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Brief History of Criminology


Brief History of Criminology 1. Criminology 2. Brief History of Criminology 3. Quiz # 1 Criminology Not too long ago, criminology separated from its mother discipline ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Brief History of Criminology

Brief History of Criminology
  • 1. Criminology
  • 2. Brief History of Criminology
  • 3. Quiz 1

  • Not too long ago, criminology separated from its
    mother discipline, sociology
  • It has since developed habits and methods of
    thinking about crime and criminal behavior that
    are uniquely its own

Criminology is
  • The scientific approach to studying criminal
    behavior (individual vs social group)
  • Interdisciplinary discipline political science,
    psychology, economics, natural sciences, human
    development, and biology

Edwin Sutherland and Donald Gressey
  • Scope of criminology includes
  • Processes of making laws
  • Processes of breaking laws
  • Processes of reacting toward the breaking the

The main question
(No Transcript)
Yvette Cade
The third-degree burns melted her chin and took
parts of her ears as attempted to put out the
flames that nearly engulfed her the day her
ex-husband stormed into her workplace, crushed
her toes and lit her on fire
Brief History of Criminology
  • Demonic Perspective (Middle Ages, 1200-1600)
  • Classical School (the late 1700s and the early
    1800s )
  • Neo-classical school (emerged between 1880 and
    1920 and is still with us today)
  • Positivism (the mid 1800s and early 1900s)
  • Sociological Criminology (mid 1800s till now)

Demonic Perspective
  • It is not surprising that any discussion of the
    existence of evil behavior in the world would
    begin with religious explanations

Demonic Perspective
  • Temptation Model
  • Possession Model

Temptation Model
  • Mat 2641 (NIV) "Watch and pray so that you will
    not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing,
    but the body is weak."

Temptation Model
  • People are weak
  • Temptations to sin are impossible to avoid.
    (Matt. 187)

Temptation Model
  • No matter how tempting the devil's offers might
    be, the individual always retains the ability to
    refuse to sin
  • Good force" offers rewards and frequently
    promises spiritual aid to help the beleaguered
    individual resist the devil's temptations

Temptation Model
  • This model has a deterrent
  • component
  • The threat of hellfire or other eternal
    punishment for those who chose to do evil
  • Those who have sinned more will suffer more. For
    them, there is no end to suffering and despair.

Temptation Model-how to treat criminals?
  • Public humiliation and banishment were frequently
    used by religious societies as ways of
    controlling their deviant populations
  • For serious deviants, capital punishment
    would be a final solution

Temptation Model-how to treat criminals?
  • Cutting of Hands and Feet is a punishment given
    to people who steal
  • "As to the thief, Male or female, cut off his or
    her hands a punishment by way of example, from
    Allah, for their crime and Allah is Exalted in
    power." - Quran 538

Possession Model
  • Once possessed by an evil spirit the person is no
    longer responsible for his/her actions
  • The devil now has taken control of the
    individual's mind and body resulting in evil

Possession Model
  • One question that is frequently raised concerning
    the possession model is whether good or moral
    persons can be possessed

Possession Model-how to treat criminals?
  • One way of "curing" the individual is through
    exorcism-a religious ritual aimed at jettisoning
    the unclean spirit from the body

Exorcism today
  • Mario Garcia ended up in jail on charges of
    puncturing his mother-in-law's esophagus with a
    pair of crucifixes
  • Prior to the incident, the mother-in-law
    displayed erratic behavior. The hospital had
    suggested psychiatric treatment for her

Exorcism today
  • Garcia had the woman lie down on a bed, while the
    woman's son, her husband, Garcia's wife, and
    three young children contributed prayers for
    support Garcia shoved not one but two 8-inch
    steel crucifixes into his mother-in-law's mouth
  • The crosses went deep enough down her throat to
    pierce her esophagus
  • Police who were called to the scene found the
    woman bleeding profusely from the mouth on
    Garcia's front porch, with Garcia shouting, "The
    devil is inside her!"

Exorcism today
  • Garcia was arrested for assault with a dangerous
    weapon and taken under psychiatric observation.
  • Police are in agreement with Garcia's family that
    he did not act with intent to harm I've seen
    suspects who thought they had psychic powers, but
    never one that had a family who believed it,

The origin of classical school
  • Started in Europe (the late 1700s and the early
  • Criminal justice needed to be updated
  • Throughout Europe the use of torture to secure
    confessions and force self-incriminating
    testimony had been widespread
  • Classical school was against tortures

Classical School
  • The Classical "School" of Criminology is a broad
    label for a group of thinkers of crime and
    punishment in the 18th and early 19th centuries
  • Two famous writers during this classical period
    were Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) and Jeremy
    Bentham (1748-1832)

Criminal Justice (in the early 1800s)
  • Infliction of bodily pain to extort evidence or
  • Torture employed devices such as the rack (to
    stretch the victim's joints to breaking point),
    the thumbscrew, the boot (which crushed the
    foot), heavy weights that crushed the whole body,
    the iron maiden (cage shaped like a human being
    with interior spikes to spear the occupant)

Classical School
  • Crime was committed out of total free will and
    that individuals weighed the consequences of
    their actions
  • Punishment is made in order to deter people from
    committing crime and it should be greater than
    the pleasure of criminal gains

Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
  • People should be presumed innocent until proven
    guilty (no torture)
  • The law should be codified (written) with
    punishments prescribed in advance
  • Punishment should be limited (less harsher) to
    only that necessary to deter people from ever
    committing it again (no capital punishment)

Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
  • Punishment should be severe, certain, and swift
  • Severity is the least important, certainty the
    next in importance, and celerity, or swiftness,
    is about as equal in importance as certainty)
  • The criminal justice system should be organized
    around crime prevention

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
  • Believed that individuals weigh the probabilities
    of present and future pleasures against those of
    present and future pain
  • People act as human calculators, they put all
    factors into a sort of mathematical
  • equation to decide whether or not
  • to commit an illegal act

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
  • Punishment should be just a bit in excess of the
    pleasures derived from an act and not any higher
    than that
  • Since punishment creates unhappiness it can be
    justified if it prevents greater
  • evil than it produces

The Neo-classical School
  • A revision of classical school
  • Neo-classical criminologists recognized that the
    free will approach had a number of shortcomings
  • Leading proponents were Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904)
    and his student Raymond Saleilles (1898)

The Neo-classical School
  • Some behaviors are very irrational
  • Self-defense or mistake of fact

Mistake of fact
  • If a defendant goes into a supermarket and places
    eight items in a basket which is presented to the
  • Both honestly believe that all eight items have
    been scanned, and the defendant pays the sum
    shown on the bill
  • A store detective, however, notices that a
    mistake was made by the cashier so that only
    seven items were actually priced
  • This detective arrests the defendant after
    leaving the store
  • The defendant honestly believes that he has
    become the owner of goods in a sale transaction
    (not a thief)

The Neo-classical School
  • So, not all persons were completely responsible
    for their own actions
  • Positive treatment toward "mental illness" type

Categorization of Motives
  • Understanding homicide
  • The accurate determination of motive in any crime
    is highly subjective
  • Social scientists have used several approaches to
    categorize motives
  • One strategy is to distinguish b/w instrumental
    and expressive motivation

Instrumental Motivation
  • Violent acts with instrumental motivations are
    directed at some valued goal beyond the act
    itself (Menendez brothers may have killed their
    parents for the instrumental goal of protecting
    themselves or collecting the insurance payment)

Instrumental Motivation
  • Eric and Lyle Menendez were convicted of
    first-degree murder for the brutal shotgun
    slaying of their parents in Beverly Hills. Their
    defense was based on the abuse excuse
  • The apparent motives ranged from the brothers
    fear of their fathers abuse to their desire to
    collect 11 million in insurance

Expressive Motivation
  • Expressive actions are those motivated
    exclusively by rage, anger, frustration, or more
    generally, the heat of passion (self-defense,
    accidental homicides)

UCR Supplementary Homicide Reports classification
of motives
  • Arguments (53)
  • Participation in other felony crimes, especially
    robbery and drug offenses (32)
  • Youth gang activity (8)
  • Brawls under the influence of drugs or alcohol
  • Miscellaneous situations such as killings by
    babysitters, gangland slaying, and sniper attacks

The Victim-Offender Relationship
  • Three types of relationships are often
  • Familial (especially spouses and siblings)(22)
  • Acquaintances (including friends, girlfriends,
    boyfriends, neighbors, and coworkers)(57)
  • Strangers (21)

Positivist School in Criminology
  • The demand for facts, for scientific proof
  • There are body and mind differences between
  • Punishment should fit the individual criminal,
    not the crime (indeterminate sentencing,
    disparate sentencing, parole)
  • Criminals can be treated, rehabilitated, or
    corrected (if not, then they are incurable and
    should be put to death)

Fundamental assumptions
  • The basic determinants of human behavior are
    genetically based
  • Observed gender and racial differences in rates
    and types of criminality may be at least
    partially the result of biological differences
    b/w the sexes and racially distinct groups

Positivist School in Criminology
  • Most people believe the leading figure of
    positivist criminology (often called the father
    of criminology) was Lombroso (1835-1909). 
  • On Criminal Man, was first put together in 1861,
    and made the following points

The Underlying Logic
Inability to Learn and Follow legal rules
Mental and Physical Inferiority
Criminal Behavior
Defective genes
Sociological Theories of Crime
  • Search for factors outside the individual -
    socialization, subcultural membership, social
  • Explains crime by reference to the institutional
    structure of society

Sociological Theories of Crime
  • Society
  • Neighborhood
  • Parents
  • School
  • Peers
  • Role models