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A BRIEF HISTORY OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT Introduction to Fisheries Management WMAN 445 August 24, 2006 Common Property Resources owned by the entire populace without ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A BRIEF HISTORY OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT


1
A BRIEF HISTORY OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Introduction to Fisheries Management WMAN
445 August 24, 2006
2
Common Property
  • Resources owned by the entire populace without
    restriction as to who can use them and how.
  • Very Colonial and Republican
  • Works when supply gtgt demand
  • Differed greatly from Europe

3
Tragedy of the Commons (Hardin 1968)
  • Sheep farmers graze sheep on a common pasture
  • Net Economic Gain Benefit Cost
  • Benefits are individual, costs are shared by all
    users.
  • Missed Opportunity Costs are transferred to the
    next generation and shared.

4
Tragedy of the Commons (Hardin 1968)
  • The tragedy is that a logical herdsman is
    compelled to increase his herd without limit.
  • Therefore, even the most conscientious herder
    will misuse a common resource.

5
Tragedy of the Commons Applied to Fisheries
  • Fishermen are compelled to harvest as many fish
    as possible, because the benefit is direct and
    unshared and the costs are shared.
  • The history of Fish Management is a chronicle of
    governmental attempts to control the logical
    overexploitation of common property.

6
Colonial America (1600s-1700s)
  • Extremely aggressive resource use
  • Notion that coastal and inland fisheries were
    limitless.
  • Colonization was largely fueled by Atlantic Cod.
  • Commercial market for cod in Europe and southern
    US (feed slave labor) lead to the rise of the
    powerful merchant class in New England.

7
Colonial America (1600s-1700s)
  • Aggressive exploitation led to severe degradation
    in heavily populated areas
  • This led to a need for management
  • The view that natural resources as a vast,
    invulnerable resource took a hit

8
Colonial America (1600s-1700s)
  • 1652 First known law in North America related
    to fishing. Massachusetts law restricting fish
    catches. Response to dramatically declining
    catch rates of striped bass and Atlantic cod in
    the Boston area.

9
Colonial America (1600s-1700s)
  • General Rule of Colonial Era
  • Resources are limitless, but if that proves to be
    untruethen move West!

10
1800s and the Industrial Revolution
  • Alteration of Rivers for Navigation
  • Explosion of the Human Population
  • (mostly immigration)
  • Industrial Revolution

11
CO Canal
12
1800s and the Industrial Revolution
  • Commercial Fishing increased exponentially
  • Canning and refrigeration
  • Railroad
  • Large Scale Timbering

13
1800s and the Industrial Revolution
  • Increased demand for fish
  • Increased ability to catch fish
  • Increased ability to store surplus
  • Increased ability to transport product globally
  • Result is a classic un-sustainable positive
    feedback mechanism (increased harvest leads to
    increased demand leads to increased harvest leads
    tocrash!)

14
Industrial Revolution
  • .CRASH!
  • Several Major Fisheries Crashed at the end of the
    1800s
  • Brook Trout (deforestation, overfishing)
  • Chinook Salmon (overfishing)
  • Atlantic Salmon (overfishing, dams)
  • Sperm Whales (overfishing)

15
Salmon Fishing (Late 1800s)
16
Grist Mill Dam
17
Whaling Vessel
18
Spruce Forests of WV Circa 1850
19
Moving Trees prior to Railroad
20
Moving Trees prior to Railroad
Greenbrier River
Monongahela River
21
Logging and the Geared Locomotive
22
Logging and the Geared Locomotive
Blackwater Falls
23
1800s and the Industrial Revolution
  • In response to fisheries collapses and the
    wholesale loss of fish and wildlife habitats
  • AMERICAN FISH CULTURALISTS ASSOCIATION (now AFS)
  • US COMMISSION ON FISH AND FISHERIES (now USFWS)

24
1800s and the Industrial Revolution
  • American Fish Culturalists Association
  • Established to promote fish culture as a cure for
    the widespread destruction of Fisheries
  • US Commission on Fish and Fisheries
  • Established to investigate nationwide declines in
    commercial fisheries
  • Primary focus was on the culture and distribution
    of fish throughout the US.

25
1800s and the Industrial Revolution
  • Resulted in an orgy of species introductions
    across North America
  • Rainbow Trout (Pacific Slope to Nationwide)
  • Striped Bass (Atlantic Slope to Nationwide)
  • Chinook and Sockeye Salmon (Pacific to Great
    Lakes)
  • Brown Trout (Europe to North America)
  • Brook Trout (Appalachians and upper Midwest to
    Western US)
  • Largemouth Bass (Atlantic Slope and Mississippi
    Basin to Western US)

26
Early 1900s
  • Ecological Nightmare in North America
    (continental deforestation and heavy
    overfishing).
  • Realization that Natural Resources could not be
    managed as Common Property.
  • Rise of a Conservation Ethic

27
Early 1900s
  • 1908 Governors Conference
  • meeting with President T. Roosevelt to discuss
    issues of Natural Resources and Conservation
  • Gifford Pinchot (first chief of the USFS)

28
Early 1900s
  • Wise Use Paradigm
  • Natural resources should be managed for
    long-term value. The role of the resource
    manager is to conserve the capacity of natural
    resources to produce human value indefinitely.
  • ANTHROPOCENTRIC CONSERVATION ETHIC

29
Mid 1900s
  • Rise of Quantitative Ecology and Population
    Dynamics Theory
  • Filtered over into Fisheries Management

30
Mid 1900s
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield
  • Maximum harvest level that a population can
    afford based on the natural dynamics of the
    population.
  • Conservationist and Anthropocentric

31
Mid 1900s
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield
  • Assumptions
  • In absence of harvest, populations grow to an
    equilibrium population size.
  • Fish populations exhibit high natural mortality
    rates, especially at high densities.
  • If populations are below carrying capacity, then
    density-dependent mortality decreases, leading to
    an increase in population growth rates.
  • Therefore, a certain amount of the population can
    be harvested without affecting the population
    over a long term.

32
Mid 1900s
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield
  • Benefits
  • Gave a focused objective to fisheries management.
  • Based on cutting edge ecological theory.
  • Led to a new field of Fisheries Science

33
Mid 1900s
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield
  • Fisheries Science
  • Extremely mathematical field devoted to applying
    MSY theory to real fisheries.
  • Development of Stock Assessment procedures.
  • Data Hungry

34
Mid 1900s
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield
  • SOUNDS GOOD RIGHT? .
  • TOO BAD IT DOESNT WORK

35
Mid 1900s
  • Spectacular Failures of MSY
  • Peruvian Anchovy (Engraulis ringens)
  • Norwegian Herring (Clupea)
  • North Atlantic Cod

36
Mid 1900s
37
Mid 1900s
  • Lessons to be Learned about MSY
  • Recruitment and natural mortality in fish
    populations are extremely variable and are
    characterized by occasional recruitment failures
    (year class phenomenon).
  • MSY assumes that environmental factors do not
    influence recruitment and survival, only density
    affects these population attributes.
  • MSY requires fast action. Managers must be able
    to reduce fishing pressure immediately.

38
Late 1900s and Early 2000s
  • Rise of Ecosystem Management
  • Based on Leopolds Land Ethic instead of the
    Wise Use ethic of Pinchot

39
Late 1900s and Early 2000s
  • 2 Principles of Leopolds Ethic
  • Humanity is best served by preserving natural
    life support systems.
  • Indigenous ecological systems have intrinsic
    value that should be respected.
  • ANTHROPOCENTRIC and INTRINSIC ETHIC

40
Late 1900s and Early 2000s
  • Modern Fisheries Management as Ecosystem
    Management
  • Olver et al. 1995
  • The objective of modern fisheries management
    should be the protection, maintenance, and
    rehabilitation of native biota, their habitats,
    and life-support systems to ensure ecosystem
    sustainability.

41
Late 1900s and Early 2000s
  • Modern Fisheries Management as Ecosystem
    Management
  • (Olver et al. 1995)
  • Fundamental Principle
  • Aquatic ecosystems should be managed to ensure
    the long-term sustainability of native fish stocks

42
Late 1900s and Early 2000s
  • Modern Fisheries Management as Ecosystem
    Management
  • (Olver et al. 1995)
  • Principles of Ecosystem Protection
  • The sustainability of fish stocks requires
    protection of the specific physical and chemical
    habitat utilized by members of that stock.
  • The sustainability of a fish stock requires the
    maintenance of its supporting native community.

43
Late 1900s and Early 2000s
  • Modern Fisheries Management as Ecosystem
    Management
  • (Olver et al. 1995)
  • Principles of Population Utilization
  • Vulnerable, threatened, and endangered species
    must be rigidly protected from all anthropogenic
    stresses.
  • Exploitation of populations undergoing
    rehabilitation will delay, and may preclude full
    rehabilitation.
  • Harvest must not exceed the regeneration rate of
    a population (MSY).
  • Direct exploitation of spawning aggregations
    increases the risk to sustainability.
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