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Factors Affecting Soil Formation Ag I Northshore High Soil

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Factors Affecting Soil Formation Ag I Northshore High Soil Formation Terms Topography the slope of the ground surface as determined by features such as mountains ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Factors Affecting Soil Formation Ag I Northshore High Soil


1
Factors Affecting Soil Formation
  • Ag I
  • Northshore High

2
Soil Formation Terms
  • Topography the slope of the ground surface as
    determined by features such as mountains, hills,
    plains, etc.
  • Weathering the process by which rocks and
    minerals are changed to soils.
  • Soil formation process by which rocks and
    minerals are changed to soil over a period of
    time.
  • Rock solid massive materials composed of one
    or more minerals.

3
Soil Formation Terms
  • Mineral chemical compound neither animal nor
    vegetable results from inorganic processes of
    nature.
  • Loess silty, floury material laid down by wind
    (fine soil particles)
  • Alluvium soil material laid down by running
    water in the flood plains or bottomlands of
    rivers and streams.

4
What affects soil formation?
  • Soil characteristics develop as a result of their
    origin and environment. Soil begins as a
    particular rock material and develops slowly over
    many years. Each soil is a product of a
    combination of the following factors.
  • Parent material
  • Climate
  • Living organisms (biota)
  • Topography
  • Time

5
Parent Material
  • Alluvium finely pulverized rock laid down by
    running water. Mostly silt and clay particles
    with some sand.
  • Marine Deposits finely pulverized rock laid
    down under sea. This material has been thrust up
    by shifts in the earths crust.
  • Loess silty, floury material laid down by
    winds. Mostly silt and clay with little or no
    sand.

6
Climate
  • Physical weathering results from mechanical
    agents, such as heating cooling, freezing
    thawing, /or abrasion.
  • Materials are still the same at the molecular
    level.
  • Materials are classified by the way they have
    been moved or scattered

7
Climate
  • Chemical weathering Results from the action of
    water, oxygen, carbon dioxide on the rocks.
  • Carbon dioxide mixed with rain water forms a weak
    acid, speeding up the weathering of parent
    material.
  • Materials that have been chemically weathered are
    no longer the same at the molecular level.
  • Example Clay has been synthesized into
    something physically and chemically different
    from the parent rock.

8
Climate
  • Climate is the single most important factor
    affecting soil formation.

9
Biota
  • Biota is made up of living organisms such as
    plants, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi.
  • Plants have the most important affect because
    they determine the type amount of organic
    matter.
  • Animals insects mix and aerate the soil as well
    as add organic matter.
  • In the US, organic matter in the soils increases
    as you move north /or east. Why?

10
Topography
  • Topography refers to the lay of the land or the
    angle length of the slope.
  • It affects soil formation because it influences
    runoff, drainage, erosion.
  • It also may affect the type amount of plant
    growth (biggest factor in determining type
    amount of organic matter)

11
Topography
  • Steep slopes
  • High runoff rates
  • Less water infiltration
  • Fewer plant forms
  • Less organic matter
  • Increased erosion
  • Thinner surface soil
  • Slower formation/development

12
Topography
  • Level to Gentle slope
  • Little runoff
  • Increased water infiltration
  • Faster plant growth leading to more organic
    matter
  • Less erosion
  • Deeper surface soil
  • Faster formation/development
  • Excessive water can slow development

13
Time
  • As soon as material has become loose enough to
    hold enough water, air, and nutrients for plant
    growth, it is considered a soil.
  • Soil formation/development may take place over
    several centuries or just a few days.

14
Time
  • Young soils
  • Volcanic or alluvial in origin
  • Have greater fertility
  • Have poorly developed profiles
  • Usually they are highly productive.
  • Where are the youngest soils in Louisiana located?

15
Time
  • Old soils
  • Have well developed soil profiles
  • Have an increased clay content
  • More acid pH
  • Nutrients are leached
  • Lower fertility productivity than younger soils.

16
Student Activity
  • For next class period, bring in a soil sample in
    a ziplock bag.
  • On the bag mark your name, where you collected
    the sample, and what horizon it came from
  • I will keep the samples for other activities in
    this unit.
  • 10 BONUS POINTS to all who participate!
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