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Pengantar

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Joshua Lederberg finds plasmids in bacteria, small rings of extrachromosomal DNA ... Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger independently develop two different methods ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pengantar


1
Pengantar Bioteknologi Hutan
2
Kuliah Pengantar Bioteknologi Kehutanan
Pokok Bahasan 1 Pendahuluan - Pengertian dan
Sejarah - Prospek dan Tantangan Pokok Bahasan
2 Genetika Molekuler Tanaman - Materi
Genetik - Regulasi dan Ekspresi Gen -
Perubahan Materi Genetik Pokok Bahasan 3
Rekayasan Gen - Kloning-transformasi -
Metode-transformasi Pokok Bahasan 4 Sistem
Silvikultur Jaringan - Mikropropagasi dan
Kultur Sel - Kultur Haploid dan Variasi
Somaklonal Pokok Bahasan 5 Penerapan
Bioteknologi - Identifikasi dan Klasifikasi
Molekuler (Isoenzym, RFLP, RAPD, sidik
jari) - Perlindungan terhadap Hama
Penyakit - Organisme Pemacu Pertumbuhan
Tanaman - Organisme Transgenik
3
Pengertian dan Sejarah
  • Bioteknologi
  • Teknologi yang menggunakan sistem hayati
    (proses-proses biologi) untuk mendapatkan barang
    dan jasa yang berguna bagi kesejahteraan manusia

4
Sejarah
  • Minuman alkohol anggur
  • (pengawetan daging)
  • Khamir roti
  • Keju
  • Yogurt
  • Susu masam
  • kecap

1857 Pasteur menemukan bahwa fermentasi
merupakan proses yang dilakukan oleh organisme
hidup 1920 fermentasi aseton, etanol,
butanol, gliserin PD II Penicillium natatum
Antibiotik Vitamin, steroid,
enzim
5
(No Transcript)
6
Fermentasi
Yeast
Fermented Alcohol Ether
Amino acid Protein Sugar
Lactid Acid Bacteri
7
Pengertian Sejarah
  • Bioteknologi tradisional
  • Seleksi bahan, mikrobia yaang digunakan dan
    modifikasi lingkungan untuk memperoleh produk
    optimal.
  • Misal pembuatan tempe, tape, roti, pengomposan
    sampah
  • Bioteknologi modern
  • Memanfaatkan ketrampilan manusia dalam melakukan
    manipulasi makhluk hidup agar dapat digunakan
    untuk menghasilkan suatu barang yang diinginkan.
    Misal rekayasa genetik

8
  • Rekayasa genetik
  • Teknik untuk menghasilkan molekul DNA yang berisi
    gen baru yang diinginkan atau kombinasi gen-gen
    baru atau dapat dikatakan sebagai manipulasi
    organisme

Bioteknologi merupakan penerapan prinsip ilmiah
dan rekayasa pengolahan bahan oleh agen biologi
untuk menyediakan barang dan jasa
9
Hasil-hasil rekayasa genetika tanaman yang
digambarkan dalam National Enquier, c. 1981.
10
(No Transcript)
11
  • Kesetabilan gen asing atau dapat berubah dan
    diekspresikan berbeda oleh organisme yang
    tertular gen asing mutasi
  • Penarikan gen asing jika masuk dalam organisme
    non target
  • Terganggunya rantai makanan'
  • Terganggunya organisme non target

12
  • 2) Tinjauan kesehatan
  • Gangguan kesehatan karena produk gen asing (dalam
    waktu panjang)
  • Bahaya atau tidaknya gen-gen penyerta
  • Tinjauan sosial dan budaya
  • Etika, moral
  • Agama
  • Perdagangan global

13
Terima kasih
14
The History of Biotechnology
  • http//www.i-s-b.org/wissen/timeline/englisch/

15
1859
  • Charles Darwin publishes his book (On the Origin
    of Species by Means of Natural Selection).
    According to this book evolution is lifes motor.
    The interplay of mutation and selection endows
    living beings with optimized traits in order to
    survive. These principles are also valid for the
    so-called 'chemical evolution' of biomolecules
    and are being used in laboratories for in vitro
    optimizing of wanted qualities in molecules

16
1865
  • Gregor Mendel finds that independent 'factors'
    are responsible for the heredity of traits from
    one generation to the next according to a set of
    (Mendelian) priciples.

17
1869
  • Friedrich Miescher discovers an acidic substance
    in the nucleus of cells which he names 'nuclein'.
    By elemental analysis he finds 14 nitrogen, 3
    phosphorus, and 2 sulfur (from proteins). Since
    the substance cannot be cleaved by the
    proteolytic enzyme pepsin Miescher concludes that
    this substance is not a protein.

18
1879
  • Walther Flemming observes the separation of
    chromosomes during mitosis but fails to fully
    understand its meaning. He counts 24 pairs of
    chromosomes, a number which will be corrected to
    23 later in 1956 by the Indonesian scientist
    Joe-Han Tijo.

19
1900
  • William Bateson introduces 'genetics' as a
    scientific discipline

Hugo de Vries, Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and
Carl Correns independently rediscover the
Mendelian principles
Hugo de Vries defines the meaning of 'mutations'
20
1902
  • Walter Sutton observes in grasshoppers' cells
    that chromosomes carry the Mendelian 'factors of
    heredity', i.e. the genetic information.

21
1909
  • Wilhelm Johansen coins the terms 'gene',
    'genotype', and 'phenotype' referring to Mendel's
    'factors'. Archibald Garrod confirms the
    hereditary nature of four metabolic diseases. He
    publishes "Inborn Errors of Metabolism"

22
1910
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan's studies in the biology of
    Drosophila melanogaster confirm that certain
    traits are inherited sex-specifically. He also
    proves that some phenotypes result from several
    genes located on different chromosomes.

23
1927
  • Herman Muller finds that energetic radiation
    causes defects in the chromosomes, i.e. mutations.

24
1928
  • Fred Griffith demonstrates that material from
    killed bacteria of the pathogenic strain
    Streptococcus pneumoniae S ('smooth') is taken up
    from living ones of the non-pathogenic strain
    Streptococcus pneumoniae R ('rough') which are
    subsequently 'transformed' into the pathogenic
    S-strain.

Pneumococcus pneumoniae
25
1944
  • Oswald Theodore Avery, Colin McLeod, and Maclyn
    McCarty find by careful analysis of Griffith'
    experiments that desoxynucleic acid (DNA) is the
    carrier of the 'transforming principle'.

26
1945
  • Erwin Schrödinger proposes in his famous book
    'What is life?' that genes must be 'aperiodic
    crystals' consisting of a succession of a small
    number of isomeric elements whose precise
    sequence constitutes the heredity code. Although
    these ideas do nothing to identify the
    responsible molecular structures, they attract
    many newcomers to the field.

27
1950
  • Erwin Chargaff observes the 11 ratio of the
    nucleic bases adenine/thymine and
    guanine/cytosine. This will be a decisive hint
    for Watson Crick to the structure of the DNA
    molecule.

28
1952
  • Alfred Day Hershey's and Martha Chase's studies
    in bacteriophages prove that only the nucleic
    acids carry the genetic information proteins are
    definitively excluded from playing this role.

Joshua Lederberg finds plasmids in bacteria,
small rings of extrachromosomal DNA which can be
replicated autonomously.
29
1953
  • James D. Watson and Francis H. C. Crick elucidate
    the structure of the DNA molecule. It consists of
    two strands which are bound by hydrogen bonds
    bewtween opposite basepairs of adenine-thymine
    and cytosine-guanine. Their model is based on the
    results of many colleages, namely Rosalind
    Franklin who discovered the helical structure and
    the outward position of the phosphate-sugar
    backbone.

30
1955
  • Frederick Sanger finds a method to sequence
    proteins. With this he determines the sequence of
    the amino acids of insulin.

31
1956..
  • Arthur Kornberg reports the first in vitro
    synthesis of a DNA molecule.

George Emile Palade locates protein biosynthesis
to the ribosomes, the 'factories of the cell'.
32
1956
  • Joe Han Tijo and Albert Levan correct the number
    of the chromosome pairs in human cells to 23.
    Since the days of Walther Flemming 24 was
    believed to be the true number.

Chromosomen einer menschlichen Zelle
protein chains are built at the ribosomes
33
1959
  • T. Akiba, T. Koyama, Y. Isshiki, S. Kimua, T.
    Fukushima, T. Watanabe and T. Fukusawa describe
    the transfer of multiple resistance to
    antibiotics by bacterial plasmids. Plasmids turn
    out to be efficient vectors for trafficking
    genetic information between bacteria of different
    strains.

bacterial plasmid (arrow)
34
1960
  • Francois Jacob and Jaques Monod recognize the
    function of the messenger RNA (mRNA). They
    develop the operon model of gene regulation in
    procaryotes.

35
1961
  • Sydney Brenner and Francis Crick claim that every
    amino acid corresponds to a triplett of
    nucleotides, called 'codons'.

Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Mathaei can prove
that the codon UUU in mRNA codes for the amino
acid phenyl alanine
Sydney Brenner
Marshall Nirenberg
36
1962
  • John Gurdon claims to have reproduced frogs from
    the epithelium cells of Xenopus laevis. J. B. S.
    Haldane coins 'cloning' when describing these
    debated experiments.

Xenopus laevis South African clawed frogs
John Gurdon
37
1966
  • Mainly due to the work of Har Gobind Khorana the
    'Genetic Code' is completely known.

38
1968
  • Werner Arber discovers enzymes, so-called
    nucleases, which digest DNA double strands from
    the ends.

39
1969
  • Jonathan Beckwith is the first to isolate a
    complete gene, in this case a gene from the
    bacterial sugar metabolism.

40
1970
  • Hamilton Smith discovers an enzyme (HindII) which
    specifically cleaves DNA double strands

Har Gobind Khorana synthesizes a complete gene
(that of an alanine t-RNA) in vitro.
David Baltimore and Howard Temin discover the
viral enzyme reverse transcriptase. It translates
RNA sequences to DNA sequences and thus tumbles
the age old 'Central Dogma of Genetics' which
defined the direction of the flow of the genetic
information to start from DNA via RNA to the
proteins.
41
1971
  • Paul Berg, Peter Loban, and Dale Kaiser find
    enzymes which attach short single strands to the
    blunt ends of double stranded DNA. The single
    strands consist of only one sort of nucleotides.
    Complementary single strands (sticky ends) allow
    the coupling of ds DNA fragments the remaining
    gaps can be closed by the use of ligases.

42
1972
  • Janet Mertz and Ron Davis paste DNA fragments of
    different origin resulting from specific
    enzymatic restriction. They close the gaps using
    ligases and thus produce recombinant DNA.

43
1973
  • Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer paste
    enzymatically restricted DNA fragments into
    plasmids which have been cleaved by restriction
    enzymes. The resulting recombinant plasmids can
    serve as vectors for the transfer of foreign DNA
    into bacteria. These experiments are generally
    regarded as the beginning of the era of genetic
    engineering and modern biotechnology.

44
1975
  • The first conference on safety issues of the new
    technology is held at Asilomar in California.

Georges Köhler and Cesar Milstein develop the
'Hybridoma Technology' for the production of
monoclonal antibodies. An antibody producing
plasma cell (derived from a B lymphocyte) is
fused with a tumor cell resulting in an immortal
hybridoma cell which (as well as its daughters)
continues to produce one kind of antibodies.
45
1976
  • Herbert Boyer and Robert Swanson found Genentech
    the first biotech company.

46
1977
  • Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger independently
    develop two different methods for DNA sequencing.

47
1978
  • Walter Gilbert discovers that genes of eucaryotic
    organisms are composed of coding and non-coding
    parts. The non-coding sequences, named introns,
    are cut from the mRNA before translation leaving
    the coding exons as the source of information for
    protein synthesis.

48
1979
  • Thomas Cech and Sydney Altman discover the
    autocatalytic activity of some RNA molecules to
    cleave themselves at well defined positions. They
    coin 'ribozyme' for this type of RNA.

49
1980
  • Jozef Schell and Marc van Montagu transfer
    foreign DNA into plant cells by employing
    T-plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as
    vectors.

50
1981
  • The first patent for a genetically modified
    organism is granted to Ananda Chakrabarty of
    General Electric. It covers a P. aeruginosa
    strain which is equipped with genes of certain
    enzymes in order to metabolize crude oil.

51
1982
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Agency (FDA) approves
    recombinant insulin for marketing.

52
1984
  • Alec Jeffreys develops 'genetic fingerprinting'
    allowing the comparison of minute variations, the
    so-called restriction length fragment
    polymorphisms (RLFPs), in the genomes of two
    organsims.

53
1985
  • Karry Mullis develops the polymerase chain
    reaction (PCR). This powerful tool allows to copy
    and accumulate extremely low amounts of DNA from
    various sources until a level sufficient for
    analysis is reached.

54
1986
  • Neal First develops protocols for clonig cattle
    from bovine embryos by separating cells at early
    embryonic stages. These experiments resemble John
    Gurdons earlier attempts at the cloning of frogs.
    The first cloning of an adult animal will be
    reported in 1997 by Ian Wilmut who succeeds in
    cloning a sheep, Dolly.

55
1988
  • The first patent for a transgenic mammal is
    granted to Harvard's Philip Leder and Timothy
    Stewart. It refers to a mouse which is
    susceptible to tumors and serves as model
    organism for studies in cancer.

56
1990
  • French Anderson successfully tries the first
    somatic gene therapy of a human. Patient

Ashanti DeSilva is cured from an deficiency in
the enzyme ADA, which causes severe
immunodeficiency.
German 'Genetic Engineering Act' passes
parliament
Official kick-off of the Human Genome Project
(HGP)
57
1993
  • The German Genetic Engineering Act of 1990 is
    revised, i.e. many restrictions of the 1990
    version are eased.

The Biotechnology Industry Organization BIO is
created by merging two smaller trade associations
58
1994
  • Genetically modified tomatoes are on sale in the
    U.S. Cans containing puree from transgenic
    tomatoes are on the shelves of british
    supermarkets.

59
1995
  • The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR)
    publishes the first complete sequence of the
    genome of a free-living organism, the bacterium
    Haemophilus influenzae

Germany launches the BioRegio contest. 17 regions
compete in presenting the best blueprint for the
development of commercial biotechnology to an
international jury. The three winning regions
will share the price of DM 150m.
60
1996
  • The complete sequencing of the baker's yeast'
    genome is accomplished by close collaboration of
    laboratories in Europe, Japan, and the U.S. The
    Saccharomyces cervisiae genome ist the first
    eucaryotic genome completely sequenced.

Patrick Browne of Stanford University presents
the first 'gene chip' containing 6116 different
gene specific sequences of the baker's yeast
genome.
In the U.S. transgenic plants grow on more than
1.9 million hectares
61
1997
  • Ian Wilmut (right) visits Dolly (center) the
    first mammal cloned from an adult cell.

62
1998
  • Two research teams report embryonic stem cells
    differentiate to specialized tissue cells. The
    picture shows an early developmental stage, the
    blastocyst.

The first genome of a multicellular organism
(Caenorhabditis elegans) is sequenced.
Craig Mello und Andrew Fire find that small
double-stranded RNA molecules can selectively
block gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans,
a phenomenon later referred to as RNA
interference (RNAi)
63
1999
  • Pluripotent stem cells from tissues can be
    reprogrammed to other cell types.

The sequence of chromosome 22 is published.
The U.S. biotech company Celera starts its own
human genome sequencing project
64
2000
  • There are 1300 biotech companies on each side of
    the Atlantic. About 400 are listed at stock
    exchanges.

The genome of Drosophila melanogaster is
sequenced. The fruit fly was introduced by Thomas
H. Morgan into genetics research.
The Human Genome Organization and Celera present
the first working draft of the human genome. The
picture shows Celera's CEO J. Craig Venter (left)
and Francis Collins, the speaker of the HGP.
65
2001
  • Less genes than expectedThe international Human
    Genome Project (HGP) and biotech company Celera
    Genomics publish their versions of the sequence
    of the human genome. The Celera team estimates
    the number of genes to range from 26,000 to
    39,000, HGP scientist' estimate is between 30,000
    and 40,000.

Rice genomeSyngenta (Basel, Switzerland), in
collaboration with Myriad Genetics (Salt Lake
City, UT), announced the completed sequencing of
the genome of Oryza sativa japonica
66
2001
  • RNA interferenceThomas Tuschl is the first to
    demonstrate that RNA interference (RNAi) is also
    working with mammalian cells.

67
2002
  • Genomes of the malaria agent and its carrier
    sequencedResearchers of the Institute for
    Genomic Research (TIGR), the Sanger Institute
    (UK), and Stanford University publish the genomic
    sequence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium
    yoelii. The protozoa P. falciparum causes
    malaria. The genome of its carrier Anopheles
    gambiae is also sequenced and published.

68
2003
  • Genome of SARS virus sequencedWithin three weeks
    after its discovery scientists of the Michael
    Smith Genome Sciences Centre in British Columbia
    (Vancouver, Canada) succeeded in sequencing the
    genome of the virus causing severe acute
    respiratory syndrome (SARS). The RNA virus
    remotely resembles corona virus species and
    contains roughly 30,000 genes.

69
2003
  • Germ cells from stem cellsKarin Hübner and Hans
    Schöler of the University of Pennnsylvania
    succeeded in generating oocytes from murine stem
    cells which were able to grow into further
    embryonic stages. The experiment demonstrates the
    potential of pluripotent stem cells to acquire
    totipotency via a germ line cell stage

70
2004
The number of identified genes decreases again
compared with previous estimations. 19,599 have
been confirmed to encode proteins, 2188 are
suspected to encode for proteins. 1183 genes have
been generated through duplication of genes, 33
genes appear to have been degenerated into
disfunctional pseudogenes.
  • 99.999 accuracyThree years after the
    publication of the first draft a far more precise
    version of the sequence of the human genome is
    published.

71
2004
from adult and newborn mice and eventually one of
460 experiments resulted in a living animal,
being 14 month old at the time of publication.
Critical for success was the suppression of a
gene which normally controls the imprinting of
chromosomal DNA from mother and father.
  • Fatherless mouseTomohiro Kono of the Tokyo
    University of Agriculture presented the first
    mouse which was obtained from oocytes only. His
    team combined the genomes of oocytes

72
2004
Mice from cancer cellsRudolph Jaenisch of MIT
and Lynda Chin of the Dana Farber Cancer
Institute generated cloned mice from cancer cells
by stuffing the nuclei of melanoma cells into
de-nucleated mouse oocytes. The resulting
blastocysts yielded stem cells which were
suitable for transplantation into normal
blastocysts which eventually developed into
living animals. Some genetic markers of the
melanoma cells were found again in the animal,
but the epigentic patterns had gone lost -
showing that epigenetic modifcations are both
reversible and late stage in the transformation
of normal cells into melanoma cells.
73
Terima kasih
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