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Microbiology 101 and Specimen Collection

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Microbiology 101 and Specimen Collection Sandy Villar NCA, ASCP Microbiology Supervisor ANMC Transport of Specimens All specimens transferred between rural clinic and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Microbiology 101 and Specimen Collection


1
Microbiology 101 and Specimen Collection
  • Sandy Villar NCA, ASCP
  • Microbiology Supervisor ANMC

2
Transport of Specimens
  • All specimens transferred between rural clinic
    and ANMC are transported by Express Mail
  • Or other designated courier systems
  • All specimens are transported in accordance to
    the policy for Transportation of Dangerous Goods
    and Material

3
Transport of Specimens
  • Place all specimens in double biohazard zip-lock
    bags
  • Tighten all specimen lids to avoid leakage
  • Place biohazard bags into leak proof containers
    with absorbent
  • Place vacutainer tubes or aliquot tubes into foam
    insert to avoid breakage

4
Specimen and Container Types
  • Abscess/aspirates
  • Blood culture
  • C. difficile
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Syringe/Sterile screw cap containe, plain red
    tube
  • BacT-Alert bottle
  • Sterile screw cap container
  • Female and Male Gen-probe collection container

5
Specimen and Container Types
  • Fluids from sterile site
  • Drainage, pus
  • Group B Streptococcus
  • Nasopharyngeal
  • Sputum
  • Stool culture
  • Sterile screw cap container
  • Swab in Stuarts transport media
  • Swab in transport Stuarts media
  • Sterile screw cap container
  • Enteric Transport media

6
Specimen and Collection Types
  • Stool Ova and Parasites
  • Swabs for culture
  • GC
  • Swabs for culture
  • wound,eye,vaginal,
  • cervix,urethral
  • throat
  • PVA and formalin
  • Swab in charcoal
  • transport media
  • Swab in Stuarts
  • transport media

7
Specimen and Collection Types
  • Urine Culture
  • Clean, sterile container if transport lt2hrs
  • Or grey-top preservative tube

8
Specimen Rejection Criteria
  • Leaking Specimens
  • Unlabelled/Mislabelled Specimens
  • Incorrect collection container type
  • Sputum-not expectorated
  • Too old for culture

9
Rejection of Specimens
  • Hemolysis results from poor techniques or
    exposure to extreme heat or cold
  • Clotting results from insufficient inverting
  • Improper tube collection
  • Underfilling or Overfilling of specimen
    container

10
Unacceptable Specimens
  • Specimen contaminated with IV fluids
  • No label
  • Orders do not match specimen
  • No orders with specimen

11
Specimen Handling Requirements
  • Fasting
  • Timed
  • Random
  • Iced/or at Cool Temperatures
  • Peak
  • Trough
  • Protect from Light

12
Labeling Procedures/Proper Identification
  • All specimens require a proper label
  • patients surname, first and middle, including Sr
    or Jr
  • patients hospital identification
  • or birth date
  • Note both of the above MUST match the
    requisition form
  • date/time of collection
  • phlebotomist initials

13
Proper labeling
  • Place patient label over preexisting blank label
    on evacuated tubes
  • Place patient label along the length of a
    microtainer tube, not obscuring the volume
    measurements

14
Tranporting Specimens
  • Double bagging
  • Recheck identification
  • Sample Requisitionproper handling
  • Communicate to lab

15
Phlebotomy TechniquesGeneral steps
  • Call lab for clarification of orders
  • Organize equipment
  • Patient assessment
  • Greet patient
  • Proper identification
  • Position patient
  • Use Universal Precautions
  • Assemble equipment proper equipment, order of
    draw
  • Select the best site
  • Be aware of complications
  • Proper preparation of site
  • Perform the venipuncture/release tourniquet
  • Control bleeding
  • Invert anticoagulated tubes
  • Properly label specimens at bedside/phlebotomy
    chair
  • Care of puncture site
  • Transport specimens to lab
  • Maintain aseptic techniques

16
Four Secrets of Painless Venipuncture
  • Medial Cubital Vein
  • Size of Needle
  • Allow the alcohol to Dry
  • Skin is taut

17
Specimen CollectionMinimize the Trauma of
PhlebotomyStrive to give your best first time,
every time
  • If your first puncture fails
  • Avoid trauma by asking for help
  • thou shalt not dig for a vein
  • Withdraw needle if experiencing excruciating pain
  • Withdraw needle if hematoma begins to form
  • Withdraw needle if patient begins to faint

18
Vein location in arm
19
Vein location in Hand
20
Collection Complications
  • Uncooperative patient
  • Fainting
  • Edema
  • Mastectomy
  • Hematoma
  • Scarring/Burned area
  • Rash/hives

21
Collection Complications
  • IV drug user
  • Obesity
  • Reasons for short draw
  • Reasons for no flow

22
Step 1
23
Step 2
24
Step 3
25
Step 4
26
Step 5
27
Step 6
28
  • A problem is a chance for you to do your best
  • Duke Ellington
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