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AP World History Review

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650 CE 1450 CE Myers In what year was Charlemagne able to establish a substantial, if temporary, empire in France and Germany? A) 500 B) 800 C) 900 D) 1000 E ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP World History Review


1
AP World History Review
  • 650 CE 1450 CE
  • Myers

2
  • Why was the Caliph Uthman disliked by so many
    Arabs?
  • A) He had halted the process of expansion and
    thus stopped the flow of booty to the tribesmen.
  • B) He was the first Caliph to be chosen from
    Muhammads early enemies, the Umayyads.
  • C) He was not an Arab.
  • D) He was a firm supporter of Muhammads
    son-in-law and nephew, Ali.
  • E) He murdered Ali.

3
And the answer is
  • B) He was the first Caliph to be chosen from
    Muhammads early enemies, the Umayyads.

4
  • What was the result of the first civil war
    between All and the Umayyads?
  • A) All was able to defeat the Umayyad clan and
    reduce them to political insignificance.
  • B) Ali was killed in the conflict, but his son
    Hasan was named Caliph and won a great victory
    over the Abbasids.
  • C) Despite early successes, Alis faction
    disintegrated leading to an Umayyad victory and
    Alis assassination.
  • D) Ali suffered a disastrous military defeat at
    the Battle of Siffin, and the Umayyads emerged
    victorious.
  • E) Islam remained firmly united behind the heirs
    of Husayn.

5
And the answer is
  • C) Despite early successes, Alis faction
    disintegrated leading to an Umayyad victory and
    Alis assassination.

6
  • The political and theological faction within
    Islam that recognized only Ali and the
    descendants of the family of Muhammad as rightful
    rulers was called
  • A) Shiis.
  • B) Sunnis.
  • C) Kharij.
  • D) Fiqhs.
  • E) Sufis.

7
And the answer is
  • A) Shiis.

8
  • Under the Umayyads, the political center of Islam
    shifted to
  • A) Baghdad.
  • B) Merv.
  • C) Constantinople.
  • D) Damascus.
  • E) Cairo.

9
And the answer is
  • D) Damascus.

10
  • What was the nature of citizenship within the
    Umayyad Empire?
  • A) All converts to Islam, regardless of their
    ethnic origins, were full citizens and members of
    the elite.
  • B) Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of
    this great empire.
  • C) The Umayyads recognized all residents of their
    empire, whether Muslims or peoples of the book
    as full citizens.
  • D) Arabs rapidly lost their dominance in the
    Umayyad Empire to the native residents of Persia.
  • E) Malawi were accorded full rights of
    citizenship.

11
And the answer is
  • B) Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of
    this great empire.

12
  • The term for non-Arab Muslim converts is
  • A) jizya.
  • B) dhow.
  • C) mawali.
  • D) dhimmis.
  • E) umma.

13
And the answer is
  • C) mawali.

14
  • What was the Umayyad attitude to other religions?
  • A) The Umayyads suppressed all religions within
    their territories other than Islam.
  • B) The Umayyads converted to Christianity, but
    continued to permit the open worship of Islam.
  • C) The Umayyads displayed tolerance towards the
    religions of dhimmi peoples.
  • D) Christianity and Judaism were suppressed as
    heresies, but other communities were permitted to
    retain their religions.
  • E) Zoroastrians and Hindus were never accepted.

15
And the answer is
  • C) The Umayyads displayed tolerance towards the
    religions of dhimmi peoples.

16
  • What was the most significant of the
    transformations brought about by the Abbasids
    rise to power?
  • A) the final defeat of the Byzantine Empire
  • B) the admission of the mawali as full members of
    the Islamic community
  • C) the destruction of absolutism within Islamic
    government
  • D) the destruction of Sunni influences within
    Islam
  • E) victory in the Crusades

17
And the answer is
  • B) the admission of the mawali as full members of
    the Islamic community

18
  • The Abbasids moved the political center of their
    empire to
  • A) Baghdad.
  • B) Constantinople.
  • C) Merv.
  • D) Damascus.
  • E) Jerusalem.

19
And the answer is
  • A) Baghdad.

20
  • What was the nature of the Abbasid government?
  • A) The Abbasids abandoned the formality and
    absolutism of the Umayyads and established an
    open and representative government.
  • B) The Abbasids outdid the Umayyads in
    establishing an absolutist government symbolized
    by the growing powers of the wazirs and the
    sinister presence of the executioner.
  • C) The Abbasid government represented a return to
    the principles of government in the first days of
    the Orthodox Caliphate.
  • D) The Abbasids continued the policies of the
    Umayyads virtually without change, including the
    maintenance of an exclusively Arabic elite.
  • E) The Abbasid government was extremely
    efficient.

21
And the answer is
  • B) The Abbasids outdid the Umayyads in
    establishing an absolutist government symbolized
    by the growing powers of the wazirs and the
    sinister presence of the executioner.

22
  • What was the nature of the economy of the Abbasid
    period?
  • A) It was a period of general prosperity typified
    by urban growth and the restoration of the
    Afro-Eurasian trade axis.
  • B) There was a general crisis in the agricultural
    economy resulting from the constant warfare of
    the period.
  • C) The economic downturn of the era was typified
    by the breakdown in the trade between the Middle
    East and China.
  • D) Although commerce was generally resuscitated
    during the Abbasid period, artisan production
    dropped off significantly.
  • E) Trade was initiated with Northern Europe.

23
And the answer is
  • A) It was a period of general prosperity typified
    by urban growth and the restoration of the
    Afro-Eurasian trade axis.

24
  • Who were the ayan?
  • A) Abbasid bureaucrats
  • B) African slaves
  • C) free artisans
  • D) a rural landholding elite
  • E) Jewish converts to Islam

25
And the answer is
  • D) a rural landholding elite

26
  • What was the status of artisans in Abbasid
    cities?
  • A) Handicraft industries were staffed by slave
    labor exclusively.
  • B) The number of artisans decreased along with
    the economic crisis of the Abbasid period.
  • C) Artisans were free men who owned their own
    tools and who formed guild-like organizations to
    negotiate wages.
  • D) Artisans were able to utilize their guild-like
    organizations to seize political control of most
    Abbasid towns.
  • E) Artisans found no markets for their goods.

27
And the answer is
  • C) Artisans were free men who owned their own
    tools and who formed guild-like organizations to
    negotiate wages.

28
  • What was the nature of slavery within the Abbasid
    social system?
  • A) According to the Quran, slavery could not
    exist in Islam, and the Abbasid freed all former
    slaves.
  • B) Slavery was limited to the non-Arab converts
    to Islam, and died out during the period of the
    Abbasid Empire.
  • C) Because most unskilled labor was left to the
    unfree, slaves could be found in both the towns
    and countryside of the Abbasid Empire.
  • D) Slavery was known in Abbasid cities, but was
    virtually unknown in the countryside where most
    labor was performed by a free peasantry.
  • E) Most slaves worked under favorable conditions

29
And the answer is
  • C) Because most unskilled labor was left to the
    unfree, slaves could be found in both the towns
    and countryside of the Abbasid Empire.

30
  • What was the primary cultural contribution of the
    Muslims during the Abbasid period?
  • A) The Muslims were able to recover and preserve
    the works of the ancient philosophers as well as
    transmit from one civilization to another.
  • B) The Muslims became extraordinarily adept at
    portraiture, focusing on depictions of Muhammad
    and the early Caliphs.
  • C) Although the material culture of the Abbasid
    period remained poor, Muslims were able to make
    some advances in music.
  • D) Islamic learning was necessarily unique, as
    they had no access to the ancient traditions of
    philosophy and science.
  • E) Islamic culture excluded any recognition of
    the achievements of earlier civilizations.

31
And the answer is
  • A) The Muslims were able to recover and preserve
    the works of the ancient philosophers as well as
    transmit from one civilization to another.

32
  • By the ninth century, what happened to the
    Abbasid control of the empire?
  • A) The Abbasids continued to develop absolutism
    in such a fashion that they controlled a large
    portion of Eurasia.
  • B) Non-Arab peoples, particularly the Turks who
    had converted to Islam, increasingly dominated
    political life.
  • C) Successive defeats of the Abbasids by the
    Byzantine Empire led to the collapse of the
    dynasty and the emergence of a Greek hegemony.
  • D) Eventually the Persian influence in the
    Abbasid Empire resulted in the removal of the
    capital to Merv and the rise of a purely Persian
    dynasty.
  • E) The Abbasid empire had all but disappeared by
    the ninth century.

33
And the answer is
  • A) The Abbasids continued to develop absolutism
    in such a fashion that they controlled a large
    portion of Eurasia.

34
  • Which of the following was NOT a reason for the
    decline of the Abbasid dynasty by the ninth
    century A.D.?
  • A) the collapse of the cities
  • B) the retention of regional identities by the
    population
  • C) the difficulty of moving armies across the
    great distances of the empire
  • D) the difficulty of compelling local
    administrators to obey
  • E) disputes over succession

35
And the answer is
  • A) the collapse of the cities

36
  • Which of the following groups did NOT revolt
    against Abbasid rule?
  • A ) slaves
  • B) peasants
  • C) Sunnis
  • D) Shiis
  • E) Buyids

37
And the answer is
  • C) Sunnis

38
  • How did the Caliph al-Mahdi resolve the problem
    of succession in the Abbasid dynasty?
  • A) He specified the rule of primogeniture (the
    succession of the oldest son).
  • B) He accepted the Shii doctrine that only the
    person with the most direct relationship to
    Muhammad should succeed.
  • C) He accepted the radical proposition that only
    a man of demonstrable Islamic purity should
    succeed.
  • D) He failed to resolve the problem of dynastic
    succession with disastrous results.
  • E) He appointed one of his sons to succeed him.

39
And the answer is
  • D) He failed to resolve the problem of dynastic
    succession with disastrous results.

40
  • What was the innovation of the Abbasid court with
    respect to women?
  • A) the establishment of the harem
  • B) the legislation of multiple marriages for
    women
  • C) the creation of Islamic nunneries
  • D) legislation against concubinage and
    prostitution
  • E) more equality of rights

41
And the answer is
  • A) the establishment of the harem

42
  • What was the regional splinter dynasty that
    captured Baghdad in 945?
  • A) Mongols
  • B) Buyids
  • C) Seljuk Turks
  • D) Ghazni
  • E) Avars

43
And the answer is
  • B) Buyids

44
  • What group successfully captured Baghdad in 1055?
  • A) Mongols
  • B) Buyids
  • C) Seljuk Turks
  • D) Ghazni
  • E) Berbers

45
And the answer is
  • C) Seljuk Turks

46
  • What was the religious affiliation of the Seljuk
    Turks?
  • A) Christian
  • B) Shii
  • C) Sufi
  • D) Sunni
  • E) Eastern Orthodox

47
And the answer is
  • D) Sunni

48
  • In what year was Jerusalem captured by Christian
    Crusaders?
  • A) 985
  • B) 1099
  • C) 1142
  • D) 1245
  • E) 1258

49
And the answer is
  • B) 1099

50
  • What was the impact of the Seljuk conquest of
    Baghdad on the Abbasid Empire?
  • A) The Empire continued to crumble as a result of
    the military successes of Fatimid Egypt and the
    Byzantine Empire.
  • B) The imposition of a Christian government in
    the name of the Abbasid Caliphs temporarily
    restored order.
  • C) The Seljuks abandoned the Middle East for
    further conquests in the Indian subcontinent.
  • D) It actually restored the ability of the empire
    to meet the challenges of Egypt and the Byzantine
    Empire.
  • E) It left them unprepared to deal with the
    Mongols.

51
And the answer is
  • D) It actually restored the ability of the empire
    to meet the challenges of Egypt and the Byzantine
    Empire.

52
  • Who was the Muslim leader responsible for the
    reconquest of most of the territories belonging
    to the Christian Crusaders?
  • A) Firdawsi
  • B) Muhammad ibn Qasim
  • C) al-Ghazali
  • D) Saladin
  • E) Umar

53
And the answer is
  • D) Saladin

54
  • What accounts for the success of the First
    Crusade?
  • A) the overwhelming military superiority of
    western military technology
  • B) the contemporary emergence of the Christian
    Seljuk Turks in Baghdad
  • C) Muslim political fragmentation and the element
    of surprise
  • D) the support and cooperation of the Jewish
    community of the Holy Land
  • E) the power of the Byzantine Empire

55
And the answer is
  • C) Muslim political fragmentation and the element
    of surprise

56
  • The fall of Acre, the last Crusader stronghold,
    occurred in what year?
  • A) 1099
  • B) 1135
  • C) 1193
  • D) 1291
  • E) 1204

57
And the answer is
  • D) 1291

58
  • What was the impact of the Crusades on the
    Christian West?
  • A) Christians adopted military techniques, words,
    scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among
    other things.
  • B) Christians rejected most Muslim influence,
    although they did gain a taste for Muslim wines
    and liquors.
  • C) There was no Muslim influence on the Christian
    West.
  • D) The Crusades interrupted the trade of the
    Mediterranean and cut off the West from Islam
    until 1293.
  • E) The crusades led to an extension of Feudalism.

59
And the answer is
  • A) Christians adopted military techniques, words,
    scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among
    other things.

60
  • What was the impact of the Crusades on Islam?
  • A) The Muslims adopted military technology,
    words, scientific knowledge among other things
    from the West.
  • B) Although they resisted most influence, the
    Muslims did acquire a taste for western cuisine.
  • C) There was minimal western impact on Islam.
  • D) The Crusades temporarily cut off all exchange
    between the West and Islam.
  • E) Islam fell into decline and was eclipsed by
    the Mongols.

61
And the answer is
  • C) There was minimal western impact on Islam.

62
  • What was the trend of urbanization during much of
    the Abbasid Empire?
  • A) Because the Abbasids abandoned Baghdad for
    other capitals, cities within the empire tended
    to wither and die.
  • B) Successive invasions led to a decline in
    urbanization.
  • C) Despite political disintegration and a decline
    in the agricultural economy, towns continued to
    grow rapidly.
  • D) Towns established in the early years of the
    dynasty were able to hold their own, but there
    was little growth.
  • E) The Abbasids forcibly relocated people to the
    desert.

63
And the answer is
  • C) Despite political disintegration and a decline
    in the agricultural economy, towns continued to
    grow rapidly.

64
  • What was the level of trade in the Abbasid
    Empire?
  • A) Long-distance trade with Africa, the
    Mediterranean, India, and China continued to
    flourish despite periodic interruption.
  • B) Trade with the East grew, but the Crusades
    eliminated the western trade routes.
  • C) Trade with Africa and the Mediterranean
    continued to expand, but the wars in India
    disrupted the eastern trade routes.
  • D) As a whole, long-distance trade along the
    traditional caravan routes virtually ceased
    during the Abbasid Empire.

65
And the answer is
  • A) Long-distance trade with Africa, the
    Mediterranean, India, and China continued to
    flourish despite periodic interruption.

66
  • What was the primary written language of the
    later Abbasid court?
  • A) Arabic
  • B) Persian
  • C) Latin
  • D) Greek
  • E) Cyrillic

67
And the answer is
  • B) Persian

68
  • What group captured Baghdad in 1258?
  • A) Buyids
  • B) Seljuk Turks
  • C) Crusaders
  • D) Mongols
  • E) Avars

69
And the answer is
  • D) Mongols

70
  • How did the political center of Islam change
    after the Mongol invasions?
  • A) Baghdad remained the capital of Islam, but
    under the control of successive Mongol dynasties.
  • B) The center of Islam passed with the withdrawal
    of the invaders into the steppes of central Asia.
  • C) Baghdad became a provincial backwater,
    supplanted by Cairo to the east and soon
    thereafter Istanbul to the north.
  • D) The political center of Islam was removed to
    sub-Saharan Africa.
  • E) Mongolian became the language of politics and
    commerce.

71
And the answer is
  • C) Baghdad became a provincial backwater,
    supplanted by Cairo to the east and soon
    thereafter Istanbul to the north.

72
  • What was the difference between the Islamic
    invasions of India and previous incursions of the
    subcontinent?
  • A) With the Muslims, the peoples of India
    encountered for the first time a large-scale
    influx of invaders with a civilization as
    sophisticated as their own.
  • B) With the Muslims, the peoples of India
    encountered for the first time an invasion from
    the west rather than the east.
  • C) The Muslims were rapidly able to unify all of
    India into a single empire.
  • D) The Muslims, unlike previous invaders,
    bypassed the Gangetic plain in preference for
    southern India.
  • E) Islam had no lasting effect on India.

73
And the answer is
  • A) With the Muslims, the peoples of India
    encountered for the first time a large-scale
    influx of invaders with a civilization as
    sophisticated as their own.

74
  • How did Islam and Hinduism differ?
  • A) Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all
    believers, while Islam was more rigid in terms of
    orthodox belief.
  • B) Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all
    believers, while Hinduism was more rigid in terms
    of orthodox belief.
  • C) Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all
    believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based
    social system.
  • D) Hinduism stressed the egalitarianism of all
    believers, while Islam embraced a caste-based
    social system.
  • E) Hinduism was monotheistic, while Islam was
    polytheistic.

75
And the answer is
  • C) Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all
    believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based
    social system.

76
  • How did the Muslim conquerors of Sind treat the
    Hindu and Buddhist residents of the region?
  • A) all non-Muslims were put to death
  • B) Hindus and Buddhists were treated as dhimmis
    or peoples of the book
  • C) most of the Muslims converted to Hinduism
  • D) forced conversions of the native population
    followed the Muslim military successes
  • E) Hinduism prohibited, Buddhism tolerated

77
And the answer is
  • B) Hindus and Buddhists were treated as dhimmis
    or peoples of the book

78
  • What was the most critical cultural advance as a
    result of the increased contact between Muslims
    and Indian civilization?
  • A) Muslims adopted the Hindu pantheon of gods.
  • B) Muslim commerce was increasingly dominated by
    the merchant caste of India.
  • C) Muslims adopted the system of mathematical
    notation later referred to as Arabic numerals.
  • D) Muslims adopted the highly stratified social
    system common in Indian civilization.
  • E) India adopted Islamic science.

79
And the answer is
  • C) Muslims adopted the system of mathematical
    notation later referred to as Arabic numerals.

80
  • What groups were responsible for the conversion
    of Indians to Islam?
  • A) traders and Sufi mystics
  • B) ulama and Sunni evangelists
  • C) soldiers and Shia exiles
  • D) the Mongols and Seljuk Turks
  • E) Delhi Sultans

81
And the answer is
  • A) traders and Sufi mystics

82
  • Why were the Sufis effective missionaries within
    the Indian subcontinent?
  • A) they enjoyed the support of the Hindu princes
    because of their support for brahmin ritual
  • B) in both style and message they shared much
    with Indian mystics and wandering ascetics
  • C) they were supported by huge armies of Arabs
    who migrated to India in search of land
  • D) they rejected low caste Hindus in preference
    for converts among the brahmin elite
  • E) their message was totally new to India

83
And the answer is
  • B) in both style and message they shared much
    with Indian mystics and wandering ascetics

84
  • What groups in India were most likely to convert
    to Islam?
  • A) brahmins and merchants
  • B) raja and warriors
  • C) members of the administrative machinery of the
    Islamic kingdoms
  • D) Buddhists and low caste Hindus
  • E) Sikhs and sultans

85
And the answer is
  • D) Buddhists and low caste Hindus

86
  • How did Hinduism respond to the challenge of
    Islam?
  • A) Hindus abandoned their emphasis on many
    deities in favor of monotheism in the person of
    Shiva.
  • B) Hindus placed greater emphasis on the
    devotional or bhaktic cults of gods and goddesses
    such as Shiva and Vishnu.
  • C) Hindus converted to Islam in increasing
    numbers, until Muslims outnumbered Hindus in the
    subcontinent.
  • D) The brahmins accepted Islam as a variety of
    orthodox Hindu belief, while anticipating the
    incorporation of the Muslim immigrants into the
    Indian caste system.
  • E) Hindus created a new warrior class.

87
And the answer is
  • B) Hindus placed greater emphasis on the
    devotional or bhaktic cults of gods and goddesses
    such as Shiva and Vishnu.

88
  • The spread of Islam to southeast Asia was delayed
    until the fall of the Buddhist trade empire of
  • A) Borneo.
  • B) Sumatra.
  • C) the Celebes Islands.
  • D) Shrivijaya.
  • E) Kashmir.

89
And the answer is
  • D) Shrivijaya.

90
  • In general, how did Islam spread in Southeast
    Asia?
  • A) Port cities were points of dissemination to
    other links in trading networks.
  • B) Most of Southeast Asia was converted to Islam
    after the military victories of Qutb-ud-din
    Aibak.
  • C) Islam was carried to Southeast Asia from
    China.
  • D) Trade to Southeast Asia from Africa and Persia
    established Islamic centers on the mainland from
    which conversion took place.
  • E) Isolated regimes were visited by dervishes.

91
And the answer is
  • A) Port cities were points of dissemination to
    other links in trading networks.

92
  • Between 800 and 1500 as the frequency and
    intensity of contact with the outside world
    increased, what was the most significant impact
    on sub-Saharan Africa?
  • A) the arrival of the Portuguese
  • B) the arrival of Christianity
  • C) the arrival of Islam
  • D) the arrival of Chinese merchants
  • E) the arrival of the Mamluks

93
And the answer is
  • C) the arrival of Islam

94
  • What was one of the major differences between
    African civilizations and other post-classical
    societies?
  • A) African civilizations were built somewhat less
    clearly on prior precedent than was the case in
    other post-classical societies.
  • B) African civilization was almost entirely
    dependent on cultural importations from Islam and
    the Arabic world.
  • C) Prior to 800, African civilizations had no
    prior contacts with civilizations outside of the
    African continent.
  • D) There were no civilizations in Africa until
    the post-classical period.
  • E) African civilizations were based on European
    models.

95
And the answer is
  • A) African civilizations were built somewhat less
    clearly on prior precedent than was the case in
    other post-classical societies.

96
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    political and religious universality in Africa is
    most accurate?
  • A) Although a universal empire did not develop in
    Africa, Islam provided a principle of
    universality in the continent.
  • B) During the post-classical period, Africa was
    politically united under a single government but
    remained religiously diverse.
  • C) Universal religions found no adherents in
    Africaa fact that helps to account for the
    failure of a universal political system to
    develop.
  • D) Neither universal states nor universal
    religion characterized Africa, but both
    Christianity and Islam did find adherents in
    Africa.
  • E) There were no similarities in the various
    African religious beliefs.

97
And the answer is
  • D) Neither universal states nor universal
    religion characterized Africa, but both
    Christianity and Islam did find adherents in
    Africa.

98
  • African societies organized around kinship or
    other forms of obligation and lacking the
    concentration of political power and authority
    were referred to as
  • A) stateless.
  • B) hunting and gathering bands.
  • C) Bantu conical clans.
  • D) Islamic tribes.
  • E) proto-Empires.

99
And the answer is
  • A) stateless.

100
  • Which of the following statements best describes
    the indigenous religion of much of sub-Saharan
    Africa?
  • A) Much of sub-Saharan Africa was Christian.
  • B) Animistic religionbelief in the power of
    natural forces personified as deitiescharacterize
    d much of Africa.
  • C) African religion prior to the arrival of the
    Muslims was typified by an independent form of
    monotheism characterized by worship in monumental
    temple complexes.
  • D) Uniquely, African societies lacked religious
    principles prior to the arrival of the Christians
    and Muslims.
  • E) Sub-Saharan groups were influenced by Hindu
    beliefs.

101
And the answer is
  • B) Animistic religionbelief in the power of
    natural forces personified as deitiescharacterize
    d much of Africa.

102
  • Which of the following was NOT a belief shared by
    practitioners of many indigenous African
    religions?
  • A) the idea of a creator deity
  • B) the basic tenets of Coptic Christianity
  • C) the veneration of ancestors
  • D) the view that the land had religious
    significance
  • E) well-developed concepts of good and evil

103
And the answer is
  • B) the basic tenets of Coptic Christianity

104
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    economies of Africa is NOT correct?
  • A) North Africa was fully involved in the
    Mediterranean and Arab economic world.
  • B) Settled agriculture and iron working had been
    established in many areas before the
    post-classical period.
  • C) Trade was handled by professional merchants,
    often in kinship groupings.
  • D) Much of the region lacked a market economy and
    was based on self-sufficient agricultural units.
  • E) Stateless societies found it difficult to
    maintain long-distance trade.

105
And the answer is
  • D) Much of the region lacked a market economy and
    was based on self-sufficient agricultural units.

106
  • What was the major drawback to African trade with
    other civilizations?
  • A) Such trade was entirely in the hands of
    foreign merchants.
  • B) International trade resulted in the conquest
    of all of Africa by the Muslims.
  • C) Africa tended to exchange raw materials for
    manufactured products and failed to develop an
    industrial technology.
  • D) Despite the significance of international
    trade, Africa failed to urbanize.
  • E) Trade was not handled by professional
    merchants.

107
And the answer is
  • C) Africa tended to exchange raw materials for
    manufactured products and failed to develop an
    industrial technology.

108
  • What region of Africa was first converted to
    Islam by 700 A.D.?
  • A) East Africa
  • B) Central Africa
  • C) West Africa
  • D) North Africa
  • E) South Africa

109
And the answer is
  • D) North Africa

110
  • The puritanical reform movements of the
    Almoravids and Almohadis arose among what groups
    of people?
  • A) the Berbers, native desert dwellers of North
    Africa
  • B) the Arabs during the conquest of North Africa
  • C) the Nubians of the early Sudan
  • D) the inhabitants of the empire of Mali
  • E) the Ethiopians and the Coptic Christians

111
And the answer is
  • A) the Berbers, native desert dwellers of North
    Africa

112
  • What does the phrase equality before God and
    inequality within the world mean?
  • A) It refers to the indigenous African religions
    emphasis on social equality.
  • B) It refers to the powers exercised by the
    African rulers.
  • C) It refers to the equality that all clan heads
    enjoyed within African society.
  • D) It refers to the Islamic emphasis on equality
    of all believers, but the continued acceptance of
    social stratification.
  • E) It means that Africans favored a variety of
    socialism.

113
And the answer is
  • D) It refers to the Islamic emphasis on equality
    of all believers, but the continued acceptance of
    social stratification.

114
  • What was the most important Christian kingdom in
    Africa?
  • A) Mali
  • B) Songhay
  • C) Kongo
  • D) Ethiopia
  • E) Egypt

115
And the answer is
  • D) Ethiopia

116
  • The Sahel refers to the
  • A) grassland belt at the southern edge of the
    Sahara that served as a point of exchange between
    the forests of the south and North Africa.
  • B) East African coastline that became the primary
    point of contact for Muslim merchants from India
    and Southeast Asia and African traders.
  • C) series of trading ports that rapidly developed
    along the Atlantic coast to support the trade in
    African slaves.
  • D) forest zone of Central Africa that remained
    free of Islamic influence largely because of the
    inability of the camel to withstand the climate
    of the region.
  • E) that part of the Sahara that extends onto the
    Arabian peninsula.

117
And the answer is
  • A) grassland belt at the southern edge of the
    Sahara that served as a point of exchange between
    the forests of the south and North Africa.

118
  • What was the geographical location of the empire
    of Mali?
  • A) between the Zambezi and Congo Rivers
  • B) between the cities of Mogadishu and Mombasa
  • C) between the Niger and Senegal Rivers
  • D) along the Nile River valley
  • E) in the Atlas mountains of North Africa

119
And the answer is
  • C) between the Niger and Senegal Rivers

120
  • Songhay was originally part of what African
    empire?
  • A) Ethiopia
  • B) Axum
  • C) Mali
  • D) Zimbabwe
  • E) Soumauro

121
And the answer is
  • C) Mali

122
  • What accounted for the downfall of Songhay?
  • A) the collapse of the irrigation system on which
    the agricultural economy depended
  • B) invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped
    with firearms
  • C) invasion by the Portuguese
  • D) defeat and incorporation within the Mali
    Empire
  • E) The rise of the Swahili coast

123
And the answer is
  • B) invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped
    with firearms

124
  • What was the common cultural trait of the
    urbanized trading ports of the East African
    coast?
  • A) membership in the Soninke tribe
  • B) the artistic style of the Nok culture
  • C) Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili
    language
  • D) a single ruling family from the Malinke tribe
  • E) descent from shiraz in Persia

125
And the answer is
  • C) Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili
    language

126
  • What was the nature of trade with the towns of
    East Africa?
  • A) Most trade was focused on caravans crossing
    the Sahel to North Africa.
  • B) Trade was limited to local commerce among the
    towns and with the hinterlands lying west of the
    urbanized coast.
  • C) Trade was limited to gold and salt.
  • D) There was active trade to the Persian Gulf and
    Egypt, but little beyond those points.
  • E) International trade flourished in the
    urbanized ports of East Africa, including
    commerce with India and China.

127
And the answer is
  • D) There was active trade to the Persian Gulf and
    Egypt, but little beyond those points.

128
  • How did the expansion of Islam aid in the
    creation of international trade on the East
    African coastline?
  • A) Islam expanded to India and Southeast Asia
    providing a religious bond of trust between those
    regions and the converted rulers of the cities of
    East Africa.
  • B) Because Islam regarded Christians as peoples
    of the book, Muslim merchants came to trade at
    the Christianized ports of East Africa.
  • C) The connection with the Islamic states of
    North Africa permitted the urbanized ports of
    East Africa to trade widely with northern Europe.
  • D) The direct trade routes between the African
    states of West Africa and the coast of East
    Africa stimulated commerce between the cities of
    the east and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • E) Islamic merchants established banking houses
    on the coast.

129
And the answer is
  • A) Islam expanded to India and Southeast Asia
    providing a religious bond of trust between those
    regions and the converted rulers of the cities of
    East Africa.

130
  • Many African societies unaffected by either
    Christianity or Islam developed states without
  • A) much success.
  • B) monumental architecture.
  • C) systems of government.
  • D) systems of writing.
  • E) borders.

131
And the answer is
  • D) systems of writing.

132
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    Great Zimbabwe is NOT correct?
  • A) Zimbabwe actually refers to the stone
    buildings that were typical of the culture.
  • B) Great Zimbabwe was both the capital of the
    kingdom and a religious center.
  • C) Great Zimbabwe was constructed by Arab Muslims
    who were trading with the Bantu residents of the
    region.
  • D) By the fifteenth century, a centralized state
    had begun to form centered on Great Zimbabwe.
  • E) Sofala was the entrepot for Zimbabwean goods.

133
And the answer is
  • C) Great Zimbabwe was constructed by Arab Muslims
    who were trading with the Bantu residents of the
    region.

134
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    impact of Islam on sub-Saharan Africa is most
    accurate?
  • A) Islam cut off North Africa from the regions of
    sub-Saharan Africa.
  • B) Although Africa had never been totally
    isolated from the Mediterranean, the spread of
    Islam brought large areas of Africa within the
    global community.
  • C) With the conversion of regions of the
    continent to Islam, Africa became the center of
    the Islamic world.
  • D) Despite widespread conversion of Africans to
    Islam, the continent remained outside the trading
    sphere of the Islamic world.
  • E) African development can be understood solely
    in terms of Islamic influences.

135
And the answer is
  • B) Although Africa had never been totally
    isolated from the Mediterranean, the spread of
    Islam brought large areas of Africa within the
    global community.

136
  • Which of the following is most correctly seen as
    a direct descendant of the Roman Empire?
  • A) Frankish Empire
  • B) Ottoman Empire
  • C) Byzantine Empire
  • D) Abbasid Empire
  • E) Holy Roman Empire

137
And the answer is
  • C) Byzantine Empire

138
  • The Byzantine Empire lasted from
  • A) 500 to 1450.
  • B) 200 to 1200.
  • C) 300 to 1700.
  • D) 700 to 1650.
  • E) 300 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.

139
And the answer is
  • A) 500 to 1450.

140
  • The significance of the Byzantine Empire included
    all of the following EXCEPT
  • A) The empires ability to survive for almost a
    thousand years.
  • B) The importance of the empires capital at
    Constantinople as a major urban center.
  • C) The ability of the empire to spread its
    cultural and political influence to the Balkans
    and southern Russia.
  • D) The empires conquest of the Ottoman Empire
    and its inclusion of all of the Middle East.
  • E) Its takeover of Rome and Roman Catholicism.

141
And the answer is
  • D) The empires conquest of the Ottoman Empire
    and its inclusion of all of the Middle East.

142
  • What was the most important stepchild of the
    Byzantine civilization?
  • A) Italy
  • B) the Middle East
  • C) Russia
  • D) Poland
  • E) Greece

143
And the answer is
  • C) Russia

144
  • Which of the following does NOT represent a
    similarity between the spread of civilization in
    eastern and western Europe?
  • A) Civilization spread northward from a
    Mediterranean base.
  • B) Animism gave way to monotheism.
  • C) Northern political units rapidly dominated the
    political sophistication of civilization areas in
    Asia and North Africa.
  • D) In both cases newly civilized areas looked
    back to the Greco-Roman past.
  • E) Christianity was spread in both cases.

145
And the answer is
  • C) Northern political units rapidly dominated the
    political sophistication of civilization areas in
    Asia and North Africa.

146
  • Which of the following represents a difference
    between the spread of civilization in eastern and
    western Europe?
  • A) They produced different versions of
    Christianity, culturally as well as
    organizationally separate.
  • B) Only eastern Europe developed north-south
    commercial ties.
  • C) Centralized government and well-organized
    bureaucracy was more a feature of western Europe
    than eastern Europe.
  • D) Eastern Europe retained less fully the culture
    of the later Roman Empire than did the West.
  • E) Only the east faced the threat of an Islamic
    invasion.

147
And the answer is
  • A) They produced different versions of
    Christianity, culturally as well as
    organizationally separate.

148
  • The capital of the Byzantine Empire and its
    commercial center was located at
  • A) Rome.
  • B) Nicaea.
  • C) Constantinople.
  • D) Baghdad.
  • E) Athens.

149
And the answer is
  • C) Constantinople.

150
  • The emperor responsible for the initial
    construction of Constantinople was
  • A) Constantine.
  • B) Justinian.
  • C) Diocletian.
  • D) Heraklius.
  • E) Procopius.

151
And the answer is
  • A) Constantine.

152
  • What was the great church built in Constantinople
    by Justinian?
  • A) St. Peters
  • B) The Cathedral of St. Dimitri
  • C) Hagia Sophia
  • D) Sts. Cyril and Methodius
  • E) St. Basil

153
And the answer is
  • C) Hagia Sophia

154
  • Starting with the reign of Justinian, what was
    the official language of the eastern empire?
  • A) Latin
  • B) Persian
  • C) Arabic
  • D) Greek
  • E) Aramaic

155
And the answer is
  • D) Greek

156
  • The name normally given to the form of
    Christianity that emerged in the Byzantine Empire
    was
  • A) Roman Catholicism.
  • B) Nestorianism.
  • C) Orthodox Christianity.
  • D) Solafideanism.
  • E) Coptic Christianity.

157
And the answer is
  • C) Orthodox Christianity.

158
  • What Eastern emperor was responsible for the
    attempted restoration of a united Roman Empire
    after 533?
  • A) Constantine
  • B) Justinian
  • C) Diocletian
  • D) Theodosius
  • E) Michael II

159
And the answer is
  • B) Justinian

160
  • Which of the following was NOT one of Justinians
    positive contributions to the Byzantine Empire?
  • A) the rebuilding of Constantinople
  • B) systematizing of the Roman legal code
  • C) the reconquest of Gaul
  • D) the construction of Hagia Sophia
  • E) territorial gains in North Africa and Italy

161
And the answer is
  • C) the reconquest of Gaul

162
  • All of the following were outcomes of Justinians
    wars of reconquest EXCEPT
  • A) the permanent addition of Rome to the
    Byzantine Empire.
  • B) increased tax pressures on the government.
  • C) military successes in North Africa and Italy.
  • D) weakening of the empires defenses on its
    eastern frontiers.
  • E) establishment of a key artistic center at
    Raven.

163
And the answer is
  • A) the permanent addition of Rome to the
    Byzantine Empire.

164
  • After the seventh century, what group posed the
    greatest threat to the eastern frontiers of the
    Byzantine Empire?
  • A) the Seasoned Persians
  • B) the Germans
  • C) the Huns
  • D) the Arab Muslims
  • E) the Romans

165
And the answer is
  • D) the Arab Muslims

166
  • Byzantine cultural life centered on the secular
    traditions of
  • A) Islam.
  • B) Confucianism.
  • C) Ancient Egypt.
  • D) Hellenism.
  • E) Norse legends.

167
And the answer is
  • D) Hellenism.

168
  • In which of the following ways were the Byzantine
    bureaucracy and the Chinese bureaucracy similar?
  • A) There was an extensive state exam system in
    both.
  • B) Emperors played little role in either
    government.
  • C) There was no linkage of the bureaucracies to
    local administration.
  • D) Both bureaucracies were open to talented
    commoners, not just aristocrats.
  • E) They were driven by the authority of the
    church.

169
And the answer is
  • D) Both bureaucracies were open to talented
    commoners, not just aristocrats.

170
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    urbanization within the Byzantine Empire is most
    correct?
  • A) Constantinople controlled the economy and grew
    to enormous size, but other cities were
    relatively small.
  • B) Constantinople began to decline in population
    in the later years of the Byzantine Empire and
    was surpassed by the growth of other urban
    centers.
  • C) Like China, the Byzantine Empire was heavily
    urbanized with many cities numbering more than
    100,000.
  • D) Most people in the Byzantine Empire lived in
    five great cities Constantinople, Nicaea,
    Smyrna, Rome, and Athens.
  • E) Constantinople was never a center of trade,
    but dominated the Empire culturally.

171
And the answer is
  • A) Constantinople controlled the economy and grew
    to enormous size, but other cities were
    relatively small.

172
  • What were the primary exports of the Byzantine
    Empire?
  • A) food products
  • B) raw materials, such as metal ores from Asia
    Minor
  • C) luxury products, such as silk, cloth and
    carpets
  • D) the empire produced little of significance and
    was almost exclusively an importer of goods
  • E) cash crops, such as cotton and indigo

173
And the answer is
  • C) luxury products, such as silk, cloth and
    carpets

174
  • What was the result of the conflict over the use
    of religious images in the Orthodox Church?
  • A) Like the Muslims, the Orthodox Church banned
    subsequent use of religious images in favor of
    non-representational art.
  • B) Because of the popular reaction in favor of
    icons, the Orthodox Church restored their use
    but the close relationship between church and
    state was broken.
  • C) After a long and complex battle, icon use was
    gradually restored, while the tradition of state
    control over church affairs was also reasserted.
  • D) Because of the strong resistance of the monks,
    icon use was restricted to those regions of the
    empire where the monasteries had little
    influence.
  • E) The use of icons was sanctioned in both the
    Eastern and Western churches.

175
And the answer is
  • C) After a long and complex battle, icon use was
    gradually restored, while the tradition of state
    control over church affairs was also reasserted.

176
  • Which of the following issues was a cause for the
    split between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox
    churches after 1054?
  • A) the Orthodox churchs lack of bishops
  • B) the insistence of the patriarch of
    Constantinople on supremacy within church
    councils
  • C) the absence of monasticism in Roman
    Catholicism
  • D) the Roman Catholic practice of requiring
    celibacy for its priests
  • E) polygamy among Orthodox priests

177
And the answer is
  • D) the Roman Catholic practice of requiring
    celibacy for its priests

178
  • In the eleventh century, what group of people
    seized most of the Asiatic provinces of the
    Byzantine Empire?
  • A) the Huns
  • B) the Mongols
  • C) the Ottoman Turks
  • D) the Seljuk Turks
  • E) the Mamluks

179
And the answer is
  • D) the Seljuk Turks

180
  • What was the outcome of the Western crusade of
    1204?
  • A) The crusaders succeeded in temporarily pushing
    back the Turks and restoring the Asiatic
    provinces of the Byzantine Empire.
  • B) The crusade succeeded in establishing a
    Western kingdom in the Holy Land, but failed to
    relieve the Asiatic provinces of the Byzantine
    Empire.
  • C) The crusaders attacked and conquered
    Constantinople, temporarily establishing a
    Western kingdom there.
  • D) The crusade resulted in the establishment of a
    Western kingdom of Bulgaria in the Balkans.
  • E) The Holy Land was restored to the Jews.

181
And the answer is
  • C) The crusaders attacked and conquered
    Constantinople, temporarily establishing a
    Western kingdom there.

182
  • In what year did the Ottoman Turks successfully
    capture Constantinople and bring the Byzantine
    Empire to a close?
  • A) 1071
  • B) 1326
  • C) 1453
  • D) 1501
  • E) 1492

183
And the answer is
  • C) 1453

184
  • The Slavic alphabet created by Orthodox
    missionaries to the Slavs is called
  • A) cursive.
  • B) Constantinopolitan.
  • C) Cyrillic.
  • D) Russo-Slavic.
  • E) Sanskrit.

185
And the answer is
  • C) Cyrillic.

186
  • Which of the following countries was converted to
    Orthodox Christianity?
  • A) Poland
  • B) Russia
  • C) Hungary
  • D) Czechoslovakia
  • E) Lithuania

187
And the answer is
  • B) Russia

188
  • The kingdom of Kiev in southern Russia was
    established by traders from what region?
  • A) Scandinavia
  • B) Czechoslovakia
  • C) the Balkans
  • D) the Byzantine Empire
  • E) the Middle East

189
And the answer is
  • A) Scandinavia

190
  • Why did Vladimir I prefer Orthodox Christianity
    to Roman Catholicism?
  • A) He preferred to avoid the pitfalls of the
    veneration of icons.
  • B) He believed that Roman Catholicism implied
    papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the
    control of the church by the state.
  • C) He was not familiar with Roman Catholicism,
    because the Western form of Christianity had not
    penetrated into eastern Europe.
  • D) He did not believe in clerical celibacy which
    was required of the Roman Catholic priesthood.
  • E) He rejected the Roman Catholics emphasis on
    the sacraments.

191
And the answer is
  • B) He believed that Roman Catholicism implied
    papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the
    control of the church by the state.

192
  • What group of peoples were responsible for the
    conquest of Kievan Russia in 1236?
  • A) Huns
  • B) Mongols
  • C) Ottoman Turks
  • D) Seljuk Turks
  • E) Safavid Persians

193
And the answer is
  • B) Mongols

194
  • The post-classical period in Western history
    between the fall of the Roman Empire and the
    fifteenth century is referred to as the
  • A) Middle Ages.
  • B) Renaissance.
  • C) Age of Discovery.
  • D) Baroque.
  • E) Modern Era.

195
And the answer is
  • A) Middle Ages.

196
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    impact of Christianity on polytheistic religions
    in western Europe is most accurate?
  • A) Christianity eradicated all traces of those
    earlier religions as the new religion became
    universal in western Europe.
  • B) The process of conversion produced a religious
    amalgam in which beliefs in magic and
    supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity.
  • C) Although Christianity made inroads, many areas
    of Europe retained polytheistic beliefs and
    rejected the new religion.
  • D) Small islands of polytheistic belief remained,
    but Christianity eradicated belief in magic and
    spirits wherever the new religion was accepted.
  • E) Few polytheistic religions existed in Europe
    during the Middle Ages, but their influences
    grew.

197
And the answer is
  • B) The process of conversion produced a religious
    amalgam in which beliefs in magic and
    supernatural spirits coexisted with Christianity.

198
  • Medieval backwardness in western Europe accounts
    for
  • A) the failure of the medieval West to establish
    centralized governments.
  • B) the inability of the West to establish trade
    contacts with the larger world commercial
    network.
  • C) the refusal of the West to adopt technologies
    and knowledge from other civilizations.
  • D) the anxiety of the West about the more
    powerful Muslim world.
  • E) the lack of a universal language of learning.

199
And the answer is
  • D) the anxiety of the West about the more
    powerful Muslim world.

200
  • Which of the following was NOT a sign of vitality
    in the medieval western culture following the
    Roman Empires fall?
  • A) population growth
  • B) the development of the university
  • C) the development of new political forms and
    social organization
  • D) the development of a purely secular society
  • E) the strong current of spirituality

201
And the answer is
  • D) the development of a purely secular society

202
  • Following the fall of Rome, where was the center
    of the post-classical West?
  • A) the former Roman colony of Spain
  • B) Italy, particularly Rome
  • C) the central plain of northern Europe France,
    the Low Countries, southern and western Germany
  • D) Greece
  • E) the British Isles

203
And the answer is
  • C) the central plain of northern Europe France,
    the Low Countries, southern and western Germany

204
  • Who were the invaders who disrupted the
    development of political institutions in the
    medieval West until the tenth century?
  • A) Muslims
  • B) Mongols
  • C) Vikings
  • D) Chinese
  • E) Turks

205
And the answer is
  • C) Vikings

206
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    intellectual activity of the medieval West prior
    to the eighth century is most accurate?
  • A) Classical rational traditions were actively
    united with Christian mysticism to carve out a
    new intellectual world.
  • B) With the few literate people concentrated in
    monasteries, little was achieved other than
    copying older manuscripts.
  • C) Universities rapidly created a new
    intellectual climate in which logic was applied
    to matters of Christian doctrine.
  • D) All literacy and contact with the ancient
    culture was lost in the centuries following the
    fall of Rome.
  • E) Roman scholars achieved more during this
    period than their Islamic counterparts.

207
And the answer is
  • B) With the few literate people concentrated in
    monasteries, little was achieved other than
    copying older manuscripts.

208
  • The system that described economic and political
    relations between landlords and their peasant
    laborers was called
  • A) manorialism.
  • B) feudalism.
  • C) slavery.
  • D) capitalism.
  • E) monasticism.

209
And the answer is
  • A) manorialism.

210
  • Agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction of
    aristocratic landowners were called
  • A) artisans.
  • B) guilds.
  • C) serfs.
  • D) bourgeoisie.
  • E) fiefs.

211
And the answer is
  • C) serfs.

212
  • The moldboard was
  • A) a system of justice common to the manorial
    regime of the medieval West.
  • B) a technological innovation a plow that
    allowed deeper turning of the soil.
  • C) a technological innovation a water-driven
    mill for grinding grain.
  • D) the peasant council that determined the
    division of land and labor in a peasant village.
  • E) a cutting board used by peasants to make
    bread.

213
And the answer is
  • B) a technological innovation a plow that
    allowed deeper turning of the soil.

214
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    three-field rotation system is most accurate?
  • A) Introduced in the eighth century, the
    three-field rotation added acres to production by
    leaving only a third of the land unplanted.
  • B) The three-field system removed land from
    production by reserving one-third for fallow.
  • C) The three-field system was rapidly replaced
    after the eighth century by the two-field system
    that offered greater flexibility in terms of crop
    rotation.
  • D) The three-field system removed fallow fields
    and replaced them with nitrogen-bearing crops.
  • E) It represented a net increase in productivity
    where it was used.

215
And the answer is
  • A) Introduced in the eighth century, the
    three-field rotation added acres to production by
    leaving only a third of the land unplanted.

216
  • Relationships between members of the military
    elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for
    military service and loyalty were called
  • A) manorialism.
  • B) feudalism.
  • C) capitalism.
  • D) the guild system.
  • E) monasticism.

217
And the answer is
  • B) feudalism.

218
  • The members of the military elite who received
    land in return for military service in the bands
    of the greater lords were called
  • A) fiefs.
  • B) benefices.
  • C) vassals.
  • D) serfs.
  • E) lords.

219
And the answer is
  • C) vassals.

220
  • Which of the following statements about feudalism
    is most accurate?
  • A) Although it inhibited the development of
    strong central states, some kings were able to
    use feudalism to build their own power.
  • B) Although it provided initial political
    stability, feudalism was rapidly replaced by a
    western European imperial system.
  • C) Feudalism represented only a brief, and
    largely unsatisfactory, attempt to create
    political stability in western Europe.
  • D) Feudalism produced centralized monarchies by
    the eighth century.
  • E) Feudalism caused rapid economic gains.

221
And the answer is
  • A) Although it inhibited the development of
    strong central states, some kings were able to
    use feudalism to build their own power.

222
  • What Frankish king was responsible for the
    conversion of his people to Christianity in order
    to gain a vague domination over the Franks?
  • A) Charles Martel
  • B) Clovis
  • C) Charlemagne
  • D) Pepin III
  • E) Louis IX

223
And the answer is
  • B) Clovis

224
  • What belief did the conversion of Germanic kings
    crea
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