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Origins and Implications of Domestication

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Origins and Implications of Domestication Origins of Domestication Why did Domestication Occur? Where and When did Domestication Occur? Consequences of Domestication – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Origins and Implications of Domestication


1
Origins and Implications of Domestication
  • Origins of Domestication
  • Why did Domestication Occur?
  • Where and When did Domestication Occur?
  • Consequences of Domestication

2
Origins of Food Production
  • Shift from food gathering to food production in
    different parts of the world.
  • People began to practice cultivation of plants.
  • Deliberate collecting of seeds for planting.
  • Tame wild animals
  • People began to rely on certain plants or animals
  • Artificial selection-people encourage the
    reproduction of certain plants or animals.
  • gradually results in types of plants and animals
    that are distinct from
  • Wild species-Domestication-the process of
    establishing human control over a plant or
    animals ) reproduction, humans select mates for
    animals with certain characteristics.

3
How do we recognize this archaeologically?
  • Plants
  • Domesticated plants have stronger stem areas
    where the seeds attach.
  • Also tend to have larger edible parts.

4
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5
Charred remains
6
Crops Origins
7
Vegetables
8
Fruit Origins
9
How do we recognize this archaeologically?
  • Animals
  • Species outside native area, Horses not native to
    Egypt, but found there archaeologically around
    4,000 years ago.
  • Morphological changes-shape and size of goat
    horns (wildlong and curved, domesticshort and
    round). Dogs-retain juvenile traits.
  • Measurements-animals at first tend to get smaller
    during domestication,
  • Sex ratios and age profiles-Less males when using
    herd animals for milk. Meat profiles-usually
    young animals.
  • Cultural Evidence-captive animals portrayed in
    artwork, burial of whole animals with people or
    by themselves.

10
13,000
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14
Animal Domestication
15
Domestics Wild Counterparts
16
Why did Domestication Occur?
  • Today we take food production for granted-go to
    the supermarket and get whatever we want.
  • Hunting and gathering actually takes less time
    and effort than food production.
  • i.e. soil has to be worked, crops planted, pests
    controlled, harvested and processed while hunter
    gatherers, such as San Bushmen of Africa, only
    spend 12-19 hours per week on food gathering.
  • Agriculture is risky-could have crops die due to
    weather conditions.

17
Pull Theories
  • Oasis Theory-
  • V. Gordon Childe suggested that the climate at
    the end of the Pleistocene forced people to
    change strategy. Severe droughts forced people to
    move to isolated fertile areas called oases. Here
    they had to maximize area to produce food.
  • Readiness Hypothesis-
  • Robert Braidwood suggested that humans became
    increasingly familiar with plants and animals
    around them and began to domesticate them. But,
    no real evidence and he doesn't explain how.
    Human Selection and Environment-Particular local
    conditions may have affected different patterns
    of domestication.
  • Coevolution-
  • David Rindos suggests humans unintentionally
    promoted dispersal of certain types of plants by
    weeding, storing, irrigating particular wild
    resources. As these plants became more common
    reliance on them increased.

18
Push Theories
  • Population Models-
  • Esther Boserup's idea that societies will
    intensify food production only when forced to by
    population pressure on resources.
  • Demographic Stress-
  • Lewis Binford linked increasing pop pressure to
    environmental change.
  • When sea levels rose, coastal people moved inland
    and led to population pressure on groups already
    there, so needed to cultivate to produce enough
    food.
  • Population Growth-
  • Mark Cohen hypothesized that human populations
    had spread to all areas of the world, and they
    used all the available food resources, continued
    pop growth caused the need to produce more food.

19
Where and When did Domestication Occur?
  • Occurred Worldwide independently and involved
    many different species!
  • Southwest Asia-Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey,
    Iraq, and Iran-Fertile Crescent.
  • Natufians-best known southwest asians to
    cultivate wild grains and cereal grasses.
    13-14,000 ya.
  • Around 11,000 years ago farming communities
    emerged, such as Jericho and subsisted on wheat,
    barley, peas, beans, lentils, sheep, goats, pigs
    and cattle.

20
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Where and When did Domestication Occur?
  • Europe-Mediterranean to Sweden, nw Russia.
  • Many agricultural products introduced from sw
    asia, but in some areas agricultural developed
    gradually and became well established by 6,000 ya.

22
Agricultural Context of the Iceman
  • Discovered in 1991 in the Alps on the border of
    Italy and Austria
  • Dated to 5100-5350 yrs BP
  • Last meal
  • main ingredient einkorn, based on remains in
    colon
  • charcoal einkorn used to make "bread"
    (cracker-like), baked over open fire
  • pollen of hop hornbeam tree March-June, south of
    mountains
  • Also einkorn grains found in clothing

23
Discovery
24
The Ice Man
25
Clothing Layers
26
Reconstruction
27
Where and When did Domestication Occur?
  • East Asia-China, Thailand.
  • Domestication of root crops such as yams around
    11,000 years ago (vegiculture-dividing and
    replanting live plants).
  • Rice cultivation as early as 9,000 years ago,
    also pig, dog and chicken.

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30
Where and When did Domestication Occur?
  • Africa-
  • 8,000 years ago semi-permanent settlements in
    Nile River Valley,
  • domestication of emmer wheat, flax, lentils,
    chickpeas, sheep and goats.

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Consequences
  • Population Growth
  • Domestication caused food supplies to become more
    stable and reliable.
  • More food poor acre of land, so can support
    larger population.
  • i.e. Paleolithic pop10 million, 2,000 years
    ago300 million, today6 billion.

33
Consequences
  • Health and Nutrition
  • Not necessarily improve quality of life.
  • Closer contact with people, so easier spread of
    disease.
  • Same unvarying diet, poorer nutrition.
  • i.e. increase in dental caries (cavities).

34
Consequences
  • Increasing Mental/Cultural Complexity and Social
    Stratification
  • Increase in quantity and types of artifacts,
    trade.
  • Sophisticated material culture, innovations in
    transportation (wheels), more durable buildings.
  • Shift from Egalitarian to stratified societies.
  • Full-time craft specialists, etc.
  • Religious/Elite
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