
  • ORGANIZING AS REVEALED SELF-INTEREST
  • ORGANIZING AS SOCIAL ACTION
  • OGANIZING AS DISCOVERED RATIONALITY

49
SUPERINTENDENTS REPORT
  • 1856 ERIE RAILROAD COMPANY
  • SETTLED PRINCIPLES
  • DIVISION OF RESPONSIBILITIES
  • POWER TO CARRY OUT
  • MEANS OF MEASUREMENT
  • PROMPT REPORT OF ERRORS SO CORRECTED
  • DAILY REPORTS, CHECKS AND BALANCES
  • ADOPTION OF SYSTEM TO ALLOW GENERAL
    SUPERINTENDENT TO DETECT AND CORRECT ERRORS
    IMMEDIATELY

50
THE ENGINEER AS AN ECONOMIST
  • SEPARATE FROM THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL
    ENGINEERS
  • SHOP MANAGEMENT
  • ORG. , RESPONSIBILITY, REPORTS, SYSTEMS OF WORK,
    EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT
  • SHOP ACCOUNTING
  • TIME, WAGES, COSTS, BOOKKEEPING, EXPENSES,
    RECORDS OF RESULTS AND PROFITS

51
CLASSICAL SCHOOL1930S AND INFLUENTIAL TODAY
  • 1. ORGS EXIST TO ACCOMPLISH PRODUCTION RELATED
    GOALS
  • 2. ONE BEST WAY TO ORGANIZE
  • 3. PRODUCTION IS MAXIMIZED THROUGH SPECIALIZATION
    AND DIVISION OF LABOR
  • 4. PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS ACT IN ACCORDANCE
    WITH RATIONAL ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES

52
THE ECONOMY OF INCENTIVESCHESTER BARNARD - 1938
  • SPECIAL INDUCEMENTS FOR PRODUCTIVITY
  • MATERIAL
  • PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
  • WORKING CONDITIONS
  • IDEAL BENEFACTIONS
  • SATISY PERSONAL IDEALS RELATED TO FUTURE AND
    ALTRUISM
  • ORGANIZATION ATTRACTIVENESS
  • INCENTIVES DIFFER BY ORG. PURPOSE
  • INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF MATERIAL GOODS
    LIMITED MATERIAL REWARDS
  • POLITICAL PERSONAL PRESTIGE/MATERIAL REWARDS
    IMPORTANT TO IDEAL BENEFACTIONS
  • RELIGIOUS FAITH/LOYALTY MADE POSSIBLE BY
    MATERIAL CONTRIBUTIONS

53
BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE AND PERSONALITYROBERT
MERTON - 1957
  • THE DYSFUNCTIONS OF BUREAUCRACY
  • SECRECY
  • OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOSIS
  • OVERCONFORMITY
  • SECULAR AND SACRED DIVISION OF LABOR
  • DEPERSONALIZATION
  • DISCREPANCY BETWEEN IDEOLOGY AND FACT
  • SERVANTS OF THE PEOPLE?
  • QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED
  • PRESTIGE SYMBOLS TO INNER CIRCLE?

54
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • MODERN STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • Talcott-Parsons 1951
  • Social Systems vs. Political Organizations
  • Basic Assumptions
  • ORGANIZATIONS ARE RATIONAL
  • BEST STRUCTURES
  • DIVISION OF LABOR
  • PROBLEMS ARE STRUCTURAL
  • Mechanisms and Organic Systems

55
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • NEOCLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY- 1776 TO 1937
  • ORGANIZATIONS DO NOT EXIST AS ISLAND
  • Herbert Simons Influence
  • SATISFICING
  • BOUNDED RATIONALITY
  • The Impact of Sociology
  • SELZNIK GOALS AND VALUES NOT NECESSARILY
    ALIGNED
  • OPENING UP ORGANIZATIONS

56
ORGANIZATIONS AS NON-RATIONAL INSTITUTIONSSELSNI
CK - 1948
  • ORGANIZATIONS AS ECONOMIES
  • ORGANIZATIONS AS ADAPTIVE SOCIAL SYSTEMS
  • STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
  • SECURITY, STABILITY CONTINUITY, RECALCITRANCE,
    HOMOGENEITY OF OUTLOOK
  • CO-OPTATION
  • PROCESS OF ABSORBING NEW ELEMENTS AS A MEANS OF
    AVERTING THREATS

57
ORGANIZATIONS AS A COLLECTION OF BEHAVIORSCyert
March -1959
  • COALITIONS
  • OBJECTIVES SET THRU BARGAINING, INTERNAL CONTROLS
    AND ADJUSTING TO EXPERIENCE
  • EXAMPLE COMMITTEE AND PAINTING
  • PREDICTIVE THEORY
  • DEMANDS AND PROBLEMS FOR MEMBERS
  • TOOL TO CHANGE DEMAND OVER TIME
  • ATTENTION-FOCUS TOOL FOR DEMANDS
  • ATTENTION-FOCUS TOOL FOR PROBLEMS
  • DEMAND EVALUATION PROCEDURE
  • TOOL FOR CHOOSING AMONG VIABLE COALITIONS

58
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • SYSTEMS THEORY
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS-RIGOROUS COLLECTION,
    MANIPULATION AND EVALUATION OF DATA TO MAKE GOOD
    DECISIONS
  • CYBERNETICS ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS REQUIRING
    MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES
  • THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION-PERSONAL MASTERY,
    MENTAL MODELS, SHARED VISION, TEAM LEARNING,
    SYSTEMS THINKING

59
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • THE ORGINS OF PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
  • The Continuing Influence of Ancient Rome
  • The Military Heritage of Public Administration
  • Comparing Military Civilian Principles
  • The Principles Approach
  • The Cross-Fertilization of Military Civilian
    Management

60
NEO-CLASSICAL ORGANIZATIONS AS DECISION SETS
  • FROM SYSTEM, HIERARCHY, STRUCTURE TO
    NEO-CLASSICAL
  • HUMAN ANALYSIS
  • DECISIONMAKERS
  • SERIES OF CHOICES
  • RATIONAL LINKAGES
  • BOUNDED BY ORGANIZATIONAL PURPOSE

61
FAYOLS FOURTEEN PRINCIPLES
  • PRINCIPLES APPLY DIFFERENTLY IN DIFFERENT
    SITUATIONS
  • ADMINISTRATION TO BRING A BETTER, ORDERED LIFE
    FOR THE ORGANIZATION AND THOSE WORKING IN IT
  • SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO COMMON
    GOOD
  • HIERARCHY
  • CENTRALIZATION
  • UNITY OF COMMAND AND MANAGEMENT

62
FAYOLS PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT-1916
  • DIVISION OF WORK
  • AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
  • DISCIPLINE
  • UNIT OF COMMAND
  • UNITY OF DIRECTION
  • SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL TO GENERAL INTEREST
  • REMUNERATION OF PERSONNEL
  • JOB, PIECE, BONUSES, PROFIT SHARING, PAYMENT IN
    KIND, WELFARE WORK, NON-FINANCIAL INCENTIVES
  • CENTRALIZATION ALWAYS THERE JUST QUESTION OF
    PROPORTION

63
FAYOLS PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
  • SCALAR CHAIN CLEAR LINE OF AUTHORITY
  • ORDER
  • EQUITY
  • STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL
  • INITIATIVE
  • ESPRIT DE CORPS

64
CONSEQUENCES OF POSDCORBLUTHER GULICK
  • WILSONIAN CONTEXT ACHIEVING MEANS WITHIN A
    DEMOCRACY
  • EMPHASIS ON DIVISION OF WORK
  • ORGANIZATION AS A TECHNICAL PROBLEM
  • CENTRALITY OF EFFICIENCY

65
KEY TERMS
  • SATISFICING LIMITS TO DECISION MAKING
  • RATIONAL MAN ANALYZES COMPLEXITIES AND MAXIMIZES
    CHOOSING BEST ALTERNATIVE
  • BOUNDED RATIONALITY LIMITING ADMIISTRATIVE
    RATIONALITY DUE TO
  • COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF CONSEQUENCES
  • FUTURE MUST BE ANTICIPATED
  • ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIORS LIMITED
  • ORGANIZATIONAL SETTING
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE
  • NARROW INTERPRETATION

66
KEY TERMS
  • INSTRUMENTAL RATIONALITY SUBJECTIVE MEANS-END
    REASONING
  • DECISION CONCLUSION DRAWN FROM SET OF VALUE AND
    FACTUAL PREMISES
  • EFFICIENCY MAXIMIZE ATTAINMENT OF CERTAIN ENDS
    WITH SCARCE RESOURCES
  • EFFECTIVENESS-ACCOMPLISHING ORG OBJECTIVES AND
    OVERALL PERFORMANCE
  • PUBLIC PROBLEMS EXTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL
  • AUTHORITY POWER TO MAKE DECISIONS WHICH GUIDE
    THE ACTIONS OF ANOTHER
  • COORDINATION THE PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS IN
    TOTO OPERATING THRU A SUPERME COORDINATING
    AUTHORITY (URWICK)

67
SIMONS ACCEPTED ADMINISTRATIVE PRINCIPLES
  • ADMIN. EFFICIENCY INCREASED BY
  • SPECIALIZATION OF THE TASK
  • ARRANGING MEMBERS IN DETERMINATE HIERARCH OF
    AUTHORITY
  • LIMITING SPAN OF CONTROL TO A SMALL NUMBER
  • GROUPING WORKERS ACCORDING TO PURPOSE, PROCESS,
    CLIENTELE AND PLACE
  • KNOWLEDGE IS NEUTRAL
  • VALUES OF USER APPLY
  • TEHCNOLOGY IS APPLIED KNOWLEDGE AND NEUTRAL

68
RATIONAL ACCORDING TO HERMAN SIMON1958
  • MAKING OPTIMAL CHOICES IN HIGHLY SPECIFIED
    ENVIRONMENT
  • IDENTIFYING ALTERNATIVES A GIVEN
  • CONSEQUENCES FOR EACH
  • CERTAINTY, RISK, AND UNCERTAINTY
  • DECISIONMAKER CAN RANK CHOICES BASED UPON
    CONSEQUENCES
  • GOOD SELECTION POSSIBLE
  • MINIMAX RISKMAXIMUM BENEFIT AND MINIMUM
    CONSEQUENCE

69
HERBERT SIMONS ACCEPTED ADMINISTRATIVE
PRINCIPLES
  • EFFICIENCY IS INCREASED BY
  • 1. SPECIALIZATION
  • GROUP IN HIERARCHY
  • LIMITING SPAN OF CONTROL
  • ORGANIZING ACCORDING TO PURPOSE, PROCESS,
    CLIENTELE AND PLACE
  • OVERHAULING THE PROVERBS NOT PRINCIPLES OF
    ADMINISTRATION
  • 1. DEVELOP A VOCABULARY
  • 2. STUDY THE LIMITS OF RATIONALITY

70
DECISION-SET CHARACTERISTICS
  • DECISION MAKING IS FOCAL POINT OF ADMINISTRATION
  • MAKING DECISIONS, ANALYSIS, PRIORITIZING,
    COMMUNICATION
  • CORE MODE OF OPERATION IS INSTRUMENTAL
    RATIONALITY
  • EFFICIENCY AS A MEASURE
  • ROLES MORE IMPORTANT THAN INDIVIDUALS
  • WHAT ROLE REPRESENTATION AND CONTROL OF
    DISCRETION??

71
OPEN SYSTEMS AND SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
  • OPEN SYSTEMS ANY ORGANIZATION THAT INTERACTS
    WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT
  • STRUCTURAL/FUNCTIONALISM ORGS EXPLAINED IN
    TERMS OF CONTRIBUTION TO MAINTAINING THE SYSTEM
  • SYSTEMS THEORY DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS OF INPUTS,
    PROCESSES, OUTPUTS, FEEDBACK LOOPS, ENVIRONMENT

72
NEO-CLASSICAL APPROACHES
  • WHAT ARE THE DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS?
  • WHERE DO INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES FIT?
  • ARE THEY ALL THE SAME?
  • WHAT DO THEY MISS?
  • HOW WOULD THEY ADDRESS THE LOCAL EDUCATION
    AUTHORITY ALES RAKOVICHS DILEMMA?

73
HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY PRINCIPLES
  • ORGANIZATIONS EXIST TO SERVE HUMAN NEEDS
  • ORGANIZATIONS AND PEOPLE NEED ONE ANOTHER
  • WHEN THE FIT IS POOR, ONE OR BOTH SUFFER
  • A GOOD FIT BENEFITS BOTH

74
HUMAN RESOURCE THEMES
  • LEADERSHIP
  • MOTIVATION
  • INDIVIDUALS IN TEAMS AND GROUPS
  • EFFECTS OF WORK ENVIRONMENT
  • USE OF POWER AND INFLUENCE
  • ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

75
HUMAN RESOURCE THEORY
  • MUNSTERBERG FINDING AND SHAPING PEOPLE TO FIT
    NEEDS
  • PEOPLE, GROUPS, RELATIONSHIPS AND ORG ENVIRONMENT
  • HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS
  • MASLOWS THEORY
  • THEORY X THEORY Y
  • MAXIMUM INFORMATION AND INFORMED DECISIONS
    (ARGYRIS, 1970)
  • GROUPTHINK (JANIS, 1971)

76
WHAT ROLE LEADERSHIP?
  • MANAGER
  • FORMAL AUTHORITY
  • LEADER
  • EFFECTIVE USE OF INFLUENCE
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PEOPLE WHERE INFLUENCE IS
    UNEVENLY DIVIDED
  • CANNOT FUNCTION IN ISOLATION

77
ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS OF LEADERS AS
EXECUTIVESCHESTER BARNARD - 1938
  • PROVIDE SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATION
  • PROMOTE THE SECURING OF ESSENTIAL EFFORTS
  • TO FORMULATE AND DEFINE THE PURPOSES AND GOALS OF
    AN ORGANIZATION

78
LEADERSHIP APPROACHES
  • TRAIT
  • LEADERS ARE BORN NOT MADE
  • PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTIC
  • TRANSACTIONAL
  • BASED ON AN INTERACTIONS
  • FOCUS ON THE LEADER AND ON SUBORDINATES
  • CONTINGENCY OR SITUATIONAL
  • PARTICIPATORY LEADERSHIP
  • LAW OF THE SITUATION
  • CONTINUUM FROM BOSS-CENTERED TO SUBORDINATE
    -CENTERED
  • CULTURAL AND TRANSFORMATIVE
  • CHANGING CULTURAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • WHERE TO FROM HERE?

79
LIFE CYCLE OF LEADERSHIP
  • THE MANAGERIAL GRID
  • CONSIDERATION VS INITIATING STRUCTURE
  • TEAM MANAGEMENT VS IMPOVERISHED
  • ADDING AN EFFECTIVENESS GRID
  • MOVING FROM
  • HIGH TASK LOW RELATIONSHIP TO HIGH ASK HIGH
    RELATIONSHIPS
  • LOW HIGH RELATIONSHIPS LOW TASK TO LOW TASK LOW
    RELATIONSHIPS
  • LIKERT EMPLOYEE CENTERED
  • DIFFICULTIES
  • CHANGING STYLE
  • CHANGING PERFORMANCE

80
CONTINGENCY THEORY
  • SELECTION AND TRAINING OF LEADERS
  • CO-ACTING TASK GROUPS
  • ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY STRATEGIES
  • MOVING FROM NOVEL TO FAMILIAR
  • STRUCTURED SITUATIONS VS. CRISES

81
CALLING FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSTICHY AND
ULRICH
  • ASSUMPTIONS
  • TRIGGER EVENTS INDICATE CHANGE IS NEEDED
  • A CHANGE UNLEASHES MIXED FEELINGS
  • QUICK FIX LEADERSHIP LEADS TO DECLINE
  • REVITALIZATION REQUIRES TRANSFORMATIONAL
    LEADERSHIP
  • VISION
  • MOBILIZATION OF COMMITMENT
  • INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF CHANGE

82
PHASES OF CHANGE
  • THREE-PHASE PROCESS
  • ENDINGS
  • NEUTRAL
  • NEW BEGINNINGS
  • QUALITIES OF THE LEADER
  • EQUITY, POWER, FREEDOM AND DYNAMICS OF
    DECISIONMAKING, TOUGHNESS, SEIZING OPPORTUNITIES
  • CORPORATE CULTURE PROVIDES A WAY OF UNDERSTANDING
    MEANING

83
ROLES OF LEADERSHIP IN STRATEGY FORMULATIONED
SCHEIN
  • PERCEIVE WHAT IS HAPPENING IN ENVIRONMENT
  • INFORMATION THAT MOTIVATES CHANGE
  • VISION FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
  • ACKNOWLEDE UNCERTAINTY
  • ACKNOWLEDGE ERROS IN THE LEARNING PROCESS
  • MANAGE THE PHASES OF CHANGE

84
LEARNING LEADERSED SCHEIN
  • PERCEPTION AND INSIGHT
  • MOTIVATION
  • EMOTIONAL STRENGTH
  • ABILITY TO CHANGE THE CULTURAL ASSUMPTIONS
  • ABILITY TO CREATE INVOLVEMENT AND PARTICIPATION
  • ABILITY TO LEARN A NEW CULTURE

85
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MAKES A LEADERDANIEL
GOLEMAN
  • SELF-AWARENESS
  • SELF-REGULATION
  • MOTIVATION
  • EMPATHY
  • SOCIAL SKILL

86
LEADERS , DOUBT AND SENSEMAKINGKARL WEICK
  • THE VALUE OF UNCERTAINTY
  • LEADING BY COMPASS
  • ANIMATION
  • IMPOVISATION
  • LIGHTNESS
  • AUTHENTICATION
  • LEARNING

87
EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESSMARTIN CHEMERS
  • THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE
  • FUNCTIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • IMAGE MANAGEMENT
  • RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT
  • RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
  • TRANSFORMATIONAL TRANSCEND AND TRANSFORM
  • WEBERS CHARISMATIC
  • SELF EFFICACY
  • FOUR TYPES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
  • TO FACIITATE THINKING
  • TO UNDERSTAND OWN EMOTIONS
  • EMPATHY
  • REGULATION OF SELF TO CONTROL AND PROMOTE
    PERSONAL GROWTH

88
FROM OLD PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TO PUBLIC SERVICE
  • FOUNDATIONS
  • HUMAN BEHAVIOR
  • PUBLIC INTEREST
  • RESPONSIVENESS
  • MECHANISMS
  • ACCOUNTABILITY
  • ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION
  • ASSUMED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
  • ASSUMED MOTIVATION BY PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AND
    SERVANTS

89
SERVING CITIZENS NOT CUSTOMERS
  • CIVIC VIRTUE AND DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP
  • THEORIES OF CITIZENSHIP
  • THE ROLE OF THE CITIZEN
  • BUILDING CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT
  • FIVE TENETS
  • PUBLIC SERVICE AS AN EXTENSION OF CITIZENSHIP
  • NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
  • NEW PUBLIC SERVICE AND QUALITY CITIZEN SERVICE

90
ACCOUNTABILITY ISNT SIMPLE
  • WHAT ARE WE RESPONSIBLE FOR?
  • TO WHOM ARE WE ACCOUNTABLE?
  • BY WHAT MEANS WILL WE ACHIEVE OUTCOMES AND BE
    ACCOUNTABLE FOR THEM?

91
SERVING CITIZENS NOT CUSTOMERS
  • CIVIC VIRTUE AND DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP
  • THEORIES OF CITIZENSHIP
  • THE ROLE OF THE CITIZEN
  • BUILDING CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT
  • FIVE TENETS
  • PUBLIC SERVICE AS AN EXTENSION OF CITIZENSHIP
  • NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
  • NEW PUBLIC SERVICE AND QUALITY CITIZEN SERVICE

92
BUILDING CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT
  • ACHIEVE BEST POLITICAL OUTCOMES
  • SATISFY INTERESTS OF CITIZENS
  • LEGITIMIZE GOVERNMENT
  • DEMOCRATIC MORALITY

93
BUILDING CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT
  • ACCESS TO INFORMATION
  • ACCESS TO DECISIONMAKING
  • ABILITY TO OPEN ISSUES FOR PUBLIC DISCUSSION
  • CONSIDERATION OF ALL CLAIMS ASSERTED

94
DEFINING PUBLIC SERVICE QUALITYCARLSON
Schwarz, 1995
  • CONVENIENCE
  • SECURITY
  • RELIABILITY
  • PERSONAL ATTENTION
  • PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH
  • FAIRNESS
  • FISCAL RESPONSBILITY
  • CITIZEN INFLUENCE

95
SEEKING THE PUBLIC INTEREST
  • WHAT IS THE PUBLIC INTEREST?
  • NORMATIVE MODELS
  • ABOLITIONIST VIEWS
  • POLITICAL PROCESS THEORIES
  • SHARED VALUES
  • OLD AND NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND THE PUBLIC
    INTEREST
  • WHAT ARE WE RESPONSIBLE FOR?
  • TO WHOM ARE WE ACCOUNTABLE?
  • BY WHAT MEANS WILL WE ACHIEVE OUTCOMES AND BE
    ACCOUNTABLE FOR THEM?

96
Key Concepts
  • PUBLIC INTEREST AS THE BEST RESPONSE TO ALL
    INTERESTS AND CONCEPTS OF VALUE
  • PUBLIC INTEREST IS BEST UNDERSTOOD THROUGH
    INDIVIDUAL CHOICES
  • PUBLIC INTEREST IS DEFINED BY POLITICAL PROCESS
  • PUBLIC INTEREST AS PUBLIC VALUE CONSENSUS

97
FORCES THAT MISCONSTRUE THE PUBLIC INTEREST
  • SOCIAL HIGH LEVEL OFFICIALS ARE NOT
    REPRESENTATIVE OF POPULATION
  • SPECIALIZATION LEADS TO NARROW INTERESTS
  • BUREAU IDEAOLOGY (DOWNS)
  • POSITIVE BENEFITS VS. COSTS
  • EXPANSION VS. CURTAILMENT
  • GENERAL BENEFITS VS. SPECIAL
  • PRESENT EFFICIENCIES VS. PAST FAILURES
  • ACHIEVEMENTS AND CAPABILITIES VS. FAILURES AND
    LIMITATIONS

98
SHIFTING IN PEOPLE AND PERFORMANCE AREAS
  • TRADITIONAL
  • SINGLE SYSTEM
  • FAIRNESS IS SAMENESS
  • PROCESS/RULES
  • PROMOTION BASED ON TECH. EXPERTISE
  • JOB FOR LIFE
  • PROTECTION JUSTIFIES TENURE
  • CENTRAL PERSONNEL AGENCY
  • NEW PUBLIC SERVICE
  • MULTIPLE SYSTEMS
  • DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN DIFF. TALENTS
  • PERFORMANCE/RESULTS
  • HIRE, DEVELOP, PROMOTE
  • CORE VALUES
  • PERFORMANCE AND EMP. NEED
  • CENTRAL AGENCY WITH EMPOWERED MANAGERS

99
NEW APPROACHES TO REGULATION
  • COMPLIANCE THROUGH DETERRANCE IS MISGUIDED AND
    MUST BE REPLACED BY
  • PARTNERS
  • ONE-STOP SERVICES
  • IMPACTS VS. OUTPUTS
  • PROBLEMS VS. VIOLATIONS
  • FEASIBILITY VS. UNIVERSAL ENFORCEMENT
  • NEGOTIATION AND EDUCATION AS TOOLS
  • STRATEGIC ENFORCEMENT TARGETS
  • DEALING EFFECTIVELY WITH WORST VIOLATORS

100
TOWARD NEW POLITICAL APPROACHES TO REGULATORY
ADMINISTRATION
  • BEYOND POLITICAL HACKS OF THE PAST
  • PUBLIC AS AN AGENCY CONSTITUENCY
  • AARP, CONSUMER GROUPS
  • FORWARD LOOKING ASSESSMENT
  • NEPA, REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY ACT, PAPERWORK
    REDUCTION ACT

101
LEGAL APPROACHES TO REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION
  • ADVERSARY PROCEDURES
  • NEUTRALITY AND THE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGE
  • DUE PROCESS PROTECTION
  • REASONABLENESS
  • PROPERTY RIGHTS AND TAKINGS

102
REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION
  • NARROW VS. BROAD PUBLIC INTEREST
  • BALANCING PRIVATE INTERESTS AGAINST ONE ANOTHER
  • PROTECTING AGAINST DISASTER

103
NEW PUBLIC SERVICE
  • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR
    ENHANCING CITIZENSHIP AND SERVING THE PUBLIC
    INTEREST

104
VALUING CITIZENSHIP OVER ENTRPRENUEURSHIP
  • GOVERNANCE
  • EXERCISE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITY
  • NEW ROLES FOR GOVERNMENT
  • LEGAL AND POLITICAL RULES
  • PROTECTING ECONOMIC INTERESTS
  • ASSURE DEMOCRACY AND SOCIAL EQUITY
  • ADMINISTRATION AND ADMINISTRATORS ROLES
  • SERVICE
  • PROCESS
  • INVOLVEMENT
  • INFORMATION
  • CONSULTATION
  • ACTIVE PARTICIPATION

105
REINVENTING THROUGH NATL PERFORMANCE REVIEW1997
  • FLEXIBLE RESPONSIVE HIRING SYSTEMS
  • REFORM PAY CLASSIFICATIONS
  • ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  • INCENTIVE AWARDS
  • SUPPORT MGT IN DEALING WITH POOR PERFORMERS
  • MARKET-DRIVEN TRAINING
  • FAMILY FRIENDLY WORKPLACES
  • CROSS-TRAINING AND INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION
  • ELIMINATE RED TAPE AUTOMATE INFORMATION
  • LABOR-MANAGEMENT PARTNERSHIPS
  • INCENTIVES FOR VOLUNTARY SEPARATIONS

106
DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY
  • STRUCTURING PUBLIC DELIBERATION FOR
    THOUGHTFULNESS AND ETHICS
  • DIALOGUE NOT MONOLOGUE
  • DIALOGUE FREE OF DOMINATION AND DISTORTION
  • INSTITUTIONALIZED DISCURSIVE STRUCTURES

107
3 CONDITIONS FOR LEGITIMACY
  • EQUALITY AND SYMMETRY
  • ALL HAVE RIGHT TO QUESTION
  • ALL HAVE RIGHTS TO CHANGE THE RULES OF DISCOURSE

108
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
  • LEGITIMACY
  • DIVERSITY AMONG CITIZENRY
  • FREEDOM AND LIBERTY
  • CHILLING EFFECT
  • OVERBREADTH
  • LEAST RESTRICTIVE ALTERNATIVE
  • PROPERTY RIGHTS
  • DUE PROCESS
  • INDIVIDUALITY
  • PRIVACY
  • EQUITY

109
MODERN STRUCTURAL THEORIES
  • PUA 703-001 FALL 2007
  • DR. CHRISTINE SPRINGER

110
MOVING ON AFTER WORLD WAR II
  • ORGANIZATIONAL EFFICIENCY IS THE ESSENCE OF ORG.
    RATIONALITY
  • RATIONALITY INCREASES PRODUCTION IN TERMS OF REAL
    GOODS AND SERVICES
  • STRUCTURE, CONTROL COORDINATION
  • ONE BEST STRUCTURE
  • SPECIALIZATION AND DIVISION OF LABOR STILL
    IMPORTANT
  • MOST ORG PROBLEMS ARE STRUCTURAL

111
ORGANIZATIONS AS NON-RATIONAL INSTITUTIONSSELSNI
CK - 1948
  • ORGANIZATIONS AS ECONOMIES
  • ORGANIZATIONS AS ADAPTIVE SOCIAL SYSTEMS
  • STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
  • SECURITY, STABILITY CONTINUITY, RECALCITRANCE,
    HOMOGENEITY OF OUTLOOK
  • CO-OPTATION
  • PROCESS OF ABSORBING NEW ELEMENTS AS A MEANS OF
    AVERTING THREATS

112
ORGANIZATIONS AS A COLLECTION OF BEHAVIORSCyert
March -1959
  • COALITIONS
  • OBJECTIVES SET THRU BARGAINING, INTERNAL CONTROLS
    AND ADJUSTING TO EXPERIENCE
  • EXAMPLE COMMITTEE AND PAINTING
  • PREDICTIVE THEORY
  • DEMANDS AND PROBLEMS FOR MEMBERS
  • TOOL TO CHANGE DEMAND OVER TIME
  • ATTENTION-FOCUS TOOL FOR DEMANDS
  • ATTENTION-FOCUS TOOL FOR PROBLEMS
  • DEMAND EVALUATION PROCEDURE
  • TOOL FOR CHOOSING AMONG VIABLE COALITIONS

113
SOCIO-TECHNICAL APPROACHBURNS AND STALKER - 1961
  • STABLE VS. DYNAMIC CONDITIONS
  • MECHANISTIC VS. ORGANIC ORG.
  • SECURITY VS. UNCERTAINTY

114
FORMAL VS. INFORMAL ORGS
  • BARNARD 1938
  • UNCONSCIOUS ATTITUDES, UNDERSTANDING, CUSTOMS,
    HABITS CREATING THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH FORMAL
    ORGANIZATION ARISES
  • BLAU SCOTT 1962
  • BUREAUCRATIZATION AMT OF EFFORT DEVOTED TO
    MAINTAINING THE ORG
  • NUMBER OF ADMIN. PERSONNEL, HIERARCHIAL
    CHARACTER, STRICT ENFORCEMENT OF RULES, REIGID
    COMPLIANCE TO RULES

115
STRUCTURING ACCORDING TO PRODUCT OR
FUNCTIONWALKER AND LORSCH - 1968
  • GROUPING BY WORKER OR BY PRODUCT
  • MAXIMUM USE OF A SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE?
  • EFFICIENT USE OF EQUIPMENT?
  • BEST CONTROL AND COORDINATION?
  • BEHAVIORIST FINDINGS
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACTIVITIES AND THOUGHTS AND
    BEHAVIORS
  • COLLABORATION AND INTEGRATION
  • COMMUNICATION AMONG SPECIALISTS
  • CLUES FOR MANAGERS
  • CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS
  • FULL-TIME INTEGRATORS
  • MATRIX OR GRID ORGANIZATIONS

116
KEY TERMS
  • DIFFERENTIATION SPECIALIZATION IN A RAPIDLY
    CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
  • REQUIRES CONTROL, COORDINATION AND INTEGRATION
  • DONUT ORGANIZATIONS
  • ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS
  • VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS

117
FIVE PARTS OF AN ORGANIZATIONMINTZBERG - 1979
  • OPERATING CORE
  • STRATEGIC APEX
  • THE MIDDLE LINE
  • TECHNOSTRUCTURE
  • SUPPORT STAFF

118
IN DEFENSE OF BUREAUCRACYJAQUES - 1990
  • HIERARCHIAL LAYERS ALLOW ORGS TO COPE WITH
    DISCONTINUITIES
  • MANAGERS NEED TO UNDERSTAND AND BE ACCOUNTABLE
  • FOR ADDING VALUE
  • SUSTAINING TEAM
  • SETTING DIRECTION AND ENGAGING SUBORDINATES
  • ACCOUNTABILITY IS POSSIBLE WITH AUTHORITY
  • VETO APPLICANTS
  • MAKE WORK ASSIGNMENTS
  • DECISIONS ABOUT RAISES AND REWARDS
  • INITIATE REMOVAL

119
TECHNOLOGY AS A TOOLBURTON AND OBEL 1998
  • FORMALIZATION
  • CENTRALIZATION
  • COMPLEXITY
  • CONFIGUATION
  • COORDINATION
  • CONTROL
  • INCENTIVES

120
Market Theories Rational Self Interest
  • Grounds for opposition to organic system theories
  • Indifference to merits of human relations theory
  • How to maximize individual utility through
    rational choices?

121
Community as a Fictitious BodyJeremy Bentham -
1948
  • Composed of individual persons who are considered
    members
  • Community interest is the sum of individual
    interests

122
MARKET THEORIES ORGANIZING AS REVEALED
SELF-INTEREST
  • HOW INDUCE MGRS TO ACT IN BEST INTEREST OF OWNERS
    AND THOSE IN CONTROL
  • ANSWERING ECONOMIC QUESTIONS
  • CONTRACTUAL NATURE
  • BOUNDED RATIONALITY
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF INVESTMENT IN SPECIRIC ASSETS
  • SPECIFIC RIGHTS VS. RESIDUAL RIGHTS
  • EFFECTS OF IMPERFECT INFORMATION
  • EMERGENCE AND EXPANSION OF ORGS GIVEN COST OF
    UNCENTAINTY, INFORMATION, BOUNDED RATIONALITY AND
    COGNITIVE BARRIERS

123
Self-Interest and Market Organizing Theory
  • Collective Action is Aggregation of Individual
    Choice
  • Organizing manages individual conflicts
  • Rules needed to adjudicate conflicting
    preferences
  • Satisficing not maximizing choices in decisions
  • Satisficing results in incremental change

124
FRAMING INSTITUTIONAL ACTION
  • INTERPLAY OF INTRESTS, GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS
  • PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY
  • IMPORTANT LIMITATIONS TO WHAT CAN BE DONE BY
    PUBLIC PLANNING
  • Satisficing (Simon)
  • Political
  • What is legitimate?
  • What can be reasonably acted on?

125
Administration as Political
  • Challenging the possibility/ desirability of
    tightly structured orgs reaching goals of
    internal efficiency and control
  • Agreeing with System Theorists
  • Engaging political environments
  • Internal Rules Stabilize
  • Disagreeing
  • Decisions not Structure

126
WHAT ARE THE RULES?
  • PUBLIC CHOICE AS REPRESENTED BY BUCHANAN, TULLOCK
    AND OSTROM
  • CONSTITUTIONAL RULES
  • IMPROVING GOVT PERFORMANCE MEANS MAKING IT MORE
    DEMOCRATIC AND EFFICIENT
  • DEFINING HUMAN MOTIVATIONS SO AS TO DERIVE A
    PREFERRED THEORY OF VALUES
  • BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ENABLE EXPLANATION OF PAST,
    PRESENT AND PREDICTION OF FUTURE

127
MARKET THEORISTS
  • SCOT, DAVID HUME, JEREMY BENTHAM, JOHN STUART
    MILL
  • UTILITARIANSIM
  • JAMES BUCHANAN, GORDON TULLOCK AND VINCENT OSTROM
  • PUBLIC CHOICE
  • CHARLES LINDBLOOM, DAVID BRAYROOKE
  • INCREMENTALISM DISJOINTED
  • ALBERT HIRSCHMAN
  • ECONOMIC
  • FAILING TO RESPOND TO REPAIRABLE LAPSES IN
    PERFORMANCE

128
KEY TERMS
  • AGENCY THEORY MANAGERS ARE AGENTS OF THE OWNERS
    AND DELEGATED AUTHORITY
  • PROPERTY RIGHTS THEORY HOW COSTS AND REWARDS
    ARE ALLOCATED TO PARTICIPANTS IN AN ORGANIZATION
  • TRANSACTION COST THEORY HOW TO MAINTAIN
    PRINCIPAL-AGENT RELATIONSHIPS AND MINIMIZE COSTS
    OF TRANSACTIONS AND MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AND
    SOCIAL INTERDEPENDENCE
  • UNANIMITY RULE INDIVIDUALS ARE PROTECTED
    AGAINST COERCIAN AND EXTERNAL DAMAGE
  • PUBLIC CHOICE DECISION-MAKING ARRANGEMENTS
    ESTABLISH THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR MAKING
    CHOICES.
  • MAKING GOVERNMENT MORE DEMOCRATIC AND EFFICIENT

129
MORE KEY TERMS
  • SELF-INTEREST HEDONISM VS ALTRUISM
  • INCREMENTALISM - DECISIONS THAT TAKE INTO
    ACCOUNT ONLY THE MARGINAL OR INCREMENTAL
    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROPOSAL AND EXISTING STATE
    OF AFFAIRS
  • DISJOINTED LACK OF CONSCIOUS COORDINATION IN
    DECISIONMAKING

130
CRITICS OF THE MARKET THEORIESHIRSCHMAN - 1970
  • MARKET FORCES ARE AT BEST A PARTIAL CONDITION FOR
    ORG RESPONSIVENESS
  • EXIT, VOICE OR LOYALTY
  • CONDITIONS FOR CORRECTION
  • MEANS TO EXPRESS DISSATISFACTION
  • TIME AND RESOURCES TO MEND WAYS
  • SELF-INTERESTED REASONS FOR TAKING SERIOUSLY EXIT
    OR VOICE OF CLIENTS OR CITIZENS

131
Questions to think about . . .
  • What are the tenets or assumptions of market
    theories?
  • What types of behavior do market theories
    explain?
  • How do market theories explain the behavior of
    organization members?
  • What insights do market theories provide about
    orgs?
  • How are market theories different from classical
    theories?
  • What is the market metaphor?

132
POWER AND POLITICS
  • COMPLEX SYSTEMS OF INDIVIDUALS AND COALITIONS
  • CONFLICT IS INEVITABLE
  • INFLUENCE, POWER AND POLITICAL ACITIVTY PRIMARY
    TOOL
  • GOALS ACHIEVED THROUGH MANUEVERING
  • INTERDEPENDENCE OF ORG UNITS
  • POWER IN ORGS
  • CONTROL OVER SCARCE RESOURCES
  • ACCESS TO POWER
  • CENTRAL POSITION IN POTENT COALITION
  • WORKING THE RULES
  • CREDIBILITY

133
KEY TERMS
  • POWER THE ABILITY TO GET THINGS DONE THE WAY
    ONE WANTS THEM DONE AND TO INFLUENCE PEOPLE
  • SOCIAL POWER POWER BETWEEN TWO AGENTS BASED
    UPON REWARDS, COERCIVE , LEGITMATE, REFERENT AND
    EXPERT POWER
  • SOCIAL CHOICE-POWER IS THE RESULT OF INFLUENCE
    EXERTED BY NUMEROUS COMPONENTS AND RESPONSIVENESS
    IS A FUNCTION OF CHANCE, FORCE, OR PROCESS

134
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • MODERN STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION THEORY
  • Talcott-Parsons 1951
  • Social Systems vs. Political Organizations
  • Basic Assumptions
  • ORGANIZATIONS ARE RATIONAL
  • BEST STRUCTURES
  • DIVISION OF LABOR
  • PROBLEMS ARE STRUCTURAL
  • Mechanisms and Organic Systems

135
KEY TERMS
  • SATISFICING LIMITS TO DECISION MAKING
  • RATIONAL MAN ANALYZES COMPLEXITIES AND MAXIMIZES
    CHOOSING BEST ALTERNATIVE
  • BOUNDED RATIONALITY LIMITING ADMIISTRATIVE
    RATIONALITY DUE TO
  • COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF CONSEQUENCES
  • FUTURE MUST BE ANTICIPATED
  • ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIORS LIMITED
  • ORGANIZATIONAL SETTING
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE
  • NARROW INTERPRETATION

136
BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE AND PERSONALITYROBERT
MERTON - 1957
  • THE DYSFUNCTIONS OF BUREAUCRACY
  • SECRECY
  • OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOSIS
  • OVERCONFORMITY
  • SECULAR AND SACRED DIVISION OF LABOR
  • DEPERSONALIZATION
  • DISCREPANCY BETWEEN IDEOLOGY AND FACT
  • SERVANTS OF THE PEOPLE?
  • QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERD
  • PRESTIGE SYMBOLS TO INNER CIRCLE?

137
KEY TERMS
  • INSTRUMENTAL RATIONALITY SUBJECTIVE MEANS-END
    REASONING
  • DECISION CONCLUSION DRAWN FROM SET OF VALUE AND
    FACTUAL PREMISES
  • EFFICIENCY MAXIMIZE ATTAINMENT OF CERTAIN ENDS
    WITH SCARCE RESOURCES
  • EFFECTIVENESS-ACCOMPLISHING ORG OBJECTIVES AND
    OVERALL PERFORMANCE
  • PUBLIC PROBLEMS EXTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL
  • AUTHORITY POWER TO MAKE DECISIONS WHICH GUIDE
    THE ACTIONS OF ANOTHER
  • COORDINATION THE PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS IN
    TOTO OPERATING THRU A SUPERME COORDINATING
    AUTHORITY (URWICK)

138
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  • CHALLENGING RATIONAL THEORISTS
  • ORGANIZATIONS AS COLLECTION OF VALUES, LIEFS,
    PERCEPTIONS, BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS
  • BEHAVIOR IS PREDETERMINED BY MEMBERS ASSUMPTIONS
  • ORGS ARE ONLY RATIONAL IF
  • SELF-CORRECTING SYSTEM OF INTERDEPENDENT PEOPLE
  • CONSENSUS ON OBJECTIVES AND METHODS
  • COORDINATION THROUGH SHARED INFORMATION
  • PREDICTABLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

139
ORGANIZATIONAL SYMBOLISM
  • MEANINGS AS SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED REALITIES
  • INTERPRETATION IS MOST IMPORTANT
  • AMBIGUITY AND UNCERTAINTY PRECLUDE RATIONALITY
  • PEOPLE USE SYMBOLS TO REDUCE AMBIGUITY
  • ROOT METAPHORS, SHARED MEANINGS, INTEGRATING
    SYMBOLS

140
CHANGING ORG. CULTURESTRICE AND BEYER 1993
  • CAPITALIZE ON PROPITIOUS MOMENTS
  • COMBINE CAUTION WITH OPTIMISM
  • UNDERSTAND RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
  • CHANGE ELEMENTS BUT MAINTAIN CONTINUITY

141
CHANGING ORG. CULTURESTRICE AND BEYER 1993
  • RECOGNIZE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTATION
  • SELECT, MODIFY AND CREATE RIGHT CULTURAL FORMS
  • MODIFY SOCIALIZATION TACTICS
  • FIND AND CULTIVATE INNOVATIVE LEADERSHIP

142
DEFINITIONS OF ORG CULTURE
  • SHARED BELIEFS
  • SHARED UNDERSTANDINGS
  • UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS
  • COMMON ORIENTATION
  • PATTERNS OF MEANING
  • STORIES TOLD IN ORIENTATION

143
COMMON RITUALS
  • INITIATION
  • REWARD
  • DEGRADATION
  • RENEWAL
  • CONFLICT REDUCTION
  • INTEGRATION
  • ENDING
  • COMPOUND

144
REFORM THROUGH CHANGE1980S AND 1990S
  • LASTING ORG. REFORM REQUIRES CHANGE IN ORG
    CULTURE
  • TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL
  • PRODUCTIVITY
  • FLEXIBILITY
  • RESPONSIVENESS
  • RE-EINGINEERING
  • CUSTOMER SERVICE

145
APPLYING JAPANESE METHODSOUCHI - 1980
  • THEORY Z ORGS
  • CULTURAL CONSISTENCY NOT HIERARCHY
  • CLANS NOT MARKETS OR HIERARCHIES
  • DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATION
  • SOCIAL ORGS VS. FORMALITY
  • BUREAUCRACY VS. DISCRETION
  • BALANCING FREEDOM AND INTEGRATION

146
ATTRIBUTES OF EXCELLENCEPETERS - WATERMAN
  • BIAS FOR ACTION
  • CLOSE TO CUSTOMER
  • AUTONOMY
  • ENTREPRENUERSHIP
  • PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH PEOPLE
  • HANDS-ON
  • VALUE-DRIVEN
  • STICK TO KNITTING
  • SIMPLE FORM
  • LEAN STAFF
  • LOOSE-TIGHT

147
LEARNING ORGANIZATIONSPETER SENGE - 1990
  • LEARNING HOW TO LEARN TOGETHER
  • COMPONENT TECHNOLOGIES
  • FIVE DISCIPLINES
  • SYSTEMS THINKING
  • PERSONAL MASTERY
  • MENTAL MODELS
  • BUILDING SHARED VISION
  • TEAM LEARNING

148
REINVENTING GOVERNMENTOSBORNE GAEBLER - 1992
  • CATALYTIC
  • COMMNITY-OWNED
  • MISSION DRIVEN
  • RESULT ORIENTED
  • CUSTOMER DRIVEN
  • ENTERPRISING
  • ANTICIPATORY
  • DECENTRALIZED
  • MARKET ORIENTED

149
GENDER AND DIVERSITY
  • PERPETUATING MALE REALITY ACKER-1992
  • GENDER DIVISIONS
  • SYMBOLS AND IMAES
  • INTERACTIONS
  • DEMANDS FOR GENDER-NEUTRAL BEHAVIOR
  • ORG CULTURES THAT ARE BARRIERS TO PERFORMANCE
  • WORKFORCE 2000 1987
  • MANAGING DIVERSITY IS A CRUCIAL COMPETENCY
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