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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition Chapter 4 Building Construction Firefighter II Chapter 4 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 4 Building Construction Firefighter II
2
Chapter 4 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to understand the effects of fire on
    common building materials and be able to identify
    the indications of imminent building collapse.

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Describe the effects of fire and suppression
    activities on common building materials.
  • 2. Describe items to be observed during size-up
    of a building.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 3. Describe dangerous building conditions
    created by a fire or by actions taken while
    trying to extinguish a fire.
  • 4. Identify indicators of building collapse.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 5. Describe actions to take when imminent
    building collapse is suspected.
  • 6. Describe building conditions that create
    additional risk in construction, renovation, and
    demolition.

6
Wood
  • Reaction to fire conditions based on
  • Size of wood
  • Moisture content
  • Reaction to suppression activities
  • Water does not have substantial negative effect
  • Applying water minimizes damage

7
Masonry
  • Minimally affected by fire, exposure to high
    temperatures
  • May crack by rapid cooling

8
Cast Iron
  • Stands up well to fire and intense heat
  • May crack or shatter when rapidly cooled with
    water

9
Steel
  • Elongates when heated
  • Fails at temperatures near or above 1,000F
    (538C)
  • Water can cool structural members/stop
    elongation, reducing risk of structural collapse

10
Reinforced Concrete
  • Performs well under fire conditions
  • Can lose strength through spalling cracking,
    spalling indicates damage has occurred

11
Gypsum
  • High water content absorbs a great deal of heat
  • Excellent heat-resistant, fire-retardant
    properties
  • Breaks down gradually under fire conditions

(Continued)
12
Gypsum
  • Where gypsum fails, structural members behind are
    subjected to higher temperatures and are more
    likely to fail.

13
Glass
  • Not an effective barrier to fire extension
  • If heated, may crack and shatter when struck by
    cold water

14
Fiberglass
  • Not a significant fuel
  • Materials used to bind may be combustible and
    difficult to extinguish

15
Items to Observe During Size Up
  • Age of building
  • Construction materials
  • Roof type
  • Renovations or modifications
  • Dead loads

16
Conditions Contributing to Spread/Intensity of
Fire
  • Fire load
  • Combustible furnishings, finishes
  • Roof coverings
  • Wooden floors, ceilings
  • Large, open spaces

17
Conditions Making Building Susceptible to Collapse
  • Types of construction
  • Age
  • Exposure to weather
  • Length of time a fire burns
  • Fire fighting operations

18
Indicators of Building Collapse
  • Cracks or separations
  • Evidence of existing structural instability
  • Loose bricks, blocks, stones falling
  • Deteriorated mortar
  • Leaning walls

(Continued)
19
Indicators of Building Collapse
  • Distorted structural members
  • Fires beneath floors supporting extreme weight
    loads
  • Prolonged fire exposure to structural members

(Continued)
20
Indicators of Building Collapse
  • Unusual creaks, cracking noises
  • Structural members pulling away from walls
  • Excessive weight of building contents

21
Actions When Imminent Building Collapse Suspected
  • Exit building
  • Inform Command
  • Clear collapse zone
  • Know/heed evacuation, other emergency signals

22
Risks in Buildings Under Construction
  • Protective features not in place
  • Lack of doors/barriers contribute to rapid fire
    growth

23
Risks in Abandoned Buildings/Buildings Under
Demolition
  • Breached walls
  • Open stairwells
  • Missing doors
  • Deactivated fire protection systems
  • Potential for sudden building collapse
  • Arson

24
Risks in Buildings Under Renovation
  • Occupants living in one section while work
    continues in another
  • Out-of-service/damaged fire detection, alarm
    systems
  • Blocked exits
  • Local building codes not followed

25
Summary
  • A failure to recognize the potential dangers of a
    particular type of construction and the effects
    that fire may have on it can be catastrophic for
    firefighters.

(Continued)
26
Summary
  • Knowledge of the various types of building
    construction and how fires react in each type
    gives information that is vital to planning a
    safe and effective fire attack.

(Continued)
27
Summary
  • Firefighters must also know the sights and sounds
    that indicate the possibility of structural
    collapse or other extraordinary events during
    interior fire fighting operations.

28
Review Questions
  • 1. What items should be observed during size-up
    of a building?
  • 2. What is fire load?
  • 3. List four indicators of building collapse.

(Continued)
29
Review Questions
  • 4. What hazardous situations may arise from
    renovated buildings?
  • 5. Why are buildings under construction a
    hazard?
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