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A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in the United States

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Title: A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in the United States


1
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States
  • 1837 Charles Goodyear vulcanizes
  • rubber
  • 1848 process patented to
  • manufacture
  • hollow rubber articles

Charles Goodyear
2
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States
  • 1860s Purity Movement develops in US
  • New York Society for
  • Suppression of Vice -
  • President Anthony Comstock
  • 1873 Comstock Act passed by
  • Congress

3
  • 1883 Margaret Higgins (Sanger) born in
    Corning, NY
  • 1900 Margaret marries William Sanger
  • 1912-13 Margaret Sanger involved in textile
    workers strikes

4
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States
Sanger
  • 1914 Margaret Sanger founds National Birth
    Control League
  • -publishes The Woman Rebel, Family Limitation
  • -charged with violation of Comstock Act
  • -flees to Europe

Ellis
5
1915
  • With financial help from Henry Havlock Ellis,
    Margaret Sanger continues to publish Family
    Limitation from abroad
  • -10 million copies in circulation
  • Comstock poses as desperate husband to William
    Sanger
  • William mails him copy of Family Limitation
  • William arrested, refuses to give over
    information about Margaret

6
1916-1917
  • William goes to trial
  • NY Times publishes letters
  • from Comstock
  • Comstock dies
  • Margaret returns to open the first birth control
    clinic in US
  • Clinic closed after 30 days
  • Margaret sues to
  • re-open clinic

7
Margaret Sanger is shown with admiring supporters
as she left Brooklyn Court of Special Sessions
after her arraignment, January 4, 1917.
8
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States
  • 1918 Physicians given right to
  • prescribe contraceptives
  • 1926 Sanger is a prime organizer of
  • the first World Population Conference in
    Geneva

9
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States -1937
  • In U.S. v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries,
    court found that birth control could be no longer
    classified as obscene.
  • AMA recognizes birth control as a part of medical
    service

10
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States
  • 1942 Margaret Sanger founds Birth Control
    Federation of America -later changes
  • name to Planned
  • Parenthood

11
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States
  • 1947 AMA American Journal of
  • Obstetrics Gynecology
  • refuses to publish article on
  • IUDs
  • 1948 Planned Parenthood awards a
  • small grant to Gregory Pincus,
  • a research biologist to study the
  • possible development of a birth
  • control pill

12
A Brief History of the Birth Control Movement in
the United States
  • 1960s The Pill available
  • in US
  • 1965 In Griswold v. Connecticut Supreme Court
    invalidates state laws prohibiting physicians
    from providing
  • contraception advice
  • -upholds right to privacy

Dr. G. Pincus
13
1970
  • Congress passes Title X Family Planning Program
    to ensure that the uninsured working poor women
    and teens who are not eligible for Medicaid have
    access to family planning and other reproductive
    health care services.

14
Inflation-adjusted Title X funding has decreased
60 since 1980
Table 14, p. 47
15
Title X Funding since 1999
16
Most clients of Title X-supported clinics are
poor . . .
. . . but few are covered by Medicaid
Female clients of Title X-supported clinics (4.2
million)
Table 11, p. 46
17
Health departments run most Title X-supported
clinics
Clinics with Title X funding (4,300)
Table 12, p. 46
18
The small proportion of women who do not use
contraceptives . . .
. . . account for roughly half of all unintended
pregnancies
Women at risk of unintended pregnancy (42
million)
Women experiencing unintended pregnancies (3
million)
Table 4, p. 44
19
In the summer of 2008 the Bush administration
proposed new guidelines that would define birth
control as a form of abortion. Many believe that
such guidelines would virtually eliminate all
Federal funds to agencies that provide family
planning services.
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