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A Brief History of Tourism

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Title: A Brief History of Tourism


1
A Brief History of Tourism
  • A Brief History of Tourism
  • July 10, 2009
  • RPTS 202

2
NEWS
  • CNN Jackson family petitioning to bury MJ at
    Neverland Ranch (link)
  • Daily Mail Jacksons Neverland Ranch in a state
    of disrepair (link)
  • Al-Jazeera Earthquake in China destroys 10,000
    homes (link)
  • BBC World Powers Accept Global Warming Limit
    (link) against some scientists advice (link)
  • CNN Travel Snapshots from Turkey (link)

3
Will we be surprised?
  • What year is currently widely accepted as being
    approximately the year tourism began?
  • How many tourists were there in 1950? 2004?
  • What were the barriers to travel historically?
  • Who was Marco Polo, and why is he of such
    importance to the tourism industry?
  • What is/was the Grand Tour?
  • Who was the father of tourism as we know it
    today?

4
Current Tourism Growth
  • The substantial growth of the tourism activity
    marks tourism as one of the most remarkable
    economic and social phenomena of the past
    century.
  • The number of international arrivals shows an
    evolution from a mere 25 million international
    arrivals in 1950 to an estimated 763 million in
    2004
  • This is a growth rate of 6.5
  • The growth rate has sustained! What are the
    limits?

5
Integrated Model Of Tourism
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
TOURISM SERVICES SUPPLIERS
Society Culture
Economy
Accomo- dations
TOURISM PROMOTERS
Destinations
Travel Agents
Tour Operators
The Tourist
Meeting Planners
Tourist Boards
Food Beverage
Attractions/ Entertainment
Direct Marketing
Environ- ment
Politics
Transportation
Technology
6
History of Travel Tourism -
Pre-Historic Travel
  • Paleolithic Age (32,000 BC - 10,000 BC)
  • Forged Trails Hunting (was this tourism?)
  • Fire/tools (no animals)/shelter

7
History of Travel Tourism - Pre-Historic
Travel
  • Neolithic Age
  • Critters Sailing Vessels (4,000 BCish)
  • The Wheel (3,500 BC) (China)
  • Agriculture/stored (communities exchanged)
  • Coins ( light)
  • Religion

8
- The Empire Era
  • Egyptian Kingdoms (4850 715 B.C.)
  • Government in centralized locations
  • Used Nile (north current, south sails)
  • Greek Empire (900 200 B.C.)
  • Use of a common language (Mediterr.)
  • Currency Exchange
  • City-States became attractions
  • Shopping, eat/drinking, gaming, sports, theater

9
Empire Era (cont.)
  • Roman Empire (500 B.C. A.D. 300)
  • Tourism for both middle class and wealthy
  • Good roads (50,000 mile system)!
  • Appian Way
  • Roman currency universal
  • Common legal system
  • Safety when travelling
  • Inns (30 miles apart)

10
Middle Ages and Renaissance
  • Middle Ages (5th 14th centuries)
  • Feudal System replaced Roman Rule
  • Fragmented Industry (now unsafe)
  • Money, language, transportation, etc.
  • travel now difficult and dangerous
  • Catholic Church began to gain power
  • stable/central force
  • religious holidays

11
Middle Ages - Crusades
  • Crusades (1096-1291)
  • attempting to re-
  • gain the holy land
  • exchange of ideas
  • ideas, and goods
  • (desire is born!)
  • afforded less
  • wealthy to travel

12
Pilgrimages
  • Pilgrimages (1200 to 1300)
  • religion/health adventure and learning
  • destinations were born (accom. food)
  • arrested beaten if not a holy mission
  • search for a better way of life

13
Marco Polo
  • Marco Polo (1275 1295) Mid. East to China
  • 4 Languages
  • Had wealth in gold
  • Had access to transportation vessels
  • Family involved in the Navy and were merchants
  • Had education
  • Had important friends through family marriages
  • Safety and marketing were assured
  • 1254-1324, from Venice, Italy
  • Silk Road (began journey in 1271)
  • His books detailing the world piqued interest
    in travel amongst Europes elitists

14
The Renaissance Era
  • Renaissance (14th to 16th centuries)
  • The Rebirth of Travel!
  • Kings Queens had larger territories
  • Merchants could travel further (trade routes)
  • Desire to learn and experience other cultures is
    born!
  • The Grand Tour!

15
Grand Tour Era!
  • Grand Tour (1500-1820) or (1613-1785)!
  • Wealthy English started, later others (status)
  • England - France Switzerland Germany - Italy
  • Motivations
  • culture, health, pleasure, curiosity, science,
    career education, art scenery
  • Lasted approximately 40 months (age 22 to 40)
  • New amenities formed
  • Tribulations theft, alps, rivers
  • Carriage rentals, 1829 1st all-inclusive
  • Industrial Revolution (1750) started downfall

16
The Grand Tour!
  • The itinerary was similar for all

17
London, England
18
Paris, France
19
Auxerre, France
20
Lugano, Switzerland
21
Pisa, Italy
22
Rome, Italy
23
Florence, Italy
24
Venice, Italy
25
Inssbruck, Austria
26
Munich, Germany
27
Amsterdam, Netherlands
28
The Mobility Era (1800 1944)
  • Growing economic prosperity leisure time!
  • Grand Tour gave way to family vacations
  • spas were huge
  • Romanticism (1800s) literature arts
  • urban bad, nature good (closer to God)
  • Transportation!!
  • Coach system (mail), needed tie-ups/Inns
  • abusive (schedules, temp., physical)
  • Water travel preferred (1840 Cunard)
  • Trains (1830 in England), 1903 Wright Brothers
  • Model T mass produced (1914)

29
Cooks Tours
  • Made Group Tour a business (1841)
  • Economics DesireNeedMotivation
  • Services
  • Connections, tickets, timetables, currency
    exchange, travel guides, the tour
  • Introduced (1850 - 1920)
  • Cooks Coupons (pre-pay)
  • Circular Notes (travelers cheques)
  • Cook made world tourism affordable!

30
Modern Era Mass Tourism
  • 2 World Wars Technology desire increase
  • Automobile
  • Better Roads post WW1 bungalow camps
  • Post WW2
  • Mass produced, gas not rationed prosperity
  • Airplane
  • Lindbergh (1927), initially
  • 1958 jet travel and economy class
  • Credit card (1950)
  • Individual vs. Organized Mass Tourists

31
Other Factors
  • Leisure Time
  • Creation of the weekend (Upton Sinclairs The
    Jungle)
  • 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act
  • Oil Crisis (mid 70s)
  • Tourism Policy
  • deregulation (1978), USTTA (1981)
  • Technology Advances
  • Theme Parks
  • Peace Industry??

32
Geography of Tourism
  • Physical Geography (features of earth)
  • Landforms, H20, vegetation, climate, etc.
  • Human (cultural) Geography
  • Language, religion, dress, food, customs
  • cultural norms/expectations
  • Regional Geography (study one area)
  • Effects of climate, time of year, etc.
  • ie, Ski areas, wine regions, etc.

33
Business Perspectives
  • Marketing (4 Ps)
  • Meeting the needs/desires of visitors
  • Importance of segmentation

34
Challenges Opportunities
  • Can growth development occur w/o creating
    environmental problems?
  • How will technology effect tourism?
  • As tourism grows, where will the workforce come
    from?
  • Will tourism change the social structure of
    countries/communities?
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