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Political Culture and Socialization (System Level)

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Political Culture and Socialization (System Level) Introduction to Comparative Politics * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Political Culture and Political ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Culture and Socialization (System Level)


1
Political Culture and Socialization(System
Level)
  • Introduction to Comparative Politics

2
Political Culture and Political Socialization
  • Each nation has its own political norms that
    influence how people think and act about
    politics.
  • The way political institutions function at least
    partially reflects the publics attitudes, norms,
    and expectations.
  • Political culture public attitudes toward
    politics and their role within the political
    system
  • Political socialization
  • how individuals form their political attitudes
    and
  • collectively, how citizens form their political
    culture we conclude by describing the major
    trends in political culture in the world politics
    today
  • Major tends in political cultures of states will
    be final concern

3
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4
Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture
  • A nations political culture includes its
    citizens orientations at three levels
  • The political system
  • The political and policymaking process
  • Policy outputs and outcomes

5
Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture
  • The system level involves how people view the
    values and organizations that comprise the
    political system.
  • The process level includes expectations of how
    politics should function and individuals
    relationship to the political process.
  • The policy level deals with the publics policy
    expectations for the government.

6
The System Level
  • It is difficult for any political system to
    endure if it lacks the support of its citizens.
  • Feelings of national pride are considered an
    affective, emotional tie to a political system.
  • When system legitimacy is high the belief that
    the law ought to be obeyed is high.

7
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8
The System Level
  • Feelings of popular legitimacy are another
    foundation for a successful political system.
  • Citizens may grant legitimacy to a government for
    different reasons.
  • Tradition, ideology, elections, or religion
  • In systems with low legitimacy, people often
    resort to violence or extra-governmental actions
    to solve political disagreements.

9
The Process Level
  • The second level of the political culture
    involves what the public expects of the political
    process.
  • Broadly speaking, three different patterns
    describe the citizens role in the political
    process.
  • Participants are involved as actual or potential
    participants in the political process.
  • Subjects passively obey government officials and
    the law, but they do not vote or actively involve
    themselves in politics.
  • Parochials are hardly aware of government and
    politics.

10
Political Culture Process Level
  • What people expect of the political process
  • Participation (equal access vs privileged access)
  • Transparency
  • Corruption as an issue

11
Political Culture Process Level
  • Attitudes toward the existing form of government
  • Representative and direct democracy as competing
    political regimes in Venezuela
  • Rejection of western-style (secular) democracy by
    fundamentalist Muslims
  • How citizens view their political roles

12
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13
The Policy Level
  • What is the appropriate role of government?
  • Policy expectations vary across the globe.
  • Some policy goals such as economic well-being are
    valued by nearly everyone.
  • Variation in terms of what is expected relates to
    a nations circumstances and cultural traditions.
  • One of the basic measures of government
    performance is its ability to meet the policy
    expectations of its citizens.
  • Expectations regarding the functioning of
    government outputs (providing welfare and
    security) or process features (rule of law and
    procedural justice)

14
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15
Consensual or Conflictual Political Cultures
  • When a country is deeply divided in its political
    values and these differences persist over time,
    distinctive political subcultures may develop.
  • They have sharply different points of view on
    some critical political matters, such as the
    boundaries of the nation, the nature of the
    regime, or the correct ideology.
  • Sometimes historical or social factors will
    generate different cultural trajectories.
  • Ethnic, religious, or linguistic identities
  • Migration

16
Why Culture Matters
  • Cultural norms typically change slowly and
    reflect stable values.
  • It encapsulates the history, traditions, and
    values of a society.
  • Congruence theory
  • The distribution of cultural patterns is
    typically related to the type of political
    process that citizens expect and support.
  • Do democracies create a participatory democratic
    public, or does a political culture lead to a
    democratic political system?
  • It works both ways.
  • Political culture
  • can build common political community,
  • but it can also have the power to divide.

17
Cultural Congruence
  • OVER TIME THERE IS A CONGRUENCE BETWEEN
    POLITICAL CULTURE AND POLITICAL STRUCTURE
  • Value placed on responsiveness/openness leads to
  • Direct election of senators
  • Agencies to provide information on previously
    classified activities
  • Longer democracy lasts and more successes that it
    has the more support there is for democracy

18
Political Socialization
  • Political cultures are sustained or changed as
    people acquire their attitudes and values.
  • Political socialization refers to the way in
    which political values are formed and political
    culture is transmitted from one generation to the
    next.
  • Most children acquire their basic political
    values and behavior patters at a relatively early
    age.
  • Some attitudes will evolve and change throughout
    life.

19
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20
Political Socialization
  • Three general points about socialization
  • Socialization can occur in different ways.
  • Direct socialization
  • Socialization is a lifelong process.
  • Patterns of socialization can be either unifying
    or divisive.

21
Agents of Political Socialization
  • Individuals, organizations, and institutions that
    influence political attitudes.
  • Family
  • Schools
  • Religious institutions
  • Fundamentalism
  • Peer groups
  • Social class
  • Interest groups
  • Political parties
  • Mass media
  • Global influence most people in the world watch
    television to learn about the world

22
Direct Contact with the Government
  • In modern societies, the wide scope of
    governmental activities bring citizens into
    frequent contact with bureaucratic agencies.
  • Personal experiences are powerful agents of
    socialization.

23
Trends in the Shaping Contemporary Political
Cultures
  • Democratization?
  • Marketization?
  • Greater public acceptance of free markets and
    private profit incentives, rather than a
    government-managed economy
  • Globalization

24
Dynamics of Contemporary Political Cultures
  • Political culture is not a static phenomenon.
  • Encompasses how the agents of political
    socialization communicate and interpret historic
    events and traditional values
  • Important to understand
  • Influences how citizens act, how the political
    process functions, and what policy goals the
    government pursues
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