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HIGHWAY CRASH-FIREFIGHTER SAFETY Credits Florida Highway

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HIGHWAY CRASH-FIREFIGHTER SAFETY Credits Florida Highway Patrol http://www.fhp.state.fl.us/html/Manuals/fh17-18.pdf N.F.P.A. http://www.nfpa.org N.I.O.S.H. http://www ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HIGHWAY CRASH-FIREFIGHTER SAFETY Credits Florida Highway


1
HIGHWAY CRASH
-
  • FIREFIGHTER SAFETY

2
Credits
  • Florida Highway Patrol http//www.fhp.state.fl.us/
    html/Manuals/fh17-18.pdf
  • N.F.P.A. http//www.nfpa.org
  • N.I.O.S.H. http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/facerpts.html
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/hid12.html
    http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/mvalert.html
  • Phoenix Fire Department http//phoenix.gov/FIRE/20
    507a.html
  • Responder Safety.com http//www.respondersafety.co
    m
  • U.S. Department of Transportation
    http//mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003/Ch6A-E.pdf

3
Topics
  • Firefighter Deaths Over the Past 14 Years
  • Scenario 1 Group work
  • Define Terms
  • Response to Scenes
  • Vehicle Placement
  • Personnel Safety
  • Operation Safety

4
  • Lane Identification
  • State Move Over law
  • N.F.P.A. Codes
  • FPH Policy
  • State Statute 316.2025 316.061
  • Scenario 2

5
  • Between 1990 and 1994, 9 fire fighters were
    struck and killed by motor vehicles.

6
  • Between 1995 and 1999, 17 fire fighters were
    struck and killed by motorists. This represents
    an 89 increase in the number of line-of-duty
    deaths over the previous 5-year period.

7
  • In 2000, 5 Firefighters died.
  • In 2001, 1 Firefighter died.
  • In 2002, 4 Firefighters died.
  • In 2003, 5 Firefighters died.
  • Four year total 15 deaths.

8
FIREFIGHTER DEATHS PER YEAR
9
Scenario 1
  • Single car accident

10
  • August 5, 1999, at 1920 hours, a single vehicle
    crash on interstate was reported.
  • The interstate was wet and slippery from an
    intermittent rainstorm.
  • The units responding at 1920 hours included
    Ladder 2 (Captain and two fire fighters), Squad 2
    (two fire fighters), and one privately owned
    Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulance.  

11
  • Squad 2 was the first to arrive on scene at 1923
    hours and reported no injuries.
  • Squad 2 personnel then released the EMS from
    further response.
  • At approximately the same time, Ladder 2 arrived
    on scene.
  • The Captain called dispatch for an estimated time
    of arrival of the Highway Patrol. Dispatch
    replied that they would contact the Highway
    Patrol and relay the information back to him.

12
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13
  • GROUP
  • On August 5, 1999, at 1920 hours, a call came
    into Central Dispatch reporting a single motor
    vehicle crash on the westbound lanes of the
    interstate. The interstate highway on which this
    incident occurred was wet and slippery from an
    intermittent rainstorm. The units responding at
    1920 hours included Ladder 2 (Captain and two
    fire fighters), Squad 2 (two fire fighters), and
    one privately owned Emergency Medical Service
    (EMS) ambulance. Squad 2 was the first to arrive
    on scene at 1923 hours and reported no injuries
    (See Photo 1). Squad 2 personnel then released
    the EMS from further response. At approximately
    the same time, Ladder 2 arrived on scene. The
    Captain called dispatch for an estimated time of
    arrival of the Highway Patrol. Dispatch replied
    that they would contact the Highway Patrol and
    relay the information back to him.

14
  • Ladder 2 was stopping near the median wall,
    approximately 150 yards directly behind Squad 2.
  • The personnel of Ladder 2 remained in the truck,
    with the emergency lights on.
  • At approximately 1926 hours, Ladder 2 was struck
    from behind by a motor vehicle (car 2).

15
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16
  • GROUP
  • Ladder 2 was stopping near the median wall (See
    Photo 2), approximately 150 yards directly behind
    Squad 2 to provide protection from oncoming
    traffic for both the occupant of the motor
    vehicle and Squad 2 personnel. The personnel of
    Ladder 2 remained in the truck, with the
    emergency lights turned on and operating. At
    approximately 1926 hours, Ladder 2 was struck
    from behind by a motor vehicle (car 2).

17
  • The personnel of Ladder 2 exited the vehicle.
  • The Captain notified dispatch that the ladder
    truck had been struck from behind, and requested
    that EMS return to the scene.
  • He then requested that the City Police also
    respond to provide traffic control.

18
  • One of the fire fighters from Squad 2 ran up the
    hill to provide assistance.
  • The fire fighters from Ladder 2 and Squad 2 moved
    the driver of car back to the seat of her car.
  • The Captain then began to walk eastbound on the
    inside lane of the westbound highway to flag
    traffic away from the incident because law
    enforcement units had not yet arrived.

19
  • At this time, the fire fighter directing traffic
    near Squad 2, noticed a car (car 3) cresting the
    top of the overpass on the inside lane and
    rapidly approaching Ladder 2.
  • He yelled out two warnings over the radio Ladder
    2 Captain, watch out behind you just as the car
    was losing control.
  • The Captain turned and yelled to the other fire
    fighters near Ladder 2, watch out, watch out.

20
  • At that moment the fire fighter from Ladder 2 and
    the Squad 2 started moving the injured driver
    toward the front of the Ladder truck.
  • As the fire fighters were moving the injured
    driver to a safe area, car 3 spun backward,
    impacting the median wall approximately 20 yards
    east of Ladder 2 then slid between the wall and
    Ladder 2.
  • It missed the Captain and a fire fighter from
    Ladder 2 before striking two of the fire fighters
    and the injured driver.

21
  • The Captain and the fire fighter from Ladder 2
    escaped injury by diving over the median wall
    onto the eastbound highway.
  • The impact threw the injured driver to the ground
    in front of Ladder 2 (approximately 47 feet from
    the point of impact).

22
  • It threw the firefighter from Squad 2 over the
    top of Ladder 2. He landed near the front of the
    unit (also 47 feet).
  • The second fire fighter from Ladder 2 was thrown
    over the median wall (onto the inside eastbound
    lane of the highway) landing approximately 47
    feet past the point of impact.

23
  • The non-injured fire fighter from Ladder 2, who
    had jumped over the median wall moved the injured
    fire fighter out of the path of oncoming traffic
    and began administering basic life support.
  • The Captain jumped back over the wall to check on
    the condition of the victim and the civilian
    driver from car 2.
  • At 1927 hours, dispatch was notified fire
    fighters were down, and requested additional
    medical and police assistance.

24
  • A second alarm was struck, and Engine 1 (Officer
    and two fire fighters), Squad 1 (Officer and one
    fire fighter), Shift Commander 203 (Assistant
    Chief and driver), and Engine 3 (Officer and two
    fire fighters) responded to the scene.
  • The fire fighter who had been directing traffic
    near Squad 2 ran up the hill to check on both the
    civilian driver from car 2 and the victim.

25
  • He administered emergency medical treatment to
    the victim while the Captain attended to the
    driver from car 2.
  • The Captain assessed that the civilian driver
    from car 2 was not in an immediate
    life-threatening condition, so he proceeded to
    the back of the ladder truck to check the driver
    of car 3 for injuries.
  • The driver of car 3 told the Captain that he was
    alright, and he did not appear to have any
    serious injuries.

26
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27
  • The Captain went to assist the fire fighter from
    Ladder 2 in the treatment of the injured fire
    fighter, who at this point was not breathing and
    in need of an oral airway.
  • While the Captain was proceeding to get a trauma
    kit, a fourth vehicle struck car 2 from behind.

28
  • The Captain immediately went to check the
    occupants of car 4.
  • An ambulance had now arrived on scene in the
    eastbound lane and was assisting in the treatment
    of the injured fire fighter from Ladder 2.
  • The Captain found no serious injuries to the
    occupants of car 4, and he told them to sit
    still because additional help was on the way.

29
  • At 1932 hours, the Assistant Chief along with
    Squad 1 had arrived on scene, followed by Engine
    1 at 1934 hours.
  • The additional personnel assisted in traffic
    control and in getting both the injured fire
    fighter from Ladder 2 and the victim prepared and
    transported to the regional hospital.
  • The driver from car 2 was also transported to
    the regional hospital.

30
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31
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32
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33
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34
Timeline
  • 1920 hours call came in, units responded
  • 1923 hours Units on scene
  • 1926 (approximately) Ladder 2 was struck by car
  • Moments later, the second car slid between the
    wall and Ladder 2
  • At 1927 hours, dispatch was notified fire
    fighters were down,
  • Minutes later a fourth vehicle ran into the first
    car to hit Ladder 2
  • At 1932 hours second alarm arrived

35
NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Establish and implement standard operating
    procedures (SOPs) regarding emergency operations
    for highway incidents
  • Ensure that the fire apparatus is positioned to
    take advantage of topography and weather
    conditions (uphill and upwind) and to protect
    fire fighters from traffic

36
  • Ensure that fire fighters responding to a scene
    involving a highway incident or fire must first
    control the oncoming vehicles before safely
    turning their attention to the emergency in the
    event police have not arrived.
  • Ensure that personnel position themselves and any
    victim (s) in a secure area when it is impossible
    to protect the incident scene from immediate
    danger

37
II. DEFINE TERMS
Advance Warning Procedures that notify
approaching motorists of emergency traffic
control measures ahead. Block Creating a
physical barrier by positioning apparatus at an
angle across the lanes of traffic. Buffer Zone
The space between the work zone and near by
traffic. Downstream Direction that traffic
moves away from the incident scene. Flagger
Individual assigned to monitor approaching
traffic and provide warning if motorists fail to
follow traffic control measures.
38
Shadow The protected work area that is shielded
by the block provided by properly placed
emergency apparatus. Taper The action of
merging several lanes of moving traffic into
fewer moving lanes. Work Zone The area in
which emergency crews perform incident related
tasks fire, extrication, EMS. Transition Zone
Lanes of a roadway where approaching motorists
change speed and position to comply with traffic
control measures. Upstream Direction that
traffic moves from when approaching the incident
scene.
39
III. RESPONDING TO THE SCENE
1.) Driving Regulations. a.) Emergency
vehicle operators are regulated by
State Laws Municipal Laws
Department Policies
NOTE Emergency vehicle operators are not exempt
from criminal or civil litigation
if involved in an accident while
responding.
40
2.) Vehicle Speed Safety. a.) Governed
by laws, and department policy. b.)
Excessive, unsafe speed is never justified.
c.) Adjust speed and driving for night,
weather, poor visibility. d.) Stop for
school busses. e.) Obey speed limits in
school zones. f.) Stop at all red lights
and Stop signs. g.) Slow down or stop at
all green light intersections. h.)
Limited access highway with traffic back up
approach scene using unoccupied
roadway shoulder. I.) Try to pass
stopped vehicles only on the left side.
41
3.) Defensive Driving. a.) Anticipate
other drivers actions. b.) Intersections
are where most accidents occur. c.) Keep
eyes moving, scan area, look ahead. d.)
Use emergency sirens signals. e.)
Maintain adequate distance for breaking and
reaction time.
42
IV. EMERGENCY VEHICLE PLACEMENT
1.) Always position first arriving vehicle to
protect the scene, patients, and emergency
personnel. a.) Protect work area from
traffic approaching from at least one
direction. b.) Angle apparatus
across the roadway to create a physical
barrier between the crash scene and
approaching traffic. c.) Proper
apparatus placement should slow and re-direct
approaching motorists around the
emergency scene. d.) Use apparatus to
block at least one lane more than the
obstruction. e.) position fire
apparatus so that the pump operator is not
exposed to approaching traffic.
43
2.) Large apparatus should be placed in order to
create a safe parking area for other vehicles.
Emergency personnel should remain with in the
shadow of the blocking vehicle at all
times. 3.) Ambulance units should be parked
within the protected work area. a.) Rear
loading doors should be angled away from nearest
lanes of moving traffic. 4.)
Command should stage all unnecessary vehicles off
the roadway, or return these units to service as
soon as possible.
44
3.) When blocking with apparatus, remember to
establish a sufficient size work area that
includes a.) Operating personnel
b.) Damaged vehicles road debris c.)
Extrication area d.) Patient triage and
treatment areas e.) Ambulance loading
zone f.) Staging areas
45
6.) Incidents in middle lanes or intersections.
a.) Two or more sides will need to be
protected. b.) Strategically place police
units for additional protection. c.)
Communicate vehicle placement needs effectively.
d.) If charged hose line needed, on the
opposite side of on-coming
traffic. (Down Stream)
46
7.) Traffic Cone Use and placement. a.)
Deploy cones from rear of apparatus toward
approaching traffic. b.) Personnel shall
face on-coming traffic when placing or
retrieving cones and flares. c.)
Traffic cones or flares should be placed at 15
foot intervals. d.) Total distance of
placement is related to posted speed limit.
47
Proper placement helps other responding resources
with easy access and a safe working area.
48
V. PERSONNEL SAFETY
1.) Never trust approaching traffic. 2.) Avoid
turning your back to approaching traffic. 3.)
Always wear Class III high visibility reflective
vests or structural PPE during daytime
operations. 4.) Always wear structural
firefighting or other approved helmet. 5.)
Always wear full reflective gear, including vest,
during night operations or poor visibility
conditions. 6.) Remain aware of surroundings.
49
7.) Always look before you move. 8.) Keep an
eye on moving traffic. 9.) Avoid turning your
back on moving traffic. 10.) Always look before
opening doors exiting vehicles. a.)
Use caution, remain alert. b.) If
possible, exit / enter vehicle from the shadow
side, facing away from moving
traffic. 11.) Remain in the blocked work zone.
50
ANSI / ISEA
  • June 1, 1999 standard 107-1999
  • At present the standard is voluntary
  • CLASS I - Lowest level of visibility.
  • Generally worn in environments where speeds do
    not exceed 25 mph.

51
  • CLASS II The most popular style.
  • Commonly worn in environments where traffic is
    moving in excess of 25 mph.
  • CLASS III The highest level of visibility.
  • Worn in environments where the traffic is moving
    in excess of 55 mph.

52
Class II Class III
53
VI. OPERATION SAFETY
1.) First arriving fire engine should block lane
occupied by damaged vehicle plus one
additional traffic lane. 2.) Dispatch ladder
truck to all limited access, high volume
highways. a.) Block traffic upstream of
1st arriving engine. Occupy at least 2
lanes of roadway and paved shoulder. b.)
Place cones / flares upstream from ladder
truck. c.) Ladder driver shall sound a
series of long horn blasts to warn
personnel of dangerous actions of oncoming
motorists.
54
3.) Assign a Flagger. a.) Monitor
approaching traffic. b.) Notify Command
dangers involving approaching traffic. 4.)
Assign an incident Safety Officer. a.)
Incident Commander may have to temporarily assume
the role Safety Officer upon initial
response arrival. 5.) Properly place traffic
cones / flares. a.) Night and low
visibility, place flares next to traffic
cones. 6.) Establish liaison with Police
Department. 7.) Use Police vehicles to provide
additional blocking as needed.
55
8.) Place medical units inside the safety of
the work zone. a.) Patient loading area
shall be inside work zone. 9.) Stage
additional units safely off the highway. 10.)
Turn off all emergency vehicle lighting that will
impair vision of oncoming traffic at
night. a.) Includes headlights and
spotlights. b.) Other emergency lights
shall remain on. Light bars, etc. 11.) Upon
termination of incident, promptly remove
personnel and vehicles from roadway.
56
VII. Lane Identification
1.) Lanes of traffic shall be identified
numerically as Lane 1, Lane 2, Lane
3, etc. 2.) Identify lanes from right to left.
a.) The directions right and left shall be
identified from the approaching
motorists point of view.
Left Lane 2
Right Lane 1
57
316.126 Operation of vehicles and actions of
pedestrians on approach of authorized
emergency vehicle.--
  • (b) When an authorized emergency vehicle making
    use of any visual signals is parked, the driver
    of every other vehicle, as soon as it is safe

58
  • 1. Shall vacate the lane closest to the
    emergency vehicle when driving on an interstate
    highway or other highway with two or more lanes
    traveling in the direction of the emergency
    vehicle, except when otherwise directed by a law
    enforcement officer.

59
  • 2. Shall slow to a speed that is 20 miles per
    hour less than the posted speed limit when the
    posted speed limit is 25 miles per hour or
    greater or travel at 5 miles per hour when the
    posted speed limit is 20 miles per hour or less,
    when driving on a two-lane road, except when
    otherwise directed by a law enforcement officer.

60
NFPA 1451 Standard for a Fire Service Vehicle
Operations Training Program 2002
Edition Chapter 8 Crash and Injury Prevention 
61
  • 8.1.4 Where members are operating at an emergency
    incident that places them in potential conflict
    with motor vehicle traffic, they shall wear
    personal protective equipment as outlined in
    6.4.7 of NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department
    Occupational Safety and Health Program. 

62
  • 8.1.4.1 Fire service vehicles shall be utilized
    as a shield from oncoming traffic wherever
    possible. 

63
  • 8.1.4.2 Where acting as a shield, fire service
    vehicle warning lights shall remain on, and
    fluorescent and retroreflective warning devices
    such as traffic cones, illuminated warning
    devices such as highway flares, or other warning
    devices shall be used to warn oncoming traffic of
    the emergency operations and the hazards to
    members operating at the incident. 

64
NFPA 1500 Standard on Fire Department
Occupational Safety and Health Program 2002
Edition Chapter 8 Emergency Operations 
65
8.4 Members Operating at Emergency Incidents. 
  • 8.4.25 When members are operating at an emergency
    incident and their assignment places them in
    potential conflict with motor vehicle traffic,
    they shall wear a garment with fluorescent and
    retro-reflective material. 

66
  • 8.4.26 Apparatus shall be utilized as a shield
    from oncoming traffic wherever possible. 

67
  • 8.4.27  When acting as a shield, apparatus
    warning lights shall remain on, if appropriate.
    Fluorescent and retro-reflective warning devices
    such as traffic cones (with DOT-approved
    retro-reflective collars) and DOT-approved
    retro-reflective signs stating Emergency Scene
    (with adjustable directional arrows) and
    illuminated warning devices such as highway
    flares and/or other appropriate warning devices
    shall be used to warn oncoming traffic of the
    emergency operations and the hazards to members
    operating at the incident. 

68
  • A.8.4.27 Some studies have shown that headlights
    or warning lights of parked vehicles at emergency
    incidents have caused accidents instead of
    preventing them. The fire department should
    develop guidelines in conjunction with their
    local law enforcement agency to determine what is
    appropriate for local conditions. 

69
FLORIDA HIGHWAY PATROL 17.18.07 PROCEDURES
  • A. 6. - Emergency services personnel should be
    encouraged not to interfere with emergency
    operations or unnecessarily disrupt the flow of
    traffic with their vehicles or operations. When
    traffic is adversely affected, members will take
    reasonable steps to protect the scene.

70
  • Conflicts with emergency services personnel
    should be reported to the appropriate supervisor
    who will relay the information to the district
    commander. If necessary, the district commander
    will meet and confer with the affected emergency
    services director to resolve such conflicts.

71
316.061  Crashes involving damage to vehicle or
property.
  • (2)  Every stop must be made without obstructing
    traffic more than is necessary, and, if a damaged
    vehicle is obstructing traffic, the driver of
    such vehicle must make every reasonable effort to
    move the vehicle or have it moved so as not to
    block the regular flow of traffic.

72
  • Any person failing to comply with this
    subsection shall be cited for a nonmoving
    violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

73
316.2025 Following fire apparatus prohibited.
  • No driver of any vehicle other than an
    authorized emergency vehicle on official business
    shall follow any fire apparatus traveling in
    response to a fire alarm closer than 500 feet or
    drive into or park such vehicle within the block
    where fire apparatus has stopped in answer to a
    fire alarm.

74
Maryland Firefighters Have Close Call on
Washington Beltway Courtesy of Bethesda-Chevy
Chase Rescue Squad
75
Case Study Washington Beltway
  • I495 is a multilane divided limited access
    highway that surrounds the Washington DC area.
    Speeds on this highway are typically in the 70
    mph range when there are no backups.

76
  • On Sunday morning August 17, 2003, RS18 was
    dispatched along with other units to a reported
    Personal Injury Collision at about 545 AM. Due
    to a light rain the roads were somewhat slippery.

77
  • Because of the location of the original crash,
    RS18 was the first fire/rescue unit on the scene.
    The driver positioned the squad as shown in the
    photo to protect the original PIC which involved
    one car that had spun out, struck the left
    shoulder jersey barrier, and then ended up in the
    second lane from the left. A US Capitol police
    officer on a motorcycle had arrived on the scene
    prior to RS18 and had started to deploy flares,
    but these were very close to the scene.

78
  • The squad crew exited RS18 and began to work to
    stabilize the scene. However, before the crew
    could send personnel back to deploy additional
    flares (in fact within 30 to 60 seconds of
    arrival), RS18 was struck from the rear by the
    white Honda. State police estimated that the
    Honda was doing about 80mph prior to striking
    RS18.

79
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80
  • Fortunately, the Honda skidded into RS18
    backwards. This allowed the trunk, rear seat, and
    part of the front seat to become a crumple zone
    to absorb the impact of the collision. Had the
    vehicle struck head-on, the driver would have
    been a fatality and damage to the squad would
    have been much greater.

81
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83
  • Had RS18 not been positioned as it was, the Honda
    would have most likely struck the original
    accident scene and the six rescuers working
    there.

84
  • In addition to the Honda and RS18, a third
    vehicle was involved in this secondary collision.
    As a result of this secondary collision, a third
    rear-end collision involving three vehicles
    occurred in the right hand lanes.

85
  • As a result of this collision a gasoline tanker
    lost control and started to jack knife.
    Fortunately, the tanker driver was able to regain
    control and made it through the scene without
    colliding. At this point, traffic began to back
    up sufficiently to lower speeds in the accident
    area.

86
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87
  • By way of clarification, the light tower on the
    squad was not up at the time of the collision.
    This was placed in service to help in the
    extrication of the driver of the Honda.

88
March 9, 1998
It Was Just A Routine Call
89
Lionville Fire Company
  • Volunteer station
  • 90 members, 35 firefighters
  • Suburban, commercial, industrial and residential
    area, with 10 miles of the Pennsylvania Turnpike
  • 3 Engines, Tanker, Rescue, Brush Truck Safety
    House
  • 525 runs per year
  • Uwchlan Ambulance, gt2000 runs/yr. 2 career
    personnel 60 volunteers

90
Incident Overview
  • March 9, 1998 - Raining with wet roadways
  • Initial alarm was at 1410 for a car in a ditch,
    on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, just west of the
    Downingtown Interchange, Milepost 310.9
  • Uwchlan Ambulance and Lionville Fire / Rescue
    responded with an Ambulance, Engine, Rescue, the
    Chief an Assistant Chief.

91
Original Incident
  • Pontiac Grand Am, westbound on the Turnpike,
    lost control and slid into the drainage ditch.

92
Scene Diagram
Pa. Turnpike West Bound
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
Shoulder
Grass
Ditch
93
Scene Diagram
Pa. Turnpike West Bound
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
Shoulder
Grass
Ditch
94
Scene Diagram
Pa. Turnpike West Bound
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
Shoulder
Grass
Ditch
95
Scene Diagram
Pa. Turnpike West Bound
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
Shoulder
Grass
Ditch
96
Scene Diagram
Pa. Turnpike West Bound
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
Shoulder
Grass
Ditch
97
Scene Diagram
Pa. Turnpike West Bound
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
Shoulder
Grass
Ditch
98
Scene Diagram
Pa. Turnpike West Bound
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
Shoulder
Grass
Ditch
99
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101
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102
Aftermath of the Crash
  • 8 firefighters and 2 EMTs involved in the crash
  • One fatality, 9 serious injuries
  • Original injured patient and two good Samaritans
  • Heavy radio traffic due to weather related calls
  • Mass confusion at the scene immediately after
  • Many assist companies self -dispatched
  • Weather grounded Medivac right after crash

103
Aftermath of the Crash
  • Assistant Chief was disabled for several months
  • Eventually resigned from the FD
  • FF Mike Cox has undergone numerous surgeries to
    repair his injured legs, and had ongoing PT
  • Ongoing meetings and negotiation with the PA
    Turnpike Commission to improve response
    procedures
  • Change in Lionvilles response procedure to Trpk

104
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105
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 11-4-97 Minneapolis, MN - Fire Captain Struck
    Killed Working at minor injury accident
  • 1-12-98 Centerville, Ohio - FF PD Officer
    Struck Killed Struck killed at 6 car
    accident along rain soaked I-675
  • 3-09-98 Lionville, PA - 8 FFs 2 EMTs
    Struck, 1 Fatal Struck and one killed at minor
    accident on Pa. Turnpike

106
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
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Killed Directing traffic at vehicle accident (
Driver was distracted by incident operations
) 6-16-98 Harmonville, PA - Firefighter Struck
Injured Struck dragged 20 yards, at
accident scene (video) 6-26-98 Laurel, PA -
Fire Police Lt. Struck Killed Directing
traffic at scene of vehicle accident 8-01-98
Streetman, TX - Firefighter Struck Killed
Struck by fire apparatus at grass fire
107
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 10-24-98 Forest City, NC - Fire Police Struck
    Killed Crossing road at live burn exercise
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    Working at scene of mobile home fire ( Driver
    was blinded by lights from engine facing traffic)

108
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 03-06-99 Downingtown, PA - Unit Struck, No FF
    Injuries Traffic Unit struck by Mustang, at the
    scene of an accident , 2 occupants in car
    trapped by crash
  • 08-05-99 Midwest City, OK - Firefighter Struck
    and Killed Working at scene of earlier MVA on
    Interstate 40. One other firefighter also
    injured in the wreck. ( This incident was the
    subject of a NIOSH Investigation)

109
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 09-08-99 Hazard, KY - 5 EMS Personnel Struck
    Injured Car plowed into an accident scene,
    struck an emergency vehicle, which then struck
    an ambulance on scene. Driver blinded by early
    morning sun glare
  • 09-15-99 Jeffersonville, IN - Firefighter
    Struck Killed Struck by fire apparatus while
    fighting wildland fire
  • 09-27-99 Marietta, SC - Firefighter Struck
    Killed Struck by tractor trailer while
    directing traffic at scene of previous MVA (
    Also a NIOSH Investigation )

110
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 08-12-99 Dallas, TX area - Fire Truck 1
    Firefighter Struck One Firefighter
    Injured, but 6 saved ! Drunk in full size
    Blazer, struck the back of an Engine which was
    blocking an accident scene, moved the Engine 8
    striking the firefighter and a guardrail. Driver
    of vehicle was trapped, and later died of his
    injuries. Placement of the engine across traffic
    saved at least 6 personnel.

111
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 12-19-99 Broward County, FL. - Fire Dept
    Vehicle Struck Fire engulfs 2 vehicles after
    truck hits fire-rescue vehicle. No injuries to
    personnel on scene.
  • 2-16-2000 Mason, Ohio - Fire Chief Struck
    Injured Fire crews working an accident, when FD
    Suburban rolled into the work area, pinning the
    Chief
  • 2-18-2000 Salt Lake County, Utah. - Fire Truck
    Struck SUV traveling at high rate of speed,
    struck fire truck working 2 previous accidents
    at same spot. No firefighters struck, but one
    jumped guardrail,and a correctly placed fire
    truck protected the scene.

112
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 3-7-2000 Norfolk, VA - Near miss ! - 1
    Firefighter injured Engine struck by an out of
    control dump truck, on I-264. Back injury to
    one of three firefighters, who jumped guard rail
    to escape skidding truck. Safe zone established
    by HIRT unit.
  • 4-22-2000 St. Louis , MO - 2 Medics 1 PD
    Officer Injured Car struck police cruiser along
    I-44, which in turn hit ambulance, working a
    previous accident scene.
  • 4-27-2000 Atlanta, Georgia - 3 Firefighters
    Struck Injured Firefighters working a car fire
    on I-20, when a car struck the engine, which
    then struck 3 firefighters (minor injuries).

113
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 4-26-2000 Fairfax County, VA - Fire Truck
    Struck w/ 1 FF Injury Engine working an accident
    on the Capital Beltway at 0030, was struck by
    an auto ( _at_ 60 mph ) operated by an impaired
    driver. Safe zone established . Fire engine
    destroyed.
  • 5-11-2000 Fairfax County, VA (Again ! ) - Fire
    Truck Struck Engine struck by car driven by
    impaired driver on I-95, No injuries to
    firefighters, safe zone established. Fire engine
    destroyed.
  • 5-10-2000 Jones County, KS - Fire Truck Struck
    Auto, driven by impaired driver (.25 BAL)
    struck Quint which was operating at a car fire.
    The quint was on the side of road, had out
    cones, and there was a police cruiser 100 yd.
    back. 1 firefighter brushed by the car as it
    went by.

114
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 5-26-2000 Chicago, IL - Firefighter Struck and
    Injured Firefighter was running a hose across
    the street at the scene of a garage fire, when
    he was struck by a hit and run driver.
    Firefighter was in hospital in stable condition.
  • 7-13-2000 Friendswood, TX - FD Capt. Struck and
    Injured Captain was investigating smoke in an oil
    field, when he was run over by a suspicious
    vehicle he encountered at the site.
  • 8 -20 -2000 San Ramon, CA - Fire Truck Struck
    Citizen killed when her car struck a fire truck
    on location of a previous MVA.

115
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 8 -21-2000 Gary, IN - Firefighter Struck
    Injured Firefighter was assisting an engine
    backing into station, when he was struck by an
    auto and injured.
  • 9 -01-2000 Angeles National Forest, CA - Fire
    Truck Struck One citizen killed and one injured
    when their motorcycles struck a slow moving fire
    truck working a wildfire.
  • 9 -04 -2000 Yuma, AZ - Firefighter Struck and
    Killed Struck by ARFF apparatus while on
    training drill.
  • 9 -04 -2000 Ludlow, MA - Firefighter Struck and
    Injured Hooking to a hydrant at a structure
    fire.

116
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 9-04-2000 Ludlow, MA - Firefighter Struck and
    Injured Hooking to a hydrant at a structure
    fire.
  • 9-17-2000 Maryland Heights, MD - FF Struck and
    Killed Struck while crossing an interstate at
    scene of an MVA.
  • 10-24-2000 Clearfield Co., PA - Fire Truck
    Struck, 3 FF Injuries Parked rescue truck with 3
    firefighters inside, was struck on an
    interstate, by a tractor trailer driver who fell
    asleep.
  • 11-02-00 Jonesboro, AR - Firefighter Struck and
    Killed Crossing road at scene of a disabled
    fire truck on a roadway.

117
Similar Fire EMS Incidents
  • 11-07-00 Tiffin, OH - EMT Struck and Killed
    Assisting a pedestrian along a highway.
  • 12-23-00 Chicago, IL - Firefighter Struck and
    Killed Working an MVA on a highway.
  • 01-10-01 Kendall, NY - Firefighter Struck
    Killed
  • 01-17-01 Chicago, IL - Firefighter Struck
    Injured
  • 01-18-01 Calumet City, IL - Fire Truck Struck,
    Civilian Injured

118
Similar Police Dept. Incidents
  • The National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial
    Fund, and the Concerns of Police Survivors
  • 20 police officers died after being struck by
    vehicles outside of their cruisers in 2000

119
Firefighters responding to calls,need to
operate as if someone is trying to run them
over James Joyce, Commissioner Chicago Fire
Dept. January 2001
120
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Build awareness through more intense training
  • Firefighter I or EMT - B classes
  • Station or Company Orientation
  • Annual In Service Training
  • Bulletins, SOGs, Lessons from Losses
  • Evaluate apparatus placement safety procedures
    during all drills and training sessions.

121
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Multi-agency coordination communication
  • Fire, EMS mutual aid agencies
  • Law Enforcement agencies
  • DOT, wrecker services, HazMat contractors
  • Preplan traffic control plans for major routes
  • Table top drills with mutual aid agencies ?

122
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Limit the Exposure
  • Minimum Apparatus Personnel
  • Limit crews on scene to only those necessary
  • Limit the time on scene
  • Clear-up crews as soon as possible

123
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Need for advance warning to slow passing traffic
  • Arrow Boards, Flares, Cones, Police Cars, DOT
    signage
  • Variable Message Signs, News Media / Traffic
    Reports

124
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Apparatus Positioning and Arrangement
  • Guard the scene, guard the crew
  • Park apparatus at an angle
  • Work on side away from traffic
  • Pump Operators, Location of equipment on rigs
  • Look ! Before disembarking apparatus
  • Shut Down the Roadway
  • Not Popular with Law Enforcement or the public
  • May be Necessary ! - Plan for it in advance.

125
Jersey Barrier
Fast Lane
Right Lane
126
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Scene Lighting
  • Reduce emergency lights, Use Blocking mode,
    Sign Boards, Arrow Boards, Arrow sticks
  • Increase use of amber lenses (more apt to
    slow traffic)
  • Provide scene illumination after dark
  • Presence of Police vehicles shown to slow traffic

127
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Require Retro-reflective or Florescent clothing /
    PPE
  • Structural gear may not offer high visibility
  • Safety Vests - Get them Use Them !
  • ANSI 107-1999 High Visibility Safety Apparel
  • Class I - Traffic lt 25 mph, separation from
    traffic
  • Class II - Traffic gt 25 mph, inclement weather,
    directing traffic
  • Class III - Traffic gt 50 mph, emergency
    responders
  • Co. Officers monitor enforce their usage ?
  • SO carry spares ?
  • Vests on apparatus ? Assigned to each person ?

128
Traffic Safety Vests
ANSI Class II
ANSI Class I
129
Traffic Safety Vests
130
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Use of helmets and turnouts prevented more
    serious injuries at the Lionville incident.
  • Design safety features into all new apparatus
  • Use of better reflective markings on rear of
    apparatus
  • Space for storage of traffic control equipment
  • Design lighting to protect the incident scene

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132
Plano, Texas Fire Department Apparatus Markings
133
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134
Lessons to Reinforce
  • Safety Officer assigned for scene safety
  • Scene hazards and traffic control
  • Accountability System in Place on ALL Incidents
  • Ability to account for all personnel on scene
  • Could you identify if any of your crew were
    under a vehicle that intruded on your scene ?

135
NIOSH Firefighter Fatality Investigations
  • NIOSH Report 99F-27 - August 5, 1999 Incident in
    Oklahoma - 2 Career firefighters were struck on
    an interstate one was killed, and one with
    serious injuries
  • On the internet lt http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/face99
    27.html gt
  • NIOSH Report 99F-38 - September 27, 1999 Incident
    in South Carolina - Volunteer dies after being
    struck by a tractor trailer truck.
  • On the internet lt http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/face9
    938.html gt

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NIOSH Firefighter Fatality Investigation
Recommendations
  • Establish, implement and enforce, standard
    operating procedures (SOPs) regarding emergency
    operations for highway incidents.
  • Position apparatus to take advantage of
    topography and weather conditions (uphill /
    upwind) protect firefighters from traffic.
  • First control oncoming vehicles before addressing
    the emergency event, in the event the police have
    not arrived.
  • Ensure that personnel position themselves and
    victims in a secure area, when its not possible
    to protect the incident scene.
  • (DOT) - Use of variable message signs to inform
    motorists of hazardous conditions or vehicular
    accidents.

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NIOSH Firefighter Fatality Investigation
Recommendations
  • Ensure that personnel park or stage unneeded
    vehicles off the street / highway whenever
    possible.
  • Ensure that personnel wear personal protective
    clothing that is suitable to that incident while
    operating at an emergency scene such as a highly
    reflectorized flagger vest ( strong yellow green
    and orange ).
  • Ensure that personnel conducting traffic control
    measures use a highly visible stop / slow
    paddle.
  • Establish pre-incident plans for areas that have
    a higher rate of automobile incidents.

138
Take Action !
Awareness
Strategy Tactics
Training
SOPs
Equipment (New Existing)
Leadership
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