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Janeway's Immunology

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Lecture 1 Overview Chapter 1 References Janeway s Immunobiology, 7th edition, 2008 Textbook of Hematology, McKenzie, 2nd edition, 1996 Microbiology: An Introduction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Janeway's Immunology


1
MICR 304 Immunology Serology
Lecture 1 Overview Chapter 1
2
Immunology
  • Recognition of self and non-self
  • Antigens
  • Elimination of non-self
  • Exogenous targets
  • Microbes
  • Allergens
  • Foreign material
  • Endogenous targets
  • Tumors

3
Microbial Targets of the Immune System
(Pictures from Tortora et al, 2004)
4
Allergens
5
Foreign Bodies
http//www.mdchoice.com/photo/pto0023.asp
6
Tumors as Targets
Tumor Cell
NK-Cell
Before
Breast cancer
After
7
No response
Response
Desired response
Response associated with disease
8
The Birth of the Science Immunology
  • Edward Jenner (England, 1796)
  • Cowpox (vaccinia) protects against small pox
  • First reported vaccination

9
Milestones in Immunology
  • Metchnikoff 1884
  • Phagocytosis
  • Pasteur 1885
  • Systematic development of a vaccine (rabies)
  • von Behring and Kitasato 1890
  • Discovered antibodies
  • Landsteiner 1902
  • Blood groups
  • Wassermann 1906
  • Complement fixation test
  • Fleming 1921
  • Lysozyme
  • Jacob Wollmann 1953
  • Clonal selection theory
  • Porter 1962
  • Antibody structure
  • Koehler Milstein 1975
  • Monoclonal antibodies

10
A Major Principle in Immunology
AntibodyAntigen Binding
  • Antibody a host protein that binds specifically
    to a molecule (soluble or particular)
  • Antigen any molecule that can be recognized by
    and bound to an antibody typically induces
    production of antibodies in the host (antibody
    generating)

11
Evolution of Immunity
Innate Immunity
Jawed fish
Adaptive Immunity
12
Two Arms of Host Defense
  • Innate immunity
  • Natural immunity
  • Defense system functional at birth
  • Preformed or available within hours after
    infection
  • Pattern recognition
  • Widely present in nature
  • Adaptive immunity
  • Acquired
  • Available within days
  • Specificity
  • Memory
  • In higher vertebrates

Innate
Adaptive
13
Key Players in Immunology
14
Defense Cells Have Specific Tasks
  • B-lymphocytes
  • Produce antibodies
  • T-helper lymphocytes
  • Strengthen defense cells to improve their
    function
  • Regulate immune responses
  • T-killer lymphocytes
  • Lyse with specificty infected cells or tumor
    cells
  • Epithelial cells
  • Barrier
  • Phagocytes
  • Ingest
  • Kill
  • Digest
  • NK-cells
  • Lyse infected cells or tumor cells

15
Infection Triggers an Innate Inflammatory Response
16
Dendritic Cells Initiate Adaptive Immune Responses
17
Adaptive Immune Responses Augment Innate Immune
Responses
18
Immune Cells Interact via Cytokines and Surface
Molecules
19
Immune Cells are also Activated by Defense
Molecules
20
Time Course of the Immune Response
21
Most Immune Cells are Found in Blood
Granulocytes
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Natural Killer Cells
22
Normal Blood Distribution of Leukocytes
  • Neutrophils 40-75
  • Lymphocytes 20-50
  • Monocytes 2-10
  • Eosinophils 1-6
  • Basophils lt1

23
Most Immune Cells Originate in the Bone Marrow
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Development of blood cells and constituent
  • All blood cells originate from the pluripotent
    hematopoietic stem cell

Bone marrow, higher power
Bone marrow, low power
24
Hematopoiesis
25
Hematopoiesis by Other Organs
  • Sites
  • Spleen, liver
  • Condition
  • Normal fetal sites of hematopoiesis
  • Malignancies
  • Myelofibrosis (bone marrow replaced by fibrotic
    tissue)
  • Precursor cells are found in blood

26
Immature Blood Cells in Peripheral Blood
  • More acidophil cytoplasma
  • Large cells with nuclei
  • Prominent nucleoli

27
Lymphatic Tissue
  • Central
  • Bone marrow
  • Thymus
  • Secondary
  • Spleen
  • Lymph nodes
  • GALT (gut associated lymphatic tissue)
  • Tonsils
  • Peyers patches
  • Appendix

Production
Interaction with Ag Maturation
28
Thymus
Bone marrow precursor
Immature T-Cells
Mature naive T-Cells
Hassalls corpuscule (Cell destruction?)
Blood stream
29
Lymph Node
30
The Spleen
31
Organization of the Spleen
  • White pulpa
  • Leukocytes arranged around the blood vessels and
    sinuses
  • Red pulpa
  • Blood vessels and sinuses
  • Marginal Zone
  • Border between white and red pulpa

32
Peyers Patches
33
Appendix
34
References
  • Janeways Immunobiology, 7th edition, 2008
  • Textbook of Hematology, McKenzie, 2nd edition,
    1996
  • Microbiology An Introduction Tortora et al, 8th
    edition, 2004
  • http//www-medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/HEMEHTML/HE
    MEIDX.html
  • http//www.siumed.edu/7Edking2/erg/smallint.htm
  • Primary literature available per request
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