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When traveling or living abroad what gave you the biggest culture shock?

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When traveling or living abroad what gave you the biggest culture shock? Three Elements of Culture The first is that culture is learned. This means that unlike hair ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: When traveling or living abroad what gave you the biggest culture shock?


1
When traveling or living abroad what gave you the
biggest culture shock?
2
Three Elements of Culture
  • The first is that culture is learned. This means
    that unlike hair color or height, culture is not
    a hereditary trait. If a French mother and an
    Australian father live in Mexico and have a
    child, the child will adopt the Mexican culture -
    language, values, importance of events, etc. The
    child will certainly have a better sense of
    French and Australian cultures than its
    classmates, but it will, nevertheless, accept the
    Mexican culture as its own.
  • Second, culture is shared by all members of
    society. This trait is what turns ideals and
    values into a culture rather than a personal
    preference. Subcultures can certainly exist
    within a culture this is particularly true when
    large groups of immigrants arrive in a country
    and "find" one another. In this way Jewish or
    Italian or Polish subculture may flourish within
    a larger culture.
  • Finally, the idea that one element of culture
    affects all other elements is important in
    understanding how elements of culture are related
    to each other. An example of this is class an
    individual's class will affect the vocabulary she
    uses, as well as how she perceives the world
    around her.

3
What is Culture?
  • The sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art,
    morals, laws, customs, and any other habits and
    capabilities acquired by humans as members of
    society.

4
Culture Incorporates
  • Social Institutions
  • Family nuclear, extended, parental roles,
    marriage courtship, female/male roles
  • Education primary, secondary, higher, literacy
    rate
  • Political System structure, parties, stability,
    tax rates, local government
  • Legal System laws regulating exchange, doing
    business in

5
Culture incorporates
  • Social Institutions (cont.)
  • Humans and the Universe Belief systems,
    religion, degree to which people accept religion,
    number who belong
  • Attitudes
  • Values

6
  • Humans Universe (Religion, superstition,
    belief systems)

7
Culture Incorporates
  • Aesthetics
  • Design, folklore, music, drama, folklore
    symbols

8
  • Aesthetics (Art, folklore, music, drama) help
    interpret meaning of colors, symbols, standards
    of beauty)

9
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10
Culture incorporates
  • Living Conditions
  • Diet
  • Housing
  • Dress
  • Recreation
  • Health care
  • Social security

11
  • Social Institutions (Social classes, roles of
    men women, family, education, media), Dress,
    Recreation

12
Recreation
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15
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17
Culture incorporates
  • Language
  • Official, Spoken vs. written, Dialects

18
  • Language
  • English Translations made by Japanese firm that
    were added to
  • labels to increase prestige for their products
    being sold in China.
  • Product EnglishTranslation
  • Equivalent to Japanese Spam Liver
    Putty
  • Toilet Paper My Fanny Brand
  • Ready to Eat Pancakes Strawberry Crap Dessert
  • Antifreeze Spray Hot Piss Brand
  • Pediatricians Slogan Specialist in Deceased
    Children

19
Language
  • Nike made a television ad promoting its shoes,
    with people from different countries saying,
    "Just do it" in their native language. Too late
    they found out that a Samburu African tribesman
    was really saying, "I don't want these, give me
    big shoes."

20
Key Element of Culture
  • Values - Enduring beliefs about a specific mode
    of conduct or desirable end-state that guide the
    selection or evaluation of behavior

21
In Sum, Culture includes
  • Social institutions, e.g family, schools,
    government
  • Belief Systems
  • Values
  • Aesthetics
  • Living Conditions, e.g. diet, dress, recreation
  • Language

22
How Does Culture Affect Marketing?
  • 1. Material culture (Technology Level) ?
    Quality type of product demanded, functional
    features, means of production

Functional Features
23
  • Jogging Suit
  • Jogging suit with easy zip back keeps your dog
    clean and dry in rain or snow. Great for shows!

Type of Products
24
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25
Type of Products
26
Effect of Material Culture (Economic Development)
on Marketing
  • As economy develops
  • Marketing institutions become more varied
    complex
  • Facilitating institutions emerge, e.g.
    advertising agencies, credit bureaus
  • Demand for industrial products changes
  • Equipment to build manufacturing plants,
    highways, power plants
  • Parts and supplies to maintain plants
  • Items that other countries can produce more
    competitively
  • Demand for consumer goods moves from subsistence
    to luxury

27
How Does Culture Affect Marketing?
  • 2. Values affect how product is positioned.

28
E.G. Japanese Values on Product Positioning
(Deodorant)
  • Japanese attitude towards body smells and the
    belief that Western style, heavy-duty deodorants
    are not required for them because they dont
    smell as bad are the main reasons why deodorants
    designed for Japanese are different from those
    designed for foreigners.
  • Western culture has traditionally been
    fragrance-based with individuals mixing
    deodorants, perfumes and their own body odors to
    create a unique smell
  • While Japanese culture has tended to discourage
    the showcasing of ones own smell, preferring the
    non-intrusive and non-smelling to the fragrant
    and aromatic.
  • Japanese deodorants marketed as fresh rather
    than nice-smelling come in lighter fragrances
    such as green apple and lemon seems to be a
    female-dominated market, with the male deodorant
    market hardly visible.
  • Many foreigners living in Japan choose to stock
    up on deodorant when they go home or arrange to
    have a supply shipped in from overseas. U. S.
    has so far decided not to enter the Japanese
    market at all.

29
How Does Culture Affect Marketing?
  • 3. Social institutions regulate consumers
    behaviors and attitudes by organizing his
    activities and teaching acceptable behavior
  • literacy, e.g. type of media
  • political acceptance of marketing activities,
    e.g. hypermarche

30
In Sum, Culture Affects
  • Management
  • Marketing
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Product Development Design
  • Promotion
  • Distribution
  • Pricing

31
  • Countries vary based on culture
  • Cultures can be classified on a number of
    dimensions, e.g. Hofstede

32
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33
Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture (1) Uncertainty
Avoidance
  • 1. Uncertainty Avoidance focuses on the degree
    the society reinforces, or does not reinforce,
    uncertainty and ambiguity within the society.
  • High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the
    country cannot tolerate a high level of
    uncertainty/ambiguity. This is reflected in a
    high concern for rules, regulations, controls,
    and issues with career security risk averse
  • Low Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the
    country has a higher tolerance for ambiguity and
    uncertainty. This is reflected in a society that
    more readily accepts change and takes more and
    greater risks.

34
2 - Masculinity
  • Masculinity focuses on the degree the society
    reinforces, or does not reinforce, the
    traditional masculine work role model of male
    achievement, control, and power. The higher the
    MAS score the more "masculine" a culture is.
  • High Masculinity ranking indicates the country
    experiences a high degree of gender
    differentiation. In these cultures, males
    dominate a significant portion of the society and
    power structure, with females being controlled by
    male domination.
  • Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country
    has a low level of differentiation and
    discrimination between genders. In these
    cultures, females are treated equally to males in
    all aspects of the society.
  • Masculine societies, stress values such as the
    importance of showing off achieving something
    visible, or making money.
  • Feminine societies stress quality of life and
    personal relationships.

35
3 - Individualism
  • 3. Individualism focuses on the degree the
    society reinforces individual or collective,
    achievement and interpersonal relationships.
  • High Individualism ranking indicates that
    individuality and individual rights are very
    important. Individuals in these societies may
    tend to form a larger number of looser
    relationships.
  • Low Individualism ranking typifies societies
    of a more collectivist nature with close ties
    between individuals. These cultures reinforce
    extended families and collectives.

36
4 - Power Distance
  • Power Distance focuses on the degree of equality,
    or inequality, between people in the country's
    society. The higher the PD score the more
    inequity between the superior and a subordinate.
    In organizations, Power Distance is related to
    the degree of centralization of authority and
    autocratic leadership.
  • High Power Distance ranking indicates that
    inequalities of power and wealth have been
    allowed to grow within the society. These
    societies are more likely to follow a caste
    system that does not
  • Low Power Distance ranking indicates the society
    de-emphasizes the differences between citizen's
    power and wealth. In these societies equality and
    opportunity for everyone is stressed.

37
5 Long term Orientation
  • Long-Term Orientation (LTO) focuses on the degree
    the society embraces, or does not embrace,
    long-term devotion to traditional, forward
    thinking values.
  • High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the
    country prescribes to the values of long-term
    commitments and respect for tradition. This is
    thought to support a strong work ethic where
    long-term rewards are expected as a result of
    today's hard work. However, business may take
    longer to develop in this society, particularly
    for an "outsider".
  • Low Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the
    country does not reinforce the concept of
    long-term, traditional orientation. In this
    culture, change can occur more rapidly as
    long-term traditions and commitments do not
    become impediments to change.

38
Taiwan
Argentina
U.S.
39
What Dimension does this illustrate?
Thousands of Chinese school children stand at
attention during a ceremony to celebrate China
Children's Day, at Beijing's Tiananmen Square
Friday on May 31, 2002. The event took place a
day earlier actual International Children's Day,
which falls on June 1.
40
Taiwan
The Hofstede analysis for Taiwan is almost
identical to the model for China. Long-term
Orientation is the highest-ranking factor. As
with other Asian countries, relationships are a
primary part of the culture. Individualism is the
lowest ranking. Like the Chinese, the Taiwanese
are a collectivist society.  
41
What Dimension does this illustrate? Country?
42
United States
The Hofstede analysis for the United States is
very similar to other World Countries that have
their heritage founded in Europe with strong ties
to the British Isles (see Great Britain, Canada,
Australia, and New Zealand). Individualism ranks
highest and is a significant factor in the life
of U.S. Americans. The low ranking of Long-term
Orientation reflects a freedom in the culture
from long-term traditional commitments, which
allows greater flexibility and the freedom to
react quickly to new opportunities.
43
http//www.cyborlink.com/besite/hofstede.htm
44
Implications of Hofstedes Study
  • Countries vary as should management practices

45
Weaknesses of Hofstedes Study
  • Assumes one to one correspondence between culture
    and nation-state, while countries have more than
    one culture
  • Researchers were either Europeans or Americans
  • Limited to single industry
  • Cultures are dynamic

46
  • Understanding of Culture (values) helps determine
    international orientation or approach (Ch. 1,
    pp. 19-22)
  • Domestic Market Extension
  • Multidomestic Market
  • Global Marketing

47
  • Understanding culture (values) helps determine
    whether to target
  • All consumers within the borders of a country as
    a single market or
  • global market segments, all consumers with the
    same needs and wants in groups of country markets

48
Hofstede Dimensions
  • Power Distance focuses on the degree of equality,
    or inequality, between people in the country's
    society. A High Power Distance ranking indicates
    that inequalities of power and wealth have been
    allowed to grow within the society. These
    societies are more likely to follow a caste
    system that does not allow significant upward
    mobility of its citizens. A Low Power Distance
    ranking indicates the society de-emphasizes the
    differences between citizen's power and wealth.
    In these societies equality and opportunity for
    everyone is stressed.
  • Individualism focuses on the degree the society
    reinforces individual or collective, achievement
    and interpersonal relationships. A High
    Individualism ranking indicates that
    individuality and individual rights are paramount
    within the society. Individuals in these
    societies may tend to form a larger number of
    looser relationships. A Low Individualism ranking
    typifies societies of a more collectivist nature
    with close ties between individuals. These
    cultures reinforce extended families and
    collectives where everyone takes responsibility
    for fellow members of their group.
  • Masculinity focuses on the degree the society
    reinforces, or does not reinforce, the
    traditional masculine work role model of male
    achievement, control, and power. A High
    Masculinity ranking indicates the country
    experiences a high degree of gender
    differentiation. In these cultures, males
    dominate a significant portion of the society and
    power structure, with females being controlled by
    male domination. A Low Masculinity ranking
    indicates the country has a low level of
    differentiation and discrimination between
    genders. In these cultures, females are treated
    equally to males in all aspects of the society.
  • Uncertainty Avoidance focuses on the degree the
    society reinforces, or does not reinforce,
    uncertainty and ambiguity within the society. A
    High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the
    country has a high level of uncertainty and
    ambiguity. This is reflected in a high concern
    for rules, regulations, controls, and issues with
    career security. A Low Uncertainty Avoidance
    ranking indicates the country has a low level of
    ambiguity and uncertainty. This is reflected in a
    society that more readily accepts change and
    takes more and greater risks.

49
Culture Negotiations
  • In achievement-oriented cultures (e.g. Japan)
  • make sure you or someone in your negotiation team
    has enough technical knowledge and experience to
    convince the other party that your proposal will
    work.

50
Culture Negotiations
  • In status-oriented cultures
  • Make sure that your negotiation team has enough
    older or senior members with extensive experience
    and titles.
  • Respect the line of hierarchy in the other
    negotiation team. Bypassing a superior is
    unacceptable in many cultures.
  • Use titles and symbols to indicate your status in
    society. For this reason, the Japanese always
    exchange business cards before the conversation
    begin. In situations where business cards are
    exchanged, the card should be studied
    respectfully, not stuffed in a pocket, written
    on, or otherwise disregarded.
  • Be formal. This includes dressing conservatively,
    using titles instead of first names, refraining
    from joking or social chatting, and, whenever
    possible, negotiating in person

51
Culture Negotiations
  • In future-oriented cultures
  • Avoid appearing impatient. Future-oriented
    cultures such as Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and
    South Korea, have a long-term outlooks that value
    perseverance.
  • Spend more time on interpersonal relationships
    during your negotiation. As we mentioned
    previously, for Brazilians the process itself, as
    opposed to the end result, is the most import
    aspect of negotiations. Rapport-building and
    trust are extremely important it is important
    not to be perceived as cold or unfriendly.
  • Future-oriented societies place the maintenance
    of personal relationships before costs, winning,
    and saving face. To that end, reciprocation of
    greetings, gifts, and personal favors are
    extremely important in future-oriented cultures.

52
Culture Negotiations
  • In uncertainty-avoidance (UA) cultures (Israel,
    Austria, and Columbia
  • Individuals from cultures with strong
    uncertainty-avoidance tendencies often feel
    threatened by unknown or ambiguous situations. It
    is important to be fully prepared and have all
    details at hand when negotiating with businesses
    from uncertainty-avoidance cultures.
  • Uncertainty-avoidance cultures place a strong
    emphasis on rules, regulations, and punctuality.
    Tardiness is a sign of rudeness appointments
    must be kept strictly and interruptions and
    delays avoided.
  • Formality is also important in high
    uncertainty-avoidance countries. As with
    status-oriented cultures, it is important to
    remain formal
  • Individuals from high uncertainty-avoidance
    cultures have a reputation for being hard
    bargainers. They like to open with extreme
    demands and make few and small concessions.
    Haggling is common, expected, and essential.

53
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54
British Stereotypes
55
The True Brit
56
Get Around in ENGLISH How to be Polite
57
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58
What to Say Before You Eat
59
Enjoy Your Meal!
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