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Scientific Management (1910-1935)

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Scientific Management (1910-1935) Frederick Taylor Henry Gannt Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Luther Gulick III Max Weber Henri Fayol Scientific Management The process of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific Management (1910-1935)


1
Scientific Management(1910-1935)
  • Frederick Taylor
  • Henry Gannt
  • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
  • Luther Gulick III
  • Max Weber
  • Henri Fayol

2
Scientific Management
  • The process of approaching various aspects of
    organizations in a scientific manner using
    scientific tools such as research, management,
    and analysis.

3
Scientific Management Theorists
  • PURISTS
  • Frederick Taylor
  • Henry Gannt
  • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
  • TRANSITIONALISTS
  • Luther Gulick
  • Max Weber
  • Henry Fayol

4
History of the Era
  • Industrial Age
  • Migration to cities
  • Reliance on electricity and gasoline
  • Changes both on the farm and in factories
  • Autos, airplanes, movies, and radio became common

5
History of the Era
  • 1913 Federal Reserve System created
  • WWI begins and Panama Canal opens
  • 1919-1933 Prohibition
  • 1920 - Nineteenth Amendment
  • 1929 - Stock Market Crash

6
Prior to Scientific Management
  • Owner, manager, sales, and front office personnel
    had little direct contact with production
    activity.
  • A superintendent was responsible for all
    planning and staff functions.
  • Worked with journeyman mechanics to try to
    schedule production. No recognized staff
    functions.
  • Work methods were determined by individual
    mechanics based on personal experience,
    preference, and what tools were available for the
    job. Rule of Thumb

7
Frederick Taylor
  • Efficiency Expert in U.S. Steel Industry
  • Invented New Tool Designs and Handling Methods
  • Designed Stop-Watch Task Timing
  • Created Piece-Rate Payment Scheme
  • Developed Industrial Departments

8
Time Studies and the Piece-Rate System
  • Studied most efficient worker
  • Used stop-watch timing to measure each production
    step
  • Eliminated any unnecessary movements
  • Designed standardized instruction cards for
    employees
  • Employees paid for meeting the established rate
    of production

9
Henry Gannt
  • Worked with Taylor at Midvale Steel Company
  • Specialized in incentive wage plans
  • Introduced a differential piece rate system
    Task work with a bonus
  • Permitted workers to improve the production
    system
  • Introduced a bonus for foremen based on the
    number of their workers who earned bonus

10
Gannt Chart Information
  • Developed to help industrial age managers plan
    for mass production
  • Utilized to coordinate WWI shipbuilding
  • Visual display used to schedule based on time

11
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
  • - Associates of Fredrick Winslow Taylor, their
    work was intertwined with his and their motion
    studies predated Taylors system first published
    in 1903.
  • - Developed the laws of human motion from which
    evolved the principles of motion economy

12
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
  • Pioneers in the field of motion studies and
    provided the foundation for job simplification,
    meaningful work, and incentive wage plans.
  • Analyzed each motion of work for wasted efforts
    in an attempt to reduce each task to the smallest
    amount of expended time and energy.
  • Professed effective training, effective work
    methods, improved work environment, positive
    psychological perspective.
  • Made the connection between standardization and
    efficiency
  • Believed that time could not be separated from
    motion the two were intertwined.

13
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
  • Systematically examined how repetitive tasks were
    performed
  • These repetitive tasks were broken down into
    Therbligs, which are systems for analyzing the
    motions involved in performing a task. This
    consisted of identification of individual
    motions, as well as moments of delay in the
    process, designed to find unnecessary or
    inefficient motions and to utilize or eliminate
    even split seconds of wasted time.
  • Invented and refined Therbligs roughly between
    1908 and 1924. Each Therblig had a mnemonic
    symbol and standard color for charting

14
Luther Hasley Gulick III
  • Believed that public administration could have
    made more effective if it were practiced
    according to a set of guidelines.
  • All organizations are characterized by a tension
    between the need for division and the need for
    coordination.
  • Work division is the foundation of organization.
  • It is important to recognize that there are
    limits beyond which labor cannot usefully be
    divided. Gulick stated, It might be more
    efficient to have the front half of the cow in
    the pasture grazing while the rear half is in the
    barn being milked, but any attempt to divide the
    cow in this fashion would, for obvious reasons,
    fail.
  • Gulick believed that, labor divided makes for
    efficiency, but only if the labor and its outputs
    are harmonized with the organizations goals

15
Organization of Work Units - Gulick
  • By Purpose the aims of the work unit
  • By Process what the unit actually does
  • By Clientele work with similar materials or
    clients
  • By Location organized together due to
    geographic location, regardless of function

16
Five Factors that Limit Full Coordination - Gulick
  • Uncertainty concerning the future
  • Lack of knowledge on the part of the leaders
  • Lack of administrative skills on the part of the
    leaders
  • A general lack of knowledge and skills on the
    part of the other members of the organization
  • The vast number of variables involved and
    incompleteness of human knowledge, particularly
    with regard to man and life

17
Seven Administrative Procedures - Gulick
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Staffing
  •   Directing
  •   Coordinating
  •   Reporting
  • Budgeting

18
Gulicks Definition of Leadership
  • The most difficult task of the chief executive is
    not command, it is leadership, which is the
    development of the desire and will to work
    together for a purpose in the minds of those who
    are associated in any activity.
  • Gulick sees ideas as more potent and more
    powerful than organizations.

19
Gilbreths and Gulick Compared
  • GILBRETHS
  • Devoted to Efficiency
  • Analyzed Motion and Movements of Workers
  • Created Therblig System
  • Their studies were part of the manufacturing
    revolution in the U.S.
  • GULICK
  • Applied Scientific Method to Management
  • Dean of American Public Administration
  • Division of Labor and Integrated Organization
  • Applied Scientific Approach to Personnel
    Management
  • Defined work in terms of positions needed to
    carry out a process, rather than the people doing
    the work

20
Max Weber
  • Weberian Model of Bureaucracy
  • Division of Labor and Specialization
  • Impersonal Orientation
  • Hierarchy of Authority
  • Rules and Regulations
  • Career Orientation

21
Webers Description of Power and Authority in
Organizations
  • Charismatic
  • Traditional
  • Legal

22
Criticisms of Weberian Bureaucratic Model
  • Dysfunctional Consequences
  • Neglect of the Informal Organization
  • Internal Inconsistencies
  • Gender Bias
  • Oppressive Features
  • Organizational Pathologies

23
Webers Influence on Educational Organizations
  • Described the bureaucratic characteristics used
    by most educational institutions.
  • Described organizations as social systems that
    interact and are dependent upon their
    environments.
  • Provides a starting point for modified structures.

24
Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
  • Fayols Five Functions of Management
  • 1. Forecasting and Planning
  • 2. Organization
  • 3. Command
  • 4. Coordinate
  • 5. Control

25
Fayols 14 Principles for Organizational Design
and Effective Administration
  • Specialization/Division of Labor
  • Authority with Corresponding Responsibility
  • Discipline
  • Unity of Command
  • Unity of Direction
  • Subordination of Individual Interest to the
    General Interest
  • Remuneration of Staff
  • Centralization
  • Scalar Chain/Line of Authority
  • Order
  • Equity
  • Stability of Tenure
  • Initiative
  • Esprit de Corps

26
Weber and Fayol ComparedSimilarities
  • WEBER
  • Ideal Type
  • Hierarchy of authority
  • Division of Labor
  • Career Orientation
  • Rules and Regulations
  • FAYOL
  • One Best Way
  • Top Down Management
  • Specialization
  • Stability of Tenure
  • Discipline

27
Weber and Fayol ComparedDifferences
  • WEBER
  • Organization as a Social System dependent on
    environment
  • Rationality
  • Impersonal Orientation
  • Administrative Efficiency
  • FAYOL
  • No parallel
  • Personal experience and observation
  • Esprit and Initiative
  • Future Planning

28
Scientific Managements Impact on Organizations
  • Defined Administrative Roles
  • Supervision of work rather than people
  • Work specializations
  • Span of control
  • Cost accounting
  • Homogeneity of Positions
  • Engineering for Efficiency
  • Assembly Line Production
  • Emphasis on Quality Control

29
Scientific Managements Effect on Schools
  • Teaching Objectives
  • Vocational Curriculum Design
  • Division of Labor
  • Subjects Departmentalized
  • Improvements by Analysis
  • Data-driven decisions
  • Outcomes for Instruction
  • Standardized assessments
  • Teacher Merit-pay
  • Staff Development Programs

30
Scientific Method of Management Contrasted
  • Scientific Management
  • The most efficient manner to perform a task is
    determined and everyone does it that way
  • Task Analysis
  • Personnel Selection and Training
  • Bureaucratic Organization Structure
  • Span of Control and Top Down Management
  • Humanistic Approach
  • Concern for people not the task
  • Participatory decision-making
  • Emphasis on Individual Contributions and Personal
    Awareness
  • Flexibility

31
Scientific Method of Management Contrasted
  • Scientific Management
  • The most efficient manner to perform a task is
    determined and everyone does it that way
  • Task Analysis
  • Personnel Selection and Training
  • Bureaucratic Organization Structure
  • Span of Control and Top Down Management
  • Social Systems Approach
  • Focused on the interaction of the organization
    and its larger environment
  • Leaders are high-task oriented (work structure)
    and high-relationships oriented (concern for
    others)
  • Organizations are a set of interrelated elements
    functioning as a whole

32
Scientific Method of Management Contrasted
  • Scientific Management
  • The most efficient way to perform a task is
    established and everyone does it that way
  • Task Analysis
  • Personnel Selection and Training
  • Bureaucratic Organization Structure
  • Span of Control and Top Down Management
  • Situational Leadership
  • No one style is appropriate for all situations
  • Increased involvement in decision making
  • Collaborative Planning
  • Flexible Change Strategies
  • Unique Organizational Personality must be
    accounted for in structure, leadership, and
    decision-making

33
Scientific Method of Management Contrasted
  • Scientific Management
  • The most efficient manner to complete a task is
    determined and everyone does it that way
  • Task Analysis
  • Personnel Selection and Training
  • Bureaucratic Organization Structure
  • Span of Control and Top Down Management
  • Futuristic Approach
  • Focus on an improved, decentralized system of
    management
  • Learning organizations able to predict for and
    respond to a changing environment
  • Organizational Change Models that help
    organizations prepare for future challenges
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