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Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food. - Hippocrates, 400 BCE

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Nutrigenomics: speculation Epigenetic Regulation Active Gene Epigenetics Promoters are regulatory elements upstream the 5 end of TSS. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food. - Hippocrates, 400 BCE


1
(No Transcript)
2
Let food be your medicine and medicine be your
food. - Hippocrates, 400 BCE
3
One future intelligence problem knowing what
drugs the other guys are on.
4
SAME SPECIESVERY DIFFERENT CREATURES
AND
VERSUS
Nurture
Nature
5
Assumptions
  • Common dietary compounds act on the human genome,
    directly or indirectly, to alter gene expression
    or structure
  • Some individuals, under some circumstances, can
    have diet become a serious risk factor
  • Some diet-regulated genes and their normal common
    variants help shape processes like susceptibility
    to disease/injury/extreme environments and
    progression, recovery from, and severity of
    breakdown
  • The degree to which diet influences these
    processes depends in part on an individuals
    genetic makeup
  • Dietary interventions based on the nutriome can
    be used to prevent, mitigate, or cure
    disease/injury1
  • Kaput and Rodriguez, 2004 Nutritional Genomics,
  • Physiol Genomics 16(2)166-167

1and possibly, gasp, enhance performance
6
What this briefing is NOT about
  • Thorough literature review
  • List of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
    related to health/performance

GKMM NcoI
PPAR? G/C
ACE I/D
ADRA2A
CNTF
VDR FokI
VDR ApaI
NO Glu289ASp
ACTN3 R577X
VDR BsmI
IGF2
ADRB2
VDR TaqI
APOE
SpI transcription factor
Myostatin (-/-)
7
Nutrigenomics (Nurture)
  • Do nutrients affect gene expression?
  • Vitamin E regulates protein kinase C activity in
    smooth muscle cells (Azzi 1991)
  • Modulates the expression of the hepatic
    alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (Hosomi 1997)
  • Tocopherol-dependent transcription factor
    (tocopherol associated protein, TAP) has been
    identified (Stocker 1999)
  • CoQ10 in human muscle cells has shown effects on
    12,000 genes (Linnane 2002)
  • Vitamin D3 affects 20,000 genes in human prostate
    cancer cells (Krishnan 2003)
  • EGb 761 alters mRNA levels of the GLUT3 in
    hippocampal neurons, increasing neuronal glucose
    supply in rats (Loffler 2001)
  • L-leucine interacts with multiple genes via mTOR
    and Akt pathways
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Nutrition genomics
  • How do nutrients alter gene expression?

Transcription Factor
Nucleus
Gene
DNA Target
Change mRNA
Essential and non-essential nutrients
Protein (lt or gt)
Biological responses in cell process(es)
8
Nutrigenetics (Nature)
  • SNPs occur once every 1k to 2k nucleotides, but
    occur at a frequency gt 1 in the population
  • Effects can be variable and not always dramatic
  • Can alter protein structure and function when the
    nucleotide base substitution occurs in a genes
    coding region
  • When substitution occurs as part of the genes
    regulatory promoter, the SNP may affect the
    conditions under which the protein is made
  • Nutrigenetics
  • Nutrition genetics
  • How does individual genetic variability shape
    nutrient metabolism?
  • Can this help shape individual nutrient
    requirements for health and optimized performance?

Wood and Bakovic, 2007
9
Omics you cant stop with just one
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Epigenomics
  • Nutritional epigenomics (as they influence DNA
    methylation, histone modification, and
    RNA-associated silencing)
  • Transcriptomics
  • Proteomics
  • Metabolomics
  • Microbiomics
  • Connectomics
  • HPomics

10
So do genes matter?
  • TE ratio
  • 55 healthy male volunteers
  • Ins/ins (two copies of UGT2B17 gene) v. Del/del
    (no copies)
  • 15 were homozygous for the gene deletion
    (del/del), 52 were heterozygous (ins/del) and
    33 had two copies of the gene (ins/ins).
  • The del/del polymorphism was considerably more
    common in a Korean Asian than in a Swedish
    Caucasian population, with 66.7 and 9.3
    deletion/deletion (del/del) homozygotes
    respectively.

Jakobsson J et al. Doping Test Results Dependent
on Genotype of UGT2B17, the Major Enzyme for
Testosterone Glucuronidation. J Clin Endocrin
Metab. March 11, 2008
11
Nutrigenomics speculation
12
Neuropeptide Y (Morgan et al., 2000 2001)
13
NPY and Human Performance best and
non-performers
14
(No Transcript)
15
Clinical NPY Data
  • Increased NPY found in response to 75 VO2 max
    exercise (Lundberg 1985), the cold pressor test
    (Morris 1986), and in response to noradrenergic
    activation by alpha-2 receptor antagonist
    yohimbine (Rasmusson 1998)
  • Reduced NPY noted in CSF of patients suffering
    from major depression (Widerlov 1992), suicide
    victims (Widdowson 1992) Negative correlation
    noted between anxiety scores and CSF NPY levels
    in patients with depression (Heilig 1990)
  • Reduced baseline NPY blunted NPY response to
    yohimbine stimulation in veterans with PTSD
    (Rasmusson 2000).

16
Epigenetic Regulation Active Gene
17
Epigenetics
  • Promoters are regulatory elements upstream the 5
    end of TSS.
  • Methylation of promoter CpGs remodels the
    chromatin structure for gene expression

methyl-binding proteins (MeCP)
Methylated CpG
Histone deacetylases (HDAC)
methyltransferase
Pattern Detection and Co-methylation Analysis of
Epigenetic Features in Human Embryonic Stem
Cells. 2008 Presentation by Ben Niu,Qiang Yang,
Jinyan Li, Hong Xue, Simon Chi-keung Shiu,
Weichuan Yu, Huiqing Liu, Sankar Kumar Pal. Hong
Kong Polytechnic University
18
Epigenetic Regulation Moth-balled gene
Gene
CH3
CH3
-
Promoter
CpG island
CH3
CH3
DeAcetylated
Methylated
Diet-based deacetylase inhibitors like bacterial
fermentation of carbohydrate within the
gastrointestinal tract, ketones (butyrate,
valproic acid), ketogenic diet?
19
A side point
the research conducted does not support the
value of DHEA as a performance enhancer for
military personnel. - Use of Dietary
Supplements by Military Personnel, 2008, IOM
20
Nutrigenetics yet more speculation
  • The prevalence of folate-remedial MTHFR enzyme
    variants in humans.
  • Sampled 11 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
    (MTHFR) SNPs, from 564 individuals of diverse
    ethnicities
  • Multiple less-frequent alleles, in aggregate,
    might significantly contribute to metabolic
    dysfunction. Furthermore, vitamin remediation of
    mutant enzymes may be a common phenomenon in
    certain domains of proteins.
  • Broccoli Consumption Interacts with GSTM1 to
    Perturb Oncogenic Signalling Pathways in the
    Prostate.
  • Genetic Variant in the Glucose Transporter Type 2
    (GLUT 2) is Associated with Higher Intakes of
    Sugars in Two Distinct Populations.
  • Marini N.J., Gin J, Ziegle J, Keho KH, David
    Ginzinger D., Gilbert D. and Rine J. PNAS,
    v.105(2) June 10, 2008

Traka M, Gasper AV, Melchini A, Bacon JR, Needs
PW, et al. (2008) PLoS ONE 3(7) e2568.
Ahmed El-Sohemy,A., Eny, K.M., Wolever, T., and
Fontaine-Bisson, B. (2008) Physiological Genomics
May 2008
21
IL-6 SNP and bone density
  • G-to-C substitution at -174 at start of
    transcription for the inflammatory cytokine, IL-6
  • Homozygotes for GG alleles have higher mean serum
    levels of IL-6 (Fishman et al. 1998)
  • Dhamrait et al. posited that higher IL-6 levels
    (GG homozygotes) would show a disruption in the
    balance of bone resorption and deposits as a
    result of exercise
  • Markers of bone resorption are known to fall
    during training with British military recruits
    (Etherington et al. 1999)
  • Dhamrait et al. 2003 studied 130 Caucasian male
    UK military recruits for bone density over 10
    weeks using magnetic resonance imaging for right
    cortical femoral bone density
  • Distribution was in accordance with
    Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  • GG 36
  • GC 47
  • CC 22.17

22
Different receptors for various inflammatory
stimuli (IL-6, mmLDL, AGEs, etc.)
Disruption of inflammatory process by DHA
ROS (H2O2)
IkB degradation
NF-kB (relA-p50)
Nucleus
NF-kB consensus sequence
IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, etc.
DeCaterina, R., Madonna, R. nutrients and Gene
Expression Simonopolous, AP. Nutrigenetics and
Nutrigenomics, Word Rev. Nutr. Diet. 2004,v.93
99-133
23
Paradigm Shift
  • As nutrigenomics is inherently PRO-active, the
    challenge is going to be getting from
  • Description this creature eats x, then y
    (sometimes) happensor not
  • Prediction therefore, if creature eats x, then y
    will/will not have a better chance of happening
  • Prescription therefore, if we do/do not want y,
    creature should/should not eat x

24
Beyond speculation
25
  • The best way to predict the future
  • is to create it.
  • Abraham Lincoln

26
Oh, yeah
  • Practical Issues
  • Novel nutrient-gene interactions
  • New diagnostic tests for responses to diets and
    new biomarkers like mRNA for stress (oxidative or
    otherwise) that can be used to detect
    biopotency/applicability
  • Identifying specific populations with special
    needs
  • Improving the definitions and methodologies
    related to dietary assessment
  • Providing information to make food
  • Ethical Issues
  • Consent
  • GINA may mean something different to military
    (i.e. 2001 Burlington Northern Santa Fe lawsuit
    where the company tested workers with carpal
    tunnel syndrome for genetic predispositiong
    athletes prevented from competing if they have
    hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) Chicago Bulls
    and Eddy Curry.
  • Confidentiality
  • Solidarity (same species, different creatures)
  • Knowing whats coming (AD risk for example)
  • Access right now, the rich can afford this and
    may drive it forward but if theres really a
    there there, shouldnt it be made available to
    those who need it most the disadvantaged, the
    diseased, and the defenders?
  • Methodological Issues
  • Study design limitations
  • Need to incorporate epigenetics
  • SNP identification and haplotyping
  • Dietary intake assessment
  • Better biomarkers

27
Thanks
Thanks due to Ann Rasmussen (Yale), Gary Hazlett
(Cody Woodward LLC), and Andy Morgan (Yale)
  • Contact information
  • Adam Russell, Scitor Corporation
  • arussell_at_scitor.com, 202-316-5088
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