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Microbiology – Chapter 1

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Title: Microbiology – Chapter 1


1
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Microbiology - The science that studies very
    small living things
  • Usually requires a magnification tool the
    microscope
  • Some organisms are large though Helminths
    worms
  • Sub groups of Microbes we will study
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Fungi
  • Protozoans
  • Algae
  • Viruses
  • Multicellular animal parasites Helminths

2
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Bacteria

3
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Fungi

4
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Protozoans
  • Giardia Ameba

5
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Viruses
  • Bacteriophage Avian Flu

6
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Helminth
  • Tapeworm Ascaris round worm

7
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Various disciplines of study within microbiology
  • Bacteriology, Mycology, Parisitology, Immunology,
  • Epidemiology,
  • Biotechnology
  • Virology
  • Environmental Microbiology
  • Bioremediation

8
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Historical review of the Science of Microbiology
  • Robert Hook 1665 Englishman, used a primitive
    compound (two magnifying lenses)
  • microscope, reported that lifes smallest units
    were little boxes Cells, his work
  • started the process of the development of the
    Cell theory of life

9
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Hooks microscope

10
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek 1673 - probably the first
    person to observe living cells with a simple
    microscope, amateur scientist, ground his own
    lenses and described what we know today as
    bacteria rod shaped , spiral shaped , etc.
    animalcules

11
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek

12
Microbiology Chapter 1
Francesco Redi 1668 opposed the prevailing
theory of Spontaneous Generation, maggots in meat
, He used covered jars to show that maggots came
from flies strong evidence against spontaneous
generation Now we teach the theory of Biogenesis
Life comes from Life But issue of Spontaneous
Generation was actively believed for many more
years
13
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Francesco Redi

14
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Edward Jenner is credited with first vaccine in
    epidemics of smallpox during the late 1700s he
    observed that milk maids didnt get the disease,
    cattle had a similar
  • disease cowpox, milk maids had cow pox lesions,
    but not small pox, he purposefully took scrapings
    from cowpox blister and scraped a 8 year old
    volunteer. With the material child got mild
    illness but not small pox,
  • Vaccination comes from Latin word vacca meaning
    cow. Jenner laid the foundation for Pasteurs
    later work with other vaccinations.
  • (Vaccinia virus similar to Variola smallpox
    virus, today a possible bioterror weapon
    genetically engineered variola?)

15
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Jenner and vaccination

16
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Pasteur French sceintist that dealt the death
    blow to the spontaneous generation theory.
  • He devised the ingenious curved necked flasks
    that prevented contaminated air from reaching
    boiled beef broth the broth remained
    uncontaminated even though exposed to the air
  • He was very lucky no endopores present, or it
    would have failed
  • (resitant to boiling)

17
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • 1. He developed process we call Pasteuriztion
    he heated wine to kill contaminating microbes
    cured sick wine (today we heat treatment to kill
    pathogens in milk also)
  • 2. He proved that fermentation was caused by a
    microbe yeast
  • 3. He developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax.
    Vaccines led to immunity to diseases that
    routinely killed many people, used to help people
    long before they understood how they even worked
    (science of Immunology)
  • 4. He began the revolution in science that led to
    the Golden Age of
  • Microbiology (from 1857-1914)

18
Microbiology Chapter 1
19
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20
Microbiology Chapter 1
Robert Koch - Developed Kochs postulates
important technique for determining the actual
microbial cause agent of a disease more later,
German, contemporary of Pasteur, several very
important contributions 1. He discovered the
tuberculosis bug (tubercle bacillus,
Mycobacterium tuberculosis) 2. He discovered the
cause of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) from
blood of dead cattle, cultured bacteria in pure
culture, injected bacteria in live cattle and
they died, then again cultured the bacteria in
pure culture. This led to the establishment of a
procedure for determining microbial cause of
disease (see p. ____-for modern application of
Kochs postulates)
21
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Kochs postulates

22
Microbiology Chapter 1
Kochs and Pasteurs work helped establish the
Germ Theory of Disease - that microorganisms
cause disease (in people, animals, and even
plants)
23
Microbiology Chapter 1
Iwanowski 1892 - Discovered that plant disease
can be caused by small organisms that were so
small they passed through filters , Tobacco
mosaic virus (TMV) was later identified as the
cause - beginning of virology (Today we have
discovered new and weird things like viroids,
prions) See next slide
24
Microbiology Chapter 1
25
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Paul Ehrlich, German doctor, wanted to find a
    magic bullet an agent that would kill
  • the disease agent without hurting the patient
    (see the Coming plague video, part 1)
  • 1. Developed Salvarsan, salvation from
    syphilisagent
  • 2. This was an arsenical arsenic compound, that
    was effective against syphilis
  • Antimicrobial agent, medicine to treat a
    microbial disease, it was chemical chemotherapy

26
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Syphilis spirochete T. pallidum Paul
    Ehrlich

27
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Joseph Lister 1860s, English surgeon that
    applied ideas of the germ theory to surgery,
    remembered the work of Semmelweis in Hungary in
    the 1840s, if a Dr. would wash their hands
    childbed fever was prevented. He knew that phenol
    would kill bacteria put 2 and 2 together and
    treated wounds with phenol - and no infection
    (phenol is the basic agent of todays Lysol)
  • 1. First antiseptic use in surgery, chemicals
    used as agents on tissue before surgery
  • (tissue treated with an antimicrobial agent
    antiseptic, betadine) disinfectants are
    chemicals, used on a surface
  • 2. Also proved that microbes cause surgical
    infections (todays scourge MRSA)

28
Semmelweis
29
Lister
  • Antisepsis in surgery

30
Microbiology Chapter 1
Alexander Fleming - Scottish physician and
bacteriologist - 1928 Observed mold growing on a
bacteria culture, there was a ring of clearing
around the mold where the bacteria didnt grow,
the mold was later found to be a Penicillium
species and the naturally secreted chemical was
called penicillin, an antibiotic 1. Antibiotics
are natural agents 2. Synthetic drugs are
chemicals produced in labs (sulfas) 3. Problems
with them - toxicity, resistance, allergic
reactions 4. Flemings work - shelved until early
WWII, sulfas were failing, needed penicillin to
cure battle field wounds 5. Now have thousands of
antibiotics and synthetics (and a significant
problem resistance)
31
Flemming and Penicillium
32
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Salk - Polio vaccine, 1950s polio was a scary
    epidemic, Salk developed a vaccine by
  • treating the virus with formalin (IPV)
    inactivated polio virus
  • Sabin 1963 live Polio virus vaccine, attenuated
    altered virus, OPV-oral polio vaccine
  • The work done on polio revolutionized the science
    of virology and we are seeing
  • the results today in advances with Hepatitis and
    HIV viral infections - tissue
  • culture and other techniques

33
Avery and Macleod, DNA is genetic material
34
Watson and Crick, DNA, 1953
35
DNA Double helix
  • Double Helix

36
Salk IPV
37
Sabin, OPV
38
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Jacob and Monod 1965 Did research on RNA and
    protein synthesis in bacteria - last
  • necessary step in understanding how genetics
    works on a cellular level (Replication,
  • Transcription, Translation protein synthesis
    expression of traits)
  • Modern science thrives today only on the laid
    foundation of thousands of men and
  • women who did mundane routine and often boring
    lab science. Dont forget that we are
  • here today because we stand on the shoulders of
    Giants who were people just like you
  • and me. (Who are the Giants today? CDC, USAMRID,
    young Joe or Mary the graduate
  • student?, maybe you?)

39
Microbiology Chapter 1
40
Microbiology Chapter 1
  • Classification, Taxonomy, Binomial Nomenclature
    - Yucchy!!!!! No one likes it. Just do it!!!

41
The Classification of Living Things
  • Living organisms are assigned to groups based
    upon their similarities.
  • Systematics is the discipline of identifying and
    classifying organisms.

42
Domains
  • The highest largest category, recent addition
  • 3 domains
  • 1. Archaea ancient bacteria, unicellular
    like bacteria, also simple cell structure
    (prokaryote no nucleus) but have distinct
    metabolism (chemistry) allowing them to exist in
    extreme environments
  • 2. Bacteria unicellular, prokaryote, found
    everywhere (Old kingdom name Monera)
  • 3. Eukarya unicellular to multicellular,
    complex and organized cells with nuclei and
    organelles (mitochondria)

43
Domain Archaea
  • Archaea are single- celled organisms that lack a
    membrane-bound nucleus. - Prokaryote
  • Archaea can be found in environments that are too
    hostile for other life forms.

44
Domain Bacteria
  • Bacteria are single- celled organisms that lack a
    membrane-bound nucleus. (Prokaryote also)
  • Bacteria are found almost everywhere on the
    planet Earth.

45
Domain Eukarya
  • The cells of all eukaryotes have a membrane-bound
    nucleus. Members of the Domain Eukarya are
    further categorized into one of four Kingdoms.
    (know these kingdoms)

46
Microbiology
  • Check your notes Older 5 kingdom scheme is
    still widely used
  • Monera bacteria (Prokaryotic)
  • Protista Protozoans (Eukaryotic)
  • Fungi - yeast, molds, etc. (Eukaryotic)
  • Plant photosynthetic producers (Eukaryotic)
  • Animals heterotrophic consumers (Eukaryotic)

47
Categories of Classification
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

48
Categories of Classification
  • Domain - Dumb
  • Kingdom - King
  • Phylum - Philip
  • Class Came
  • Order - Over
  • Family - For
  • Genus - Good
  • Species - __
  • Spaghetti?

49
Categories of Classification
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

50
Categories of Classification
51
Scientific Names
  • Binomial (two name) Genus first and first letter
    capitalized, then species not capitalized. If
    written or typed either underline or italicize
  • Genus name, species name
  • Homo sapiens - italicized
  • Homo troglodytis (Your EX?) underlined
  • Canis familiaris Your puppy (except poodles)
  • Felis domesticus Your Kitty (some strange
    people have to have Felis leo or Felis tigris)
  • Canis latrans Invites your kitty over for lunch
  • Canis lupus - ____________? guess

52
Know for test
  • 3 domains Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
  • 4 Eukarya Kingdoms
  • Protista Protozoans like Ameba and Paramecium
    (producers and consumers)
  • Fungi yeasts, molds, mushrooms (consumers)
  • Plants complex producers, trees, grasses
  • Animals complex consumers

53
Classification of Bacteria
  • Somewhat different a clinical rapid ID is often
    important when trying to find causative agent of
    a disease
  • Bergeys manual Manual is in lab for a
    reference when doing unknown
  • Developed on 1940s for grouping bacteria
    according to standard diagnostic lab techniques
    available at the time (such as Grams stain)

54
Classification of Bacteria
  • Gram cocci Gram - bacilli

55
Classification of Bacteria
  • Gram - Spirochete Gram bacilli

56
Classification of Bacteria
  • The manual divides bacteria into 4 groups or
    divisions on the basis of their Cell Wall
  • 1. Gram (stain violet)
  • 2. Gram - (destain, and are counterstained pink
    or reddish color)
  • 3. Bacteria that lack a cell wall (mycoplasma)
  • 4. organisms that have a cell wall lacking
    peptidoglycan (archaeobacteria Now called
    Archaea

57
Classification of Bacteria
  • More modern methods now used
  • 1. DNA studies, genomics, gene probes
  • 2. using Bacterial viruses bacteriophages
  • 3. Serology antibody antigen reactions (like
    blood typing)
  • Examples Salmonella typhi
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • Azotobacter vinelandii 12837
  • E. coli 0157H7 nasty strain of E. coli
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