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Chapter 13 Animal Behavior

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Title: Chapter 13 Animal Behavior


1
Chapter 13Animal Behavior
  • M. Elizabeth
  • MLK
  • 2005-2006

2
Review
  • What is ornithology?
  • The study of birds
  • What are the six kingdoms of organisms
  • Archaebacteria - Prokaryote
  • Eubacteria - Prokaryote
  • Protista - Eukaryote
  • Fungi - Eukaryote
  • Plantae - Eukaryote
  • Animalia - Eukaryote

3
  • Classifying Kingdoms
  • King Philip came over for grape soda
  • Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
    Species
  • Naming species use the binomial nomenclature
    system 2 names
  • Genus species
  • T. rex Tyrannosaurus rex

4
13.1 What is an Animal?
  • The Animal Kingdom
  • Scientists have named over 1 million species of
    animals.
  • Animals can be divided into two types of
    organisms
  • Invertebrates animals without a backbone
  • More than 95 of all animals
  • Insects, spiders, snails, jellyfish, sponges,
    worms, etc.
  • Vertebrates animals with a backbone
  • Less than 5 of all animals
  • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

5
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6
Student Group Collaboration Animal Examples
  • List two animal examples of the following
  • Arctic animals
  • Antarctic animals
  • Animals that crawl
  • Animals that fly
  • Animals without with no bones
  • North American animals
  • Animals that live in the soil
  • Ocean animals
  • Animals with more than four legs

7
Thats an Animal?
  • Animals
  • are multicellular
  • are eukaryotic without cell walls
  • usually reproduce by sexual reproduction
  • Some like sponges and starfish can also reproduce
    asexually by budding and division
  • develop from embryos
  • have many specialized parts tissues
  • move
  • are consumers (eat other organisms)

8
Embryo Development
4 weeks
7 weeks
10 weeks
9
Embryo
10
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11
13.2 Animal Behavior
  • Terms
  • - Predator hunt and kill their food
  • - Prey hunted animals that will be eaten if
    caught
  • - Camouflage blending in with background
    coloration
  • - Innate behavior does not depend on learning.
  • - Learned behavior must be learned from
    observation or experience
  • - Migrate travel from one place to another and
    then back again

12
  • Terms
  • - Hibernation a short winter period of metabolic
    inactivity. NOT sleeping
  • - Estivation a short summer period of metabolic
    inactivity, during the hottest part of the summer
  • - Biological clock internal control of natural
    cycles
  • - Circadian rhythm internal control of daily
    cycles
  • - Navigate - to steer a course
  • - Landmark a fixed object that is used to
    navigate

13
Survival Behavior
  • Looking for lunch animals used many different
    methods to find or catch food
  • Owls swoop from the sky to catch a mice
  • Bees fly from one flower to another to collect
    nectar
  • Animals have adapted to their surroundings so
    that they an obtain the most food using the least
    amount of energy

14
  • Giraffe long necked

15
Survival Behavior
  • How to Avoid Being Eaten
  • Predator animals eat prey animals. Predators
    must consider the danger involved with the catch
    there may be another animal ready and waiting
    to kill the predator.
  • Hiding Out
  • One way to avoid being eaten is to hard to see.
    Rabbits freeze to blend in better. Leaf insect
    example

16
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17
In your Face horns and spines
  • Body Parts that signal trouble to a potential
    predators or competitors.
  • Bull horns
  • Rhino tusks
  • Porcupine spines
  • Hidden dangers
  • Skunk spray
  • Bees, ants, and wasps inject a powerful acid into
    their attackers
  • Skins of American dart-poison frog or Papua New
    Guinea hooded pitohui (PIT-a-hooey) are colorful
    to warn of hidden danger. The hooded pitohui is
    the first poisonous bird discovered anywhere.

18
  • Researchers have found a beetle in the guts of
    the pitohui that carry high levels of the same
    toxin that fills the birds' feathers and skins
  • --
  • Strong evidence that feeding on those beetles may
    give the birds their uniquely poisonous
    protection.

19
Why Do They Behave That Way
  • Its in the Genes
  • Behavior that doesnt depend on learning or
    experience is called innate behavior.
  • Tendencies present at birth how to swim how to
    chew or at maturity bird singing.
  • Animal School
  • Behavior that must be learned through observation
    or experience is called learned behavior. Humans
    speak but language is learned. The lack of
    learned behavior is why some young animals raised
    in captivity cannot survive in a natural
    environment.

20
Seasonal Behavior
  • World Travelers seasonal migration
  • Navigation using landmarks or magnetic fields
    (magnetite is a magnetic mineral)
  • Monarch butterfly
  • Slowing Down
  • Hibernation in the winter mice squirrels,
    skunks, and bears metabolism slows
  • Estivation in the summer when it is too hot
    desert squirrels and mice
  • The Rhythms of Life
  • Biological Clock seasonal
  • Circadian Rhythm daily clocks

21
13.3 Living Together
  • Most animals interact with their same species
  • Social behavior is the term used for
    interactions between animals of the same species.
    The interaction can be cooperative or
    competitive but in either case communication is
    needed.
  • Communication is a signal that must travel from
    one animal to another.

22
Communication
  • Helps animals
  • Live together
  • Find food
  • Avoid enemies
  • Protect their home mark their territory
  • Warn others of danger
  • Identify family members and friends
  • Frighten predators
  • Find mates Courtship is a special behavior by
    animals of the same species that leads to mating
    via sexual reproduction

23
How do Animals Communicate
  • Animals signal their intentions and information
    through
  • Smell
  • Sound
  • Vision
  • Touch

24
Do you Smell Trouble
  • Smell is transmitted via a chemical
  • Chemicals used to transmit information via smell
    are called pheromones.
  • Ants, very cooperative insects, secrete (release)
    a variety of pheromones.
  • Alarm chemicals are released into the air to
    alert other ants that there is danger nearby
  • Trail chemical are left along a path so that
    others can follow to find food and to return to
    the nest
  • Recognition chemicals are on an ants body to
    tell other ants which colony they are from
    (friend or foe)

25
Do You Hear What I Hear?
  • Animals communicate by making noises
  • Wolves howl
  • Dolphins and whales use whistles and complex
    clicking noises to communicate with one another
  • Male birds may sing in the spring to claim
    territory or attract a mate.
  • Sound is a signal that can reach a large number
    of animals over a large area.
  • Elephants sounds that are so low pitched that
    humans cannot hear but elephants can up to
    several kilometers away.

26
Showing Off
  • Many forms of communication are visual
  • Body language is how our body is positioned to
    share a feeling or thought
  • Bird preen
  • Mammals mutual grooming
  • Trying to scare another animal will do something
    to make it appear larger. It may ruffle its
    feathers or fur or open its mouth and show its
    teeth

27
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28
Getting in Touch
  • Some animal also use touch to communicate
  • Honeybees dance to show other bees where the
    good flowers are by observing and touching the
    dancing bee.

29
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30
Part of the Family
  • Some animals are solitary tigers
  • Most are social lions
  • Lions live in groups called prides
  • Benefits of living in a group
  • Safer large groups can spot danger and
    cooperatively defend the group
  • Easier to find food Solitary animals can kill
    only smaller animals while group predators that
    hunt cooperatively can kill prey much larger than
    themselves
  • Downside of Living in a Group
  • Attract predators
  • Need more food
  • Can compete with each other for food and mates
  • Spread diseases

31
Chapter Review Questions
  • 1. Natural bath sponges used to be living plants.
    True or False?
  • 2. Which of the following lists contains types of
    organisms that are NOT animals?
  • a. corals, birds, kangaroos
  • b. dolphins, cactuses, whales
  • c. spiders, humans, sponges
  • d. sea anemones, fish, slugs

32
  • 3. If the following organisms is an invertebrate
    write an I and an V if it is a vertebrate.
  • _____ beetles _____ mammals
  • _____ worms _____ spiders
  • 4. The activities that animals perform, such as
    building homes and stalking food are called
    ____________.
  • 5. Survival behaviors help animals find food,
    water, and a place to live, and help them avoid
    being eaten. True or False?

33
  • 6. Animals use different methods in order to
    obtain the most ________for the least amount of
    _________
  • 7. Predators hunt and eat other _______,
  • called prey.
  • 8. How does the hooded pitohui bird defend itself
    from predators?
  • a. Its bite injects a powerful acid into its
    attacker.
  • b. It is covered in spines.
  • c. It can spray a chemical that smells very bad.
  • d. Its skin contains a toxin that can kill a
    predator.

34
  • 9. Animals always know instinctively what to do.
    True or False?
  • 10. Innate behavior cannot be changed.
  • True or False?
  • 11.The tendency of humans to speak is a(n) _____
    behavior but the language we speak is
    a(n)________ behavior.
  • 12. Which of the following does NOT happen during
    hibernation?
  • a. The animals heart rate drops.
  • b. The animal survives on stored body fat.
  • c. The animals temperature increases.
  • d. The animal does not wake for weeks at a time.

35
  • 13. Some desert animals experience an internal
    slowdown during the summer. True or False?
  • 14. An animal with a skull and a backbone is
    __________. An animal with no backbone is
    ______________.
  • (an invertebrate or a vertebrate)
  • 15. A behavior that does not depend on experience
    is __________. (innate or learned)
  • 16. In the summer, an animal enters a state of
    reduced activity. The animal is _________.
    (estivating or hibernating)
  • 17. Daily cycles are known as ________________ .
  • (biological clocks or circadian rhythms)
  • 18. When an egg and a sperm come together, they
    form ____________.(an embryo or an organ)

36
  • 19. Some birds use Earths magnetic field
  • a. to attract mates.
  • b. to navigate.
  • c. to set their biological clocks.
  • d. to defend their territory.
  • 20. __________ is not an example of how animals
    might deal with a food shortage.
  • a. Migration c. Social behavior
  • b. Estivation d. Hibernation
  • 21. Reading is an example of
  • a. an innate behavior.
  • b. a behavior controlled by genes.
  • c. a learned behavior.
  • d. an inherited behavior.

37
  • 22. All _________ lack a skull and backbone.
  • a. vertebrates c. multicellular organisms
  • b. Eukaryotes d. invertebrates
  • 23. The use of _________ is an example of
    chemical communication.
  • a. camouflage c. hibernation
  • b. pheromones d. estivation
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