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The influence of culture on the practice of professional counselling

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The influence of culture on the practice of professional counselling Jeffrey ANG Temasek Design School Temasek Polytechnic Singapore Alison Ang; Linnet Foong; Noor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The influence of culture on the practice of professional counselling


1
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Jeffrey ANG
  • Temasek Design School
  • Temasek Polytechnic
  • Singapore
  • Alison Ang Linnet Foong Noor Faridah Magdeline
    Hor Siew Kee, Hor
  • Cheong Tong Wai, Mohamad Sham

2
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Background
  • Qualitative research based on the thematic
    analysis of experiences of the participants.
  • Small scale, focus group relating their
    counselling experience within polytechnic
    context.
  • Therapeutic relationship is enhanced when the
    counsellor and client share a common culture.

3
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Three key findings
  • Counselling in Singapore is a challenging
    vocation due to the countrys multicultural,
    multiracial population.
  • Cultural similarities and differences affect the
    therapeutic relationship between client and
    counsellor.
  • 3. Counsellors need to be aware of cultural
    diversity and shape their counselling practice to
    fit the clients worldview.

4
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • What is Counselling?
  • Counselling is about helping people cope with
    problems and opportunities
  • (Ivey Ivey, 2007)
  • Action-oriented techniques are used to
    facilitate a process of engagement, problem and
    solution exploration, action implementation,
    evaluation and termination
  • (Corcoran, 2005 Lynch, 2002)

5
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • What is Culture?
  • A set of shared assumptions where people can
    predict each others actions in a given
    circumstance and react accordingly.
  • (Haviland, 1975)
  • An integrated pattern of human behavior that
    includes thoughts, communications, actions,
    customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of a
    racial, ethnic, religious or social group
  • (Cross et al.1989)

6
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Singapore demographics
  • Singapore has a population of 4.5 million.
  • It is a multiracial country
  • Chinese majority (75.2)
  • Malay (13.6)
  • Indian (8.8)
  • Eurasian and other groups (2.4).
  • Growing population of 800,000 non-residents of
    foreigners on short-term permits in 2005
  • (Source Singapore Department of Statistics,
    2007 Wikipedia).
  • .

7
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • What is Worldview?
  • Refers to what a person perceives and understands
    of the world.
  • Culture influences worldview, which in turn
    influences the counsellor-client relationship.

8
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Finding 1
  • Counselling in Singapore is a challenging
    vocation due to our multicultural, multiracial
    population.

9
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Singapores populationdiverse nationalities,
    races, cultures and religions.
  • Each individual is a composite of several
    dimensions of diversity (class, ethnicity,
    gender, physical ability/disability, sexual
    orientation, race, religion, and so forth)
  • (DeJong and Berg (2001)

10
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • To be effective counselors, we need to understand
    our own cultural conditioning, the conditioning
    of our clients, and the sociopolitical system of
    which they are a part.
  • (Corey, 2005)

11
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • I counselled a sexually promiscuous teenage girl
    who decided to abort. Being brought up in a
    traditional culture with a firm belief that
    abortion is taboo, I find it hard to counsel my
    client without being affected by the tendency to
    impose my personal values on my client.
  • (Counsellor F)

12
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • My teenage client had started to smoke heavily,
    return home late (as late as 3am), and had tongue
    and ear studs since she joined the poly. Her
    mother had stereotyped her friends as bad
    because they smoked.
  • It was difficult for me not to agree with her
    mum as a mother myself, I would have been
    equally upset if my daughter had behaved in a
    similar manner.
  • (Counsellor L)

13
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • As I listened to him, I found myself feeling
    uncomfortable regarding his delusions which are
    clearly a distortion of fundamental Biblical
    truths. As a Christian, my personal core values
    have become deeply entrenched in Christian values
    and beliefs
  • (Counsellor J)

14
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • When an Indian agrees, or acknowledges, he
    shakes his head which is very confusing.
    Normally, we shake our head to disagree. So we
    have to be extra careful and cautious when
    interpreting the head shaking mannerism.
  • (Counsellor H)

15
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Finding 2
  • Cultural similarities and differences affect the
    therapeutic relationship between the client and
    counsellor.

16
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Therapeutic relationship between the client and
    counsellor is built on
  • collaborative effort
  • co-construction of stories and meanings
  • interaction of their individual cultural
    frameworks
  • (Sciarra, 1999)
  • Matching of cultural framework of the client and
    counsellor is beneficial in enhancing the
    therapeutic process
  • (Tseng, 2001)

17
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Cultural similarities helpful
  • I was able to connect to the clients mother
    better when I spoke in Malay to help her
    understand her daughters situation. Speaking in
    my clients language and being able to relate to
    aspects of their culture allowed me to break the
    ice and build a meaningful therapeutic
    relationship.
  • (Counsellor F)

18
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Cultural similarities helpful
  • John started to use Mandarin to describe some of
    his feelings to me. I realized that with a common
    understanding of the Chinese language, we were
    able to break the language barrier and establish
    closer rapport.
  • (Counsellor L)

19
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Cultural similarities helpful
  • I counseled a student who was having computer
    game addiction. As a gamer myself, I was able to
    empathize and see from his viewpoint where gaming
    can be fun and relaxing instead of being just a
    waste of time.
  • (Counsellor S)

20
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Cultural differences create ineffective
    relationships
  • I have grown up with a strong conviction that
    marriage is sacred institution that should not be
    trivialized, and separation or divorce would be
    furthest from my mind.
  • I see the influence of my culture or beliefs
    directing me to try to bring the couple back
    together, rather than adopting a neutral or even
    negative stance.
  • (Counsellor J)

21
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Counsellor to be aware that his personal biases,
    values, or beliefs will not interfere with his
    ability to work with client during the helping
    process
  • (Corey, 2005).
  • Counsellor to be aware of issues of cultural
    transference and counter-transference
  • To be constantly improve on awareness, knowledge
    and skill and to be able to counsel from a
    multicultural perspective.
  • (Ivey Ivey, 2007).

22
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Finding 3
  • Counselors need to be aware of cultural diversity
    and shape their counselling practice to fit the
    clients worldview.

23
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Three dimensions of multicultural counselling
    competencies
  • i) Awareness of own assumptions, values and
    biases
  • ii) Understanding the worldview of the culturally
    different client
  • iii) Developing appropriate strategies and
    techniques.
  • Nelson-Jones (2006)

24
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • (i) Awareness of own assumptions, values and
    biases
  • The counsellor should be aware of the existence
    of cultural similarities/differences that may
    contribute to the issue of transference and
    counter-transference.
  • (Counsellor A)

25
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • (i) Awareness of own assumptions, values and
    biases
  • My personal belief of what a family unit should
    be greatly influenced my counselling approach
    but, I recognized that I should not impose my own
    values but rather adopt a neutral stance and see
    the client from his own world.
  • (Counsellor J)

26
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Personal, familial, sociological, and cultural
    filters continue to influence the way we listen
    to our clients.
  • The stronger our cultural filters, the greater
    the likelihood of bias.
  • Prejudices, whether conscious or not, distort our
    understanding.
  • Egan (2007)

27
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • ii) Understanding the worldview of the culturally
    different client.
  • To be able to understand my Eurasian client, I
    need to acquire knowledge about traditions,
    values and beliefs of that particular cultural
    group which would enable me to help my client
    identify solutions that are acceptable to
    him/her. I also need to know the principles of
    the Roman Catholic belief before I can understand
    why my client is rebelling against it.
  • (Counsellor L)

28
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • ii) Understanding the worldview of the culturally
    different client.
  • To understand my foreign student from India, I
    would have to talk to some of my colleagues from
    India to understand the students concerns
    better. Another way would be to read up or watch
    a video about Indian culture.
  • (Counsellor H)

29
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • iii) Developing appropriate strategies and
    techniques.
  • The range of clients that I encounter will
    constantly shape and reshape my style and
    approach towards counselling.
  • (Counsellor A)

30
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • iii) Developing appropriate strategies and
    techniques.
  • I realized that if I cannot detach myself from
    my personal beliefs which may hamper my ability
    to help my client, I should be prepared to refer
    the case to another counselor.
  • (Counsellor H)

31
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Conclusion
  • Increasing globalization
  • Worldwide cultural changes
  • An increasingly diverse environment
  • Be familiar with the complexities and intricate
    issues relating to multicultural counselling.

32
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Conclusion
  • Be aware of how our worldview may influence their
    perception of other cultural groups.
  • We need to adopt an open stance, be flexible, and
    be willing to modify strategies to fit the needs
    and situation of our clients.
  • (Corey, 2005 Brammer, 2004)

33
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Conclusion
  • Actively incorporate a multicultural dimension in
    our counselling approach
  • Initiate open discussions with clients regarding
    issues of race and ethnicity
  • (Cardemil Battle, 2003)
  • Work towards multicultural competence as we
    develop knowledge of the many cultural groups we
    meet.
  • (Ivey Ivey, 2007, p. 45).

34
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • Conclusion
  • We should use methods and define goals that are
    consistent with the life experiences and cultural
    values of their clients.
  • We should also continue to modify and adapt our
    interventions to accommodate cultural
    differences.
  • (Corey, 2005 Brammer 2004).

35
The influence of culture on the practice of
professional counselling
  • THE END
  • THANK YOU!
  • Jeffrey Ang
  • Temasek Design School
  • angcs_at_tp.edu.sg
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