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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition Chapter 12 Water Supply Firefighter I Chapter 12 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 12 Water Supply Firefighter I
2
Chapter 12 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to make hydrant connections and draft
    from a static water source according to the
    authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Describe dry-barrel and wet-barrel hydrants.
  • 2. Discuss fire hydrant marking and location.
  • 3. Summarize potential problems to look for when
    inspecting fire hydrants.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Explain the process of fire hydrant testing.
  • 5. Discuss alternative water supplies.
  • 6. Discuss rural water supply operations.
  • 7. Operate a hydrant. (Skill Sheet 12-I-1)

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 8. Make soft-sleeve and hard-suction hydrant
    connections. (Skill Sheet 12-I-2)
  • 9. Connect and place a hard-suction hose for
    drafting from a static water source. (Skill Sheet
    12-I-3)
  • 10. Deploy a portable water tank. (Skill Sheet
    12-I-4)

6
Hydrants
  • Usually made of cast iron with bronze working
    parts
  • Must be opened and closed slowly to prevent damage

7
Dry-Barrel Hydrants
  • Installed in areas where prolonged periods of
    subfreezing weather are common
  • Have main valve located below frost line that
    prevents water from entering hydrant barrel

(Continued)
8
Dry-Barrel Hydrants
  • Operation
  • Must be completely open or closed to prevent
    leaking
  • When shutting down, verify that water left in
    hydrant barrel is draining out

(Continued)
9
Dry-Barrel Hydrants
  • In some areas, hydrants must be pumped out after
    each use to prevent water contamination
  • If water is bubbling out of ground, broken
    component in barrel is allowing water to get past
    drain opening

10
Wet-Barrel Hydrants
  • Installed in warmer climates where prolonged
    periods of subfreezing weather uncommon
  • Horizontal compression-type valve at each outlet
  • Always filled with water

11
Fire Hydrant Marking
  • Rate of flow from individual hydrants varies for
    several reasons
  • NFPA has developed system of marking hydrants
  • Local color-coding may differ from NFPA

12
Fire Hydrant Locations
  • Decisions usually made by water department
    personnel based on recommendations from fire
    department
  • Should not be spaced more than 300 feet (100 m)
    apart in high-value districts

(Continued)
13
Fire Hydrant Locations
  • Locate hydrant at every other intersection
  • Intermediate hydrants may be required where
    distances between intersections exceed 350 to 400
    feet (105 to 120 m)
  • Other factors affect location/spacing

14
Hydrant Testing and Inspections
  • Responsibility of fire department personnel
  • Firefighters should look for wide array of items

15
Fire Hydrant Testing Process
  • Many departments no longer responsible for
    testing
  • Most basic test normally conducted is flow test

16
Flow Test Steps
  • Select hydrant
  • Remove all outlet caps
  • Inspect outlet threads
  • Lubricate all outlet threads
  • Replace all caps except one 2½-inch (65 mm) cap

(Continued)
17
Flow Test Steps
  • Connect cap-type pressure gauge to outlet on
    second hydrant nearby
  • Turn second hydrant on, record static pressure
  • Turn test hydrant on fully, allow water to flow
    briefly

(Continued)
18
Flow Test Steps
  • Use pitot tube, gauge to measure flow rate
  • Record pitot gauge reading
  • Take/record residual pressure reading from gauge
    connected to second hydrant before shutting test
    hydrant off

(Continued)
19
Flow Test Steps
  • Turn off second hydrant, remove gauge, replace
    cap
  • Turn off test hydrant
  • Test for vacuum created by operating drain valve
    (dry barrel)
  • Replace cap on outlet
  • Repeat procedure with each hydrant

20
Alternative Water Supply Sources
  • Lakes
  • Ponds
  • Rivers
  • Ocean
  • Swimming pools
  • Farm stock tanks
  • Underground cisterns

21
Drafting From Alternative Water Supplies
  • Process of drawing water from static source to
    pumper
  • Can use almost any static source of water if
    sufficient in quantity, not contaminated
  • Depth of water from which to draft

22
Dry Hydrants
  • Installed at static water sources to increase
    water supply available
  • Usually constructed of steel or PVC pipe with
    strainers at water source, steamer ports to
    connect to pumper
  • Designed to supply at least 1,000 gpm (4 000
    L/min)

(Continued)
23
Water Shuttles
  • Involve hauling water from supply source to
    portable tanks from which water may be drawn to
    fight fire
  • Recommended for distances greater than ½ mile
    (0.8 km) or greater than the fire departments
    capability of laying supply hoselines

(Continued)
24
Water Shuttles
  • Critical elements
  • Fast-fill, fast-dump capabilities
  • Water supply officers at fill/dump sites
  • Traffic control
  • Hydrant operations
  • Hookups
  • Tank venting

25
Water Shuttles
  • Key components
  • Dump site
  • Portable tanks

(Continued)
26
Water Shuttles
  • Ways in which water tenders unload
  • Gravity dumping
  • Jet dumps that increase flow rate
  • Apparatus-mounted pumps
  • Combination of these methods

(Continued)
27
Water Shuttles
  • According to NFPA 1901, water tenders on level
    ground should be capable of dumping/filling at
    rates of at least 1,000 gpm (4 000 L/min)

(Continued)
28
Water Shuttles
  • To fill water tenders quickly, use best fill
    site, large hoselines, multiple hoselines
  • Multiple portable pumps may be necessary

29
Relay Pumping
  • Can be used in situations where water source is
    close enough to fire scene to render water
    shuttles unnecessary
  • Factors to consider
  • Water supply must be capable of maintaining
    desired volume of water
  • Relay must be established quickly

(Continued)
30
Relay Pumping
  • Determining number of pumpers needed and distance
    between them
  • Several factors to take into account
  • Apparatus with greatest pumping capacity should
    be at water source

(Continued)
31
Relay Pumping
  • Determining number of pumpers needed and distance
    between them
  • Large-diameter hose or multiple hoselines
    increase distance, volume a relay can supply
  • Water supply officer should consider all factors
    and determine correct distance

32
Summary
  • Because water is still the primary fire
    extinguishing agent used by firefighters in North
    America, and because fires often occur
    considerable distances from major water sources,
    fire departments must develop ways to transport
    available water from its source to where it is
    needed.

(Continued)
33
Summary
  • Firefighters must know what water supply systems
    have been developed and what their
    responsibilities are when these systems are used.

34
Review Questions
  • 1. What is the difference between dry-barrel and
    wet-barrel hydrants?
  • 2. How are fire hydrants marked?
  • 3. What factors affect hydrant location and
    spacing?

(Continued)
35
Review Questions
  • 4. List alternative water supplies.
  • 5. What are three key components of a water
    shuttle operation?
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