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Topic: Evolutionary Relationships. Do now: R, S, and T are

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Topic: Evolutionary Relationships. Do now: R, S, and T are three species of birds. Species S and T show similar coloration. The enzymes found in species R and T show ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: Evolutionary Relationships. Do now: R, S, and T are


1
  • Topic Evolutionary Relationships.

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  • Do now R, S, and T are three species of birds.
    Species S and T show similar coloration. The
    enzymes found in species R and T show
    similarities. Species R and T also exhibit many
    of the same behavioral patterns. Show the
    relationship between species R, S, and T by
    placing the letter representing each species at
    the top of the appropriate branch on the diagram
    below.

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  • R T
    S

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  • Aim
  • How can we determine evolutionary
    relationships among the members of different
  • species?

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  • 1-The study of fossils.

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  • How does the study of fossils help us find
    evolutionary relationships among the members of
    different species?
  • Fossils provide scientists with information about
    the kinds of life that existed many years ago.

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  • 2- The study of comparative anatomy.

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  • How does the study of comparative anatomy help us
    find evolutionary relationships among the members
    of different species?
  • Comparative anatomy provides scientists with
    information about the internal structures and
    functions of body parts in members of different
    species.

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  • 3- The study of comparative embryology.

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  • How does the study of comparative embryology help
    us find evolutionary relationships among the
    members of different species?
  • The study of comparative embryology shows a
    similar pattern of embryonic development in
    different species.

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  • 4- The study of DNA.

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  • Scientists have found similar segments of DNA in
    many different species.

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  • 5-The study of proteins.

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  • Scientists have found similar sequence of amino
    acids in the proteins of members of different
    species.

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  • 6- The study of cells. (Cytology)

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  • The study of cells shows strong similarities in
    the structure and function of cells in members of
    different species.

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  • 7- The study of the evolutionary tree.

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  • How does the study of an evolutionary tree help
    us find evolutionary relationships among the
    members of different species?

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  • The evolutionary tree shows similarities between
    todays organisms and the pre-existing ones.

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  • How will you identify the organisms that are
    more closely related?

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  • How will you identify organisms that are not
    closely related?

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  • 8- Gel Electrophoresis.

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  • Gel Electrophoresis separates and analyzes DNA
    fragments. This technique uses electricity to
    form different bands based on their size.

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  • 9- Chromatography.

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  • This technique separates and analyzes different
    types of molecules (proteins) in a liquid
    mixture, forming different bands of colors.

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  • Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the
    diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
    The diagram shows an interpretation of
    relationships based on evolutionary theory. The
    letters represent different species.
  • 1- Explain why species B and C are more closely
    related than species A and C are.
  • 2-The diagram indicates that a common ancestor
    for species C and E is species
  • (1) F (2) G (3) H (4) K

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  • 4- The diagram below illustrates a proposed
    evolutionary path of certain organisms, based on
    the theory of evolution.
  • Which statement could best be inferred from the
    information in this diagram?
  • (1) Evolution does not involve gradual change.
  • (2) Evolutionary changes can result in
    extinction.

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  • Base your answers to questions 5 through 7 on the
    diagram below, which represents the relationships
    between animals in a possible canine family tree,
    and on your knowledge of biology.
  • 5-According to the diagram, which group of
    organisms has the most closely related members?
  • (1) cats, weasels, and wolves
  • (2) bears, raccoons, and hyena dogs
  • (3) jackals, foxes, and domestic dogs
  • (4) African hunting dogs, hyena dogs, and
    domestic dogs
  • 6- According to the canine family tree, weasels,
    foxes, and domestic dogs all most likely
    originated from the
  • (1) wolf (2) Marctus (3) bear dog
    (4) Miacis
  • 7- State one valid inference regarding the
    relationship of bears to other animals in the
    canine family tree.

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  • 8- According to some scientists, patterns of
    evolution can be illustrated by the diagrams
    below.
  • Which statement best explains the patterns seen
    in these diagrams?
  • (1) The organisms at the end of each branch can
    be found in the environment today.
  • (2) The organisms that are living today have all
    evolved at the same rate and have undergone the
    same kinds of changes.

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  • Base your answers to questions 9 and 10 on the
    diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
    Letters A through J represent different species
    of organisms. The vertical distances between the
    dotted lines represent long periods of time in
    which major environmental changes occurred.
  • 9- Which species was the first to become extinct?
  • (1) E (2) J (3) C
    (4) D
  • 10- Which species appears to have been most
    successful in surviving changes in the
    environment over time?
  • (1) A (2) B (3) C
    (4) H

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  • 11- The diagram below shows the evolution of some
    different species of flowers.
  • Which statement about the species is correct?
  • (1) Species A, B, C, and D came from different
    ancestors.
  • (2) Species C evolved from species B.
  • (3) Species A, B, and C can interbreed
    successfully.
  • (4) Species A became extinct.

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  • Base your answers to questions 12 through 14 on
    the information below and on your knowledge of
    biology.
  • Based on their analysis of the differences in
    amino acid sequences of one kind of protein,
    scientists prepared the evolutionary tree shown
    below.
  • 12- According to this diagram, the DNA of which
    pair of organisms would show the greatest
    similarity?
  • (1) penguin and turtle (2) horse and donkey
    (3) snake and tuna (4) turtle and rabbit
  • 13- According to this diagram, is the pig more
    closely related to the dog or the kangaroo?
    Justify your answer.
  • 14- Older systems of classification always placed
    penguins, chickens, ducks, and pigeons in the
    bird group and turtles and snakes in the reptile
    group. Does this diagram support the older system
    of classification? Explain your answer.

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  • 15-According to the diagram below, which three
    species lived on Earth during the same time
    period?
  • robustus, africanus, afarensis
  • (2) habilis, erectus, afarensis
  • (3) habilis, robustus, boisei
  • (4) africanus, boisei, erectus

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  • Base your answers to questions 16 through 18 on
    the diagram below and on your knowledge of
    biology. Letters A through L represent different
    species of organisms. The arrows represent long
    periods of geologic time.
  • 16- Which two species are the most closely
    related?
  • (1) J and L (2) G and L (3) F and H (4) F
    and G
  • 17- Which species was best adapted to changes
    that occurred in its environment over the longest
    period of time?
  • (1) A (2) B (3) C
    (4) J

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  • 19- The evolutionary pathways of seven living
    species are shown in the diagram below.
  • Which two species are likely to have the most
    similar DNA base sequences?
  • (1) B and G (2) B and C (3) E and G (4) C and D

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  • 20- State one reason for using a new toothpick
    for the filtrate from each plant.
  • 21- State one way the four strips would most
    likely be different from each other after being
    removed from the beakers.
  • 22- State how a comparison of these resulting
    strips could indicate evolutionary relationships.

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  • 23- A classification system is shown in the table
    below.

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  • 24-The data table below shows the number of
    amino acid differences in the hemoglobin
    molecules of several species compared with amino
    acids in the hemoglobin of humans.
  • Based on the information in the data table, write
    the names of the organisms from the table in
    their correct positions on the evolutionary tree
    below. 1
  • 25- Explain why comparing the vein patterns of
    several leaves is a less reliable means of
    determining the evolutionary relationship between
    two plants than using gel electrophoresis. 1

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  • 26- A researcher recently discovered a new
    species of bacteria in the body of a tubeworm
    living near a hydrothermal vent. He compared the
    DNA of this new bacterial species to the DNA of
    four other species of bacteria. The DNA sequences
    came from the same part of the bacterial
    chromosome of all four species.
  • According to these data, the unknown bacterial
    species is most closely related to
  • (1) species I (2) species III (3) species II
    (4) species IV

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  • 27- Which two bears are most closely related?
    Support your answer with data from the test
    results. 2
  • 28- Identify one additional way to determine the
    evolutionary relationship of these bears. 1
  • 29- Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA
    fragments on
  • the basis of their
  • .30-Identify one procedure, other than
    electrophoresis, that is used in the laboratory
    to separate the different types of molecules in a
    liquid mixture. 1

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  • 32- The chart below contains a number of
    characteristics for three different organisms.
    The characteristics can be used in classifying
    these organisms.
  • Which two organisms would be expected to have the
    most similar genetic material?
  • Support your answer using information from the
    chart. 2

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  • 33- The diagram below represents a laboratory
    apparatus.
  • This apparatus is used to
  • (1) identify the molecular bases in DNA
    (2) detect
    chemical toxins in the air
  • (3) stain specimens before observing them
    with a microscope
  • (4) separate a mixture of plant pigments

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  • Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the
    diagram below that illustrates the results of a
    laboratory technique and on your knowledge of
    biology.
  • 34- State one way the information obtained by
    this technique can be used.
  • 35- The results of which laboratory technique are
    represented in the diagram?
  • chromatography (2) manipulation of genes
  • (3) genetic engineering (4) gel electrophoresis

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