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Unit 1: Psychological Skills Training Introduction Myths


Unit 1: Psychological Skills Training Introduction Myths Sport Psychology Research Terry Orlick s Wheel of Excellence The Peak Performance Experience – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1: Psychological Skills Training Introduction Myths

Unit 1 Psychological Skills Training
  • Introduction
  • Myths
  • Sport Psychology Research
  • Terry Orlicks Wheel of Excellence
  • The Peak Performance Experience
  • Assumptions about Psychological Skills Training
  • Reciprocal Determinism
  • Useful Metaphors
  • Mental Training as Life Skills

I. Introduction
  • Big Themes
  • Awareness
  • Choice
  • Self-control
  • Plans routines
  • Something to turn to
  • Mental skills can be learned with practice

II. Myths
  • Mental training is the same as psychotherapy
  • Mental training is only for elite performers

III. Sport Psychology Research
  • Basic versus Applied Research
  • Astros Study
  • Pac-10 Golf Study

ACSI-28 Subscales
  • Confidence Achievement Motivation
  • Freedom from Worry
  • Concentration
  • Coachability
  • Goal-Setting Mental Preparation
  • Coping with Adversity
  • Peaking under Pressure

IV. Terry Orlicks Wheel of Excellence
  • Focus
  • Commitment
  • Confidence Belief
  • Positive Images
  • Ongoing Learning
  • Distraction Control
  • Mental Readiness

John Wooden on Success
  • Success is peace of mind, which is the direct
    result of self-satisfaction in knowing you did
    your best to become the best that you are capable
    of becoming

  • An expectancy concerning ones ability to
    successfully engage in the behaviors that are
    required for goal attainment in a given situation
    or performance domain
  • In other words
  • Belief in your capacity to do what is necessary
    to reach your goal.
  • Belief that you have the ability to achieve your

Two Ways of Viewing Intelligence
  • Intelligence is static
  • Fixed mindset or entity theory
  • Whatever you have is what you have
  • Intelligence is acquired
  • Growth mindset or incremental theory
  • What you have is a product of what you have
    developed along the way

Examples of the Fixed Mindset
  • "Imagination, creativity, and belief. You either
    have them or you don't."
  • Royal Bank of Scotland
  • "Challenge doesn't create character, it reveals
  • Oppenheimer Funds

Blackwell, Tresniewski, Dweck (2007)
  • Participants Students entering Jr. High
  • Variables measured
  • Mindset (fixed versus growth)
  • Motivational variables learning (versus outcome
    goals), beliefs about effort, helpless attitudes
  • Math grades

Study 1 Results
  • Mindset was significantly correlated with 7th
    8th grade math grades
  • Students who endorsed the growth mindset were
    more likely to
  • Pay more attention to learning as a goal
  • Believe that effort is necessary and effective in

Study 1 Results (Continued)
  • Students with learning goals and positive
    attitudes about effort
  • Made fewer ability based attributions for
    setbacks (e.g., I failed because Im stupid)
  • These motivational differences appeared to
    contribute to better performance in math

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Study 2 Results
  • Manipulate mindset
  • Intervention Eight 25-minute sessions with the
    kids (experimental and control groups)
  • Both groups sessions on brain basics and study
  • Experimental group sessions on how learning
    changes the brain (control group sessions on
    memory and academics)

Study 2 Results (Continued)
  • Same correlations between mindset and
    motivational factors were found
  • Those in the growth mindset group showed a change
    in math grades

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Dweck Study with 5th Graders
  • Had students solve relatively straight-forward
    puzzles from an IQ test
  • After successful completion, students received
    one of two types of praise
  • Intelligence group You must be smart at this.
  • Effort group You must have worked very hard.

Dweck Study with 5th Graders (Continued)
  • When given the choice to try a harder puzzle that
    they would learn a lot from attempting
  • Majority of intelligence group didnt attempt
  • Most of effort group (90) tried it
  • Next, everyone failed on a hard puzzle
  • Showed different explanations for failure
  • Intelligence group I guess Im not smart at
  • Effort group I guess I havent tried hard
    enough yet many were still enthusiastic about
    these puzzles

Dweck Study with 5th Graders (Continued)
  • All students again given opportunity to do
    puzzles as easy as the very first puzzles
  • Intelligence group did about 20 worse
  • Effort group did about 30 better

Fixed Mindset Intelligence is Static and
  • Leads to a desire to look smart and a therefore a
    tendency to
  • Avoid challenges
  • Give up easily
  • See effort as fruitless or worse
  • Ignore useful negative feedback
  • Feel threatened by the success of others
  • Peak early and not achieve full potential

Growth Mindset Intelligence is Developed
  • Leads to a desire to learn and therefore a
    tendency to
  • Embrace challenges
  • Persist in the face of setbacks
  • See effort as a path to mastery
  • Learn from criticism
  • Find lessons and inspiration in the success of
  • Reach higher levels of achievement

A Success Formula
  • Self-Discipline
  • Self-Control
  • Self-Confidence
  • Self-Realization (accomplishing goals that have
    personal meaning for you)

Vince Lombardi on Success
  • The dictionary is the only place where success
    comes before work. Hard work is the price we
    must all pay for success.

The Peak Performance State
  • Physically Relaxed
  • Mentally Calm
  • Energized
  • Focused
  • Automatic
  • Effortless
  • Enjoyment
  • Positive
  • Self-confident
  • In control
  • Alert

Assumptions About Psychological Skills Training
  • People do things the best way they know how.
  • Most people never reach their full potential.
  • Most people dont know how to release their full
    potential, but they can learn.
  • Becoming fully yourself requires getting out of
    your own way
  • Much of life is a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Assumptions about Psychological Skills Training
  • The mind and body interact in both positive and
    negative ways.
  • It is crucial to take responsibility for yourself
    and your own personal development.
  • The ultimate goals is self-realization.

Environment Stimuli from social or physical
environment Reinforcement contingencies
Behavior Nature Frequency Intensity
Person Personality characteristics Cognitive
processes Self-regulation skills
Unit 2 Goal Setting
  • What is a Goal?
  • What is Goal Setting?
  • Does Goal Setting Work?
  • The Theory Behind Goal Setting
  • Goal-Setting Guidelines
  • Case Examples
  • Common Problems in Goal Setting

Goals Defined
  • Goal (or specific objective goal) attaining a
    specific standard of proficiency on a task,
    usually within a specified time limit
  • Examples
  • Reduce my best marathon time by 5 minutes by
    January of 2008.
  • Increase my typing speed by 10 words per minute
    by the end of the quarter

General Objective Goals
  • Defined goals that relate to outcomes or results
  • Examples
  • Be promoted to district manager
  • Get an A in my chemistry class
  • Win the state championship

Subjective Goals
  • Subjective goals general statements of intent
  • Examples
  • I want to have fun
  • I want to perform well

Outcome Goals
  • Outcome goals goals that have to do with
    performance results ( general objective goals)

Performance Process Goals (a.k.a. Target
  • Performance goals goals that focus on
    improvement relative to prior performances (
    specific objective goals)
  • Process goals procedures the person will focus
    on during performances (often involve mental
    and/or physical skills)
  • Examples

Goal Setting Defined
  • Goal setting is a systematic, scientifically
    validated approach to
  • selecting goals
  • developing specific action plans for moving
    towards these goals, and
  • monitoring performance feedback

Some Effects of Goal Setting
  • Increased performance and productivity
  • Increased motivation
  • Increased confidence and pride
  • Increased self-sufficiency/resourcefulness
  • Increased liking for activity
  • More directed efficient preparation
  • Clarified expectations (in group settings)

How Does Goal Setting Work?
  • Directs attention and effort
  • Mobilizes effort
  • Increases persistence prolongs effort
  • Aids in the development of new strategies
  • Increases self-assessment
  • Enhances confidence and personal control

Goal-Setting Guidelines
  • Set specific, behavioral, and measurable goals
  • Set difficult but realistic goals
  • Set short-term as well as long-term goals
  • Set performance and process goals (target
    behaviors) as well as outcome goals
  • Set goals for practice as well as competition

Goal-Setting Guidelines (Continued)
  • Set positive as opposed to negative goals
  • Set target dates
  • Record goals once they have been identified
  • Identify goal achievement strategies
  • Get feedback on your progress
  • Be flexible

Additional Goal-Setting Recommendations (Not in
  • Focus on the process
  • Reward your striving
  • Expect individual differences

Common Problems in Goal Setting
  • Convincing people to start
  • Failure to set performance and process goals
  • Setting too many goals
  • Setting goals that are too general
  • Failing to modify excessively difficult or
    unrealistic goals
  • Failing to appreciate time commitment involved

Common Problems in Goal Setting (Continued)
  • Setting only technique-related goals (ignoring
    psychological factors)
  • Failing to follow-up and track progress
  • Failing to appreciate individual differences

Unit 3 Behavioral Self-Regulation
  • Models of Behavior Change
  • Self-Regulation in Human Behavior
  • Behavioral Self-Control
  • The ABCs of Behavior Control
  • Designing a Self-Control Program
  • Identifying and Controlling Antecedents
  • Identifying and Controlling Consequences
  • Relapse Prevention

Factors Influencing Behavior
  • Biological System
  • Learned Behavior Repertoire
  • Cues from Cognitive and Self-Directive Responses
  • Immediate Environment

Kurt Lewins Formula (1935)
  • B f(P, E)
  • In Lewins words
  • Behavior is a function of interacting
  • personal and environmental factors.

Cybernetic Regulatory Systems
  • Standard The target that is set (goal)
  • Sensor Monitors a variable (awareness
  • Comparator Compares variable to standard
  • Activator Causes change to happen (action plan)

The Nature of Mental Toughness
  • Emotional control in the face of adversity
  • Able to concentrate under pressure and
  • Peaks under pressure
  • Views pressure situations as challenges rather
    than threats
  • Self-motivated and directed

The Nature of Mental Toughness (Continued)
  • Consistency
  • Optimistic and self-confident
  • Fully responsible
  • Great determination

Mental Toughness as Psychological Skills
  • Goal Setting
  • Imagery/Mental Rehearsal
  • Stress Management Training
  • Attention Control
  • Pain Control Procedures
  • Social Skills/Communication Training

Stages of Skillful Behavior Development
  • Control by Others
  • Control by Self
  • Automatization (Control by Environmental Cues)
  • Paralysis through analysis

Identifying Antecedents
  • When did it happen?
  • Where were you?
  • Whom were you with?
  • What were you doing?
  • What were you thinking?
  • What were you feeling?

Principles of Self-Regulation
  • From early life to adulthood, regulation by
    others and the self (particularly through verbal
    instructions) act as powerful guides to behavior.
  • Operant behavior is a function of its
  • A positive reinforcer is a consequence that
    maintains and strengthens behavior by its added
  • A negative reinforcer is a consequence that
    strengthens behavior by being subtracted from the

Principles of Self-Regulation (Continued)
  • Behavior that is punished will occur less often.
  • An act that was reinforced but no longer is will
    begin to weaken.
  • Intermittent reinforcement increases resistance
    to extinction.
  • Most operant behavior is eventually guided by
    antecedent stimuli, or cues, the most important
    of which are often self-directed statements.

Principles of Self-Regulation (Still Continued)
  • An antecedent can be a cue or a signal that an
    unpleasant event may be imminent. This is likely
    to produce avoidance behavior.
  • Through conditioning, antecedents come to elicit
    automatic reactions that are often emotional.
  • Many behaviors are learned by observing someone
    else (a model) perform the actions, which are
    then imitated.

Modifying Existing Antecedents
  • Avoiding Antecedents
  • Narrowing Stimulus Control
  • Reconstruing Antecedents
  • Building in Pauses

Creating New Antecedents
  • Thought Substitution
  • Establishing Environmental Stimulus Control
    (similar to Narrowing Stimulus Control)
  • Precommitment and Programming

Sources of Positive Reinforcement
  • From Things
  • From People
  • From Activities

Selecting Positive Reinforcers
  • What kinds of things do you like having?
  • What would be a nice present to get?
  • What activities do you enjoy most?
  • What are your hobbies?
  • What would you hate to give up?
  • What people do you like to be with?
  • What do you do to relax?

Selecting Positive Reinforcers (Continued)
  • What behaviors do you do everyday (Premack
  • What behaviors do you do instead of target
  • What would you buy with an extra 20, 50, or
  • What are your favorite fantasies or daydreams?

Effective Reinforcers
  • Potent (strong enough)
  • Contingent
  • Controllable

Using Reinforcers Effectively
  • Contingencies and Contracts
  • Delayed versus Immediate Reinforcement
  • Verbal Self-Reinforcement
  • Token Economies
  • Using Others to Dispense Reinforcers
  • Imagined/Covert Reinforcement

Using Reinforcers Effectively (Continued)
  • Reinforce Antecedent Controlling Behaviors
  • Shaping
  • Punishment

Minimizing Relapses
  • Recognize that lapses happen
  • Recognize that lapses are different from relapses
  • Recognize the antecedents of high-risk situations
  • Cope with high-risk situations
  • Counter the abstinence violation effect
  • Use the lapse as a learning experience

Abstinence Violation Effect
  • People engaging in this process
  • feel guilty about a lapse.
  • excessively blame themselves for a lapse.
  • believe that the lapse indicates they dont have
    the necessary willpower to change.
  • give up trying to change.

Behavior Change in 5 Chapters
  • Chapter 1 You walk down a street with a hole in
    it. You fall in. It takes a long time to get
  • Chapter 2 You walk down a street with a hole in
    it. You see the hole but fall in anyway. It
    takes a long time to get out.
  • Chapter 3 You walk down a street with a hole in
    it. You see the hole but fall in anyway. You
    dont fall in as far and it doesnt take as long
    to get out.
  • Chapter 4 You walk down a street with a hole in
    it. You walk around the hole.
  • Chapter 5 You walk down a different street.

Unit 4 Time Management
  • The Problem of Limited Time
  • Time Management Steps

Unit 5 Imagery
  • Introduction
  • What Is Imagery?
  • Why Does it Work?
  • Imagery Exercise
  • Different Uses of Imagery
  • Tips for Effective Imagery

Imagery Defined
  • Imagery is using all of the senses to create or
    recreate an experience in the mind.

Imagery Theories
  • Bioinformational Explanation (response sets)
  • Functional Equivalence Explanation
  • Psychoneuromuscular (muscle memory)
  • Mental Readiness Explanation (proper state)
  • Extra Symbolic Learning Explanation (mental blue

Different Uses for Imagery
  • To learn new skills or refine well-learned
  • To train more effectively (handle difficulties in
    conditioning, increase interest)
  • To practice when you are unable to physically
    practice (i.e., injury)
  • To simulate competitive situations

Different Uses for Imagery (Continued)
  • To etch good performances into memory
  • To imagine successes (high-light tape)
  • To prepare for performing
  • To regulate your emotions or state
  • To review and evaluate prior performances
  • To practice psychological skills
  • To complement goal setting

Tips for Effective Imagery
  • Relax before doing your imagery
  • Start simple and work your way up (the ability to
    imagine is like a muscle it gets stronger with
  • Focus on creating images that are vivid and
    controllable (Basic Training)
  • Practice your imagery systematically (be
    consistent and persistent)
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