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IMMUNOLOGY BASICS Lactation Biology Animal Science 337 Leo

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IMMUNOLOGY BASICS Lactation Biology Animal Science 337 Leo Timms Iowa State University * MEANS OF AQUIRING IMMUNITY ACTIVE: make own antibody ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IMMUNOLOGY BASICS Lactation Biology Animal Science 337 Leo


1
IMMUNOLOGY BASICSLactation BiologyAnimal
Science 337
  • Leo Timms
  • Iowa State University

2
MEANS OF AQUIRING IMMUNITY
  • ACTIVE make own antibody
  • chance encounter
    w/Ag
  • a) natural
  • pregnancy
  • vaccination
  • b) artificial
  • introduce Ag via
    trt.

3
MEANS OF AQUIRING IMMUNITY
  • PASSIVE transfer preformed antibody
  • a) natural mother to fetus
  • (6 mo protection)
  • placental vs. colostral
  • b) artificial immune therapy

4
Type of immune response
  • Innate
  • defense we are born with
  • phagocytic cells
  • complement proteins
  • anatomical
  • physiological
  • Adaptive/acquired
  • defense that develops with exposure/time
  • serum antibodies
  • T cells (CMI)

1st line of defense!!!
5
Mechanisms of immunity
  • Cellular
  • cells responsible for protection
  • lymphocytes
  • phagocytes
  • Humoral
  • antibodies (in serum) are responsible for
    protection

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  • large cell (10-25 um dia)
  • main purpose phagocytosis / kill
  • act non specifically
  • chemotactic capability
  • potent phagocytosis when activated
  • by T lymphocytes (lymphokines)
  • Express Ag on surface to T / B cells

9
  • multilobulated nucleus
  • lysosomal granules
  • phagocytosis and kill
  • 1st white blood cell to infection site
  • die and release contents
  • irritate surrounding tissue / recruit cells
  • Phago. improved by opsonization with Ig

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Inflammation part of innate immunity
12
  • poor at phagocytosis
  • granules contain histamine / serotonin
  • vasodilators / permeability factors
  • requires binding of 2 IgE for release

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lymphocytes
  • small (5 15 um)
  • No lysosomes all brain until activated
  • distinguish self from non self
  • specific recognize specific antigens
  • MEMORY
  • need presentation of Ag by macrophage

15
  • interactions
  • - antigen
  • - macrophage
  • - T cell (Th)
  • - cytokines
  • T helper (Th)
  • T suppressor
  • T killer
  • others
  • interactions
  • - antigen
  • - macrophage
  • - T cell (Th)
  • - B cell
  • - cytokines

cytokines
16
CYTOKINES / LYMPHOKINES
  • Small polypeptide messengers
  • very powerful in low doses
  • multiple uses
  • hormones
  • Interleukins
  • Interferon viral
  • Colony Stimulating factors GCFS
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
  • inflammation / cell movement / traffic

17
OTHER IMMUNE FACTORS
  • Complement 9 specific serum proteins
  • - interaction of components provide
  • numerous biological events
  • Lactoferrin Iron binding protein
  • competes with bacteria for iron
  • Lactoperoxidase ( LP/ SCN- / H2o2 syst.)
  • antioxidant / oxygen radicals

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HUMORAL IMMUNITY (Ab or AMI)
  • Antigen Macrophage T cell B cell
  • Antibodies or Immunoglobulins
  • SPECIFICITY!
  • MEMORY
  • (immunity short, long, or no term)

cytokines
21
L light chain H heavy chain
22
Functions
  • Variable region (Fab) bind specifically-neutralize
    , ppt or agglutinate
  • antigen binding region
  • Constant region (Fc)
  • - activate effector cells or
  • complement
  • - opsonin end

23
Antibody Isotypes-5
24
  • Principle Ab in serum
  • 14 18 mg / ml
  • IgG1 11 mg/ml
  • IgG2 7 mg/ml
  • fixes complement
  • late response to Ag

IgG
IgG1 IgG2
  • IgG1
    IgG2
  • selective transfer (colostrum) 10 opsonin
  • fetal / neonatal defense for
  • toxin inactivation
    phagocytosis
  • principal milk / colostrum Ig
  • (farm species)

25
Opsonization
  • Free IgG binds Fc receptors with low affinity
  • IgG bound to Ag, binds to Fc receptors with high
    affinity
  • Cross-linking receptors sends signal

26
  • largest Ig
  • pentamer
  • serum (1-3 mg/ml)
  • fixes complement
  • 1st Ig produced
  • to Ag challenge!

IgM
  • Binds to mast cells
  • basophils
  • ACTIVATION
  • RELEASE OF
  • histamine - serotonin

IgE
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  • 3 different forms in serum
  • different form in secretion ( secretory piece)
  • serum 1-3 mg/ ml
  • activates complement serum (yes) milk (no)

IgA
Secretory piece
  • local immunity and secretions
  • prevents bacterial adherence
  • maternal milk very important
  • primary Ig in colostrum (humans)!

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