Understanding Global Cultures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Understanding Global Cultures PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3aef97-ZmViO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Understanding Global Cultures

Description:

Understanding Global Cultures A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding four-cell typology of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:285
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 77
Provided by: dUmnEduc
Learn more at: http://www.d.umn.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Understanding Global Cultures


1
UnderstandingGlobal Cultures
  • A Four-Stage Model of
  • Cross-Cultural Understanding

2
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other etic or culture-general
    dimensions along which specific cultures have
    been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding
    a culture

3
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation

4
Four-Stage Model
  • one variable of the is the degree to which
    process such as effective communication and
    getting to know one another in depth should
    precede discussion of specific goals

5
Four-Stage Model
  • another variable is the degree to which a
    culture fosters and encourages open emotional
    expression

6
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of
Emotions (p. 14)
7
Cultural Metaphors
  • four generic types of cultures
  • horizontal collectivism
  • community sharing
  • vertical collectivism
  • hierarchical (authority) ranking
  • horizontal individualism
  • equality matching
  • vertical individualism
  • market pricing

8
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
9
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
10
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing
  • reflects community sharing in which members of
    the in-group share all of their goods
  • as in a small village
  • even to the extent that there is no such
    phenomenon as theft

11
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing
  • not much differentiation between individuals
  • ethics are based on group membership
  • in-group or out-group
  • members of out-groups are viewed as nonpersons

12
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
13
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking
    Cultures
  • Ch. 02 The Thai Kingdom
  • Ch. 03 The Japanese Garden
  • Ch. 04 India The Dance of Shiva
  • Ch. 05 Bedouin Jewelry and Saudi Arabia
  • Ch. 06 The Turkish Coffeehouse
  • Ch. 07 The Brazilian Samba
  • Ch. 08 The Polish Village Church
  • Ch. 09 Kimchi and Korea

14
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking
    Cultures
  • authority ranking
  • found in large parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin
    America
  • involves a psychological relationship between the
    leader or leaders and all others in the culture

15
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking
    Cultures
  • frequently, such a culture is symbolized not by
    the handshake, which reflects equality, but by
    different forms of bowing

16
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking
    Cultures
  • there is a dynamic, two-way relationship between
    subordinates and leaders in authority ranking
    cultures
  • although the leaders receive more rewards, they
    are responsible for safeguarding the livelihoods
    of subordinates

17
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
18
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching
    Cultures
  • Ch. 10 The German Symphony
  • Ch. 11 The Swedish Stuga
  • Ch. 12 Irish Conversations

19
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching
    Cultures
  • equality matching
  • dominant in Scandinavian nations
  • Sweden
  • Norway
  • all individuals are considered equal, even when
    some are taxed heavily

20
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching
    Cultures
  • it is expected that those who cannot make
    individual contributions to the common good will
    do so at a later time if possible

21
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
22
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
  • Ch. 13 American Football
  • Ch. 14 The Traditional British House

23
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
  • market pricing
  • found in the United States and other
    market-dominated nations

24
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
  • although individualism is emphasized, so, too, is
    the free market
  • inequality resulting from the operation of the
    free market is deemed acceptable

25
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
  • there is equality of opportunity and a level
    playing field
  • but not equality of outcomes

26
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
  • ethics revolves around the operation of a free
    market

27
Cultural Metaphors
  • four generic types of cultures, plus
  • Cleft National Cultures
  • one in which the subcultures of the diverse
    ethnic groups are difficult to integrate . . .
  • Torn National Cultures
  • one, such as Russia, that has been torn from its
    roots at least once

28
Cultural Metaphors
  • Cleft National Cultures
  • Ch. 15 The Malaysian Balik Kampung
  • Ch. 16 The Nigerian Marketplace
  • Ch. 17 The Israeli Kibbutzim and
    Moshavim
  • Ch. 18 The Italian Opera
  • Ch. 19 Belgian Lace

29
Cultural Metaphors
  • Torn National Cultures
  • Ch. 20 The Mexican Fiesta
  • Ch. 21 The Russian Ballet

30
Cultural Metaphors
  • Same Metaphor,
  • Different Meanings
  • Ch. 22 The Spanish Bullfight
  • Ch. 23 The Portuguese Bullfight

31
Cultural Metaphors
  • Beyond National Boarders
  • Ch. 24 The Chinese Family Altar

32
  • Scaling
  • nominal
  • ordinal
  • interval
  • ratio
  • After H. Russell Bernard, Research Methods in
    Anthropology, 1994

33
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
34
Scaling
  • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing
  • nominal scaling
  • only names are given to entities
  • in-group vs. out-group

35
Scaling
  • nominal scaling
  • naming something

36
Scaling
  • nominal scaling
  • a nominal variable is an item on a list of things
  • the variables are mutually exclusive
  • but they do not exhaust the possibilities

37
Scaling
  • religion
  • Hindu
  • Moslem
  • Buddhist
  • Christian
  • Druid
  • Other

38
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
39
Scaling
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking
    Cultures
  • ordinal scaling
  • individual A may be more important than
    individual B, and individual C may be more
    important than individual B, but there is no
    common unit of measurement

40
Scaling
  • ordinal scaling
  • putting things in order

41
Scaling
  • ordinal scaling
  • ordinal variables are exhaustive and mutually
    exclusive
  • and their values can be rank ordered

42
Scaling
  • ordinal scaling
  • high
  • medium
  • low

43
Scaling
  • socioeconomic class (SES)
  • upper class
  • middle class
  • lower class

44
Scaling
  • types of political organization
  • peasant society
  • primitive state
  • chiefdom
  • tribe
  • band

45
Scaling
  • ordinal scaling
  • in general, concepts are measured at the ordinal
    level

46
Scaling
  • level of acculturation
  • very acculturated
  • somewhat acculturated
  • unacculturated

47
Scaling
  • ordinal scaling
  • what ordinal variables do not tell us is how much
    more
  • the most important characteristic of ordinal
    measure is that there is no way to tell how far
    apart the attributes are from one another

48
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
49
Scaling
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching
    Cultures
  • interval scale
  • culture does have a common unit of measurement,
    but it does not make value judgments about
    individual worth
  • there are too many dimensions along which
    individuals can be measures

50
Scaling
  • interval scaling
  • putting items at fixed intervals

51
Scaling
  • interval scaling
  • interval variables are exhaustive and mutually
    exclusive
  • and their values can be rank ordered

52
Scaling
  • interval scaling
  • and the distances between the attributes are
    meaningful

53
Scaling
  • interval scaling
  • 30 Fahrenheit
  • 40 Fahrenheit
  • 70 Fahrenheit
  • 80 Fahrenheit

54
Scaling
  • interval scaling
  • 40 F - 30 F 10 F
  • 80 F - 70 F 10 F

55
Scaling
  • interval scaling
  • but there is no zero point
  • i.e., 80 Fahrenheit is not twice as warm as 40
    Fahrenheit

56
Scaling
  • interval scaling
  • concrete, observable things are often measured at
    the interval level
  • but not always

57
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
58
Scaling
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
  • scale is ratio
  • there is a common unit of measurement
  • and a true zero point
  • allows members of the culture to transform every
    other dimension and compare them monetarily

59
Scaling
  • ratio scaling
  • interval variables that have a zero point
  • there are few interval variables that are not
    also ratio variables

60
Scaling
  • ratio scaling
  • a 40-year-old is 10 years older than a
    30-year-old
  • a 40-year-old is twice as old as a 20-year-old

61
Scaling
  • ratio scaling
  • it is common practice in the social sciences to
    refer to ratio variables as interval variables

62
Scaling
  • ratio scaling
  • years of education
  • income in dollars, Euros . . .
  • years spent migrating
  • population size
  • doctors / 100,000
  • violent crimes / 100,000

63
Fig. 1.2. Four Generic Types of Cultures (p. 15)
64
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other etic or culture-general
    dimensions along which specific cultures have
    been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding
    a culture

65
Emics / Etics
  • emics
  • from phonemics
  • viewing a culture from the inside
  • etics
  • from phonetics
  • viewing a culture from the outside

66
other etic or culture-general dimensions
  • achievement motivation
  • uncertainty avoidance
  • time horizon
  • femininity or assertiveness
  • tightness or looseness of rules
  • collectivistic / individualistic
  • etc.

67
  • Culture Counts
  • and it counts quit a bit
  • but when does culture matter?

68
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • frequently occupational similarities neutralize
    culture
  • e.g., two doctors working on a problem

69
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • similarity of class can diminish the importance
    of culture
  • e.g., middle class use of positive reinforcement
    in raising children

70
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • sometimes powerful groups will exclude others
    from opportunities and then stereotype them
    negatively, thus consigning them to permanent
    inferior status
  • e.g., English / Irish in Ireland
  • e.g., Apartheid in South Africa
  • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) in many countries

71
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • sometimes the nature of the problem minimizes the
    importance of cultural differences
  • e.g., companies from two countries working on
    problem supported by top managements

72
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • when trust is present, culture decreases in
    importance

73
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • culture is particularly important in
    cross-cultural negotiations

74
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • culture is also important when individuals move
    to another nation or culture for an extended
    period of time

75
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • to what extent do technological changes such as
    the Internet influence culture?
  • internet crime
  • more differentiation than integration
  • any indirect form of communication, such as
    e-mail, presents special difficulties and
    opportunities

76
Cultural Metaphors
  • Metaphors are not stereotypes.
  • Why?
About PowerShow.com