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Title: Motivating Employees and Creating Self-Managed Teams Chapter


1
Motivating Employees and Creating Self-Managed
Teams
  • Chapter 10

2
Chapter 10 Learning Goals
  • What are the basic principles of Frederick
    Taylors concept of scientific management?
  • What did Elton Mayos Hawthorne studies reveal
    about worker motivation?
  • What is Maslows hierarchy of needs, and how do
    these needs relate to motivation?
  • How are McGregors Theories X and Y used to
    explain worker motivation?
  • What are the basic components of Herzbergs
    motivator-hygiene theory?

3
Chapter 10 Learning Goals (contd.)
  • What three contemporary theories on employee
    motivation offer insights into improving employee
    performance?
  • How can managers redesign existing jobs to
    increase employee motivation and performance?
  • What different types of teams are being used in
    organizations today?
  • What initiatives are organizations using today to
    motivate and retain employees?

4
Learning Goal 1
  • What are the basic principles of Frederick
    Taylors concept of scientific management?
  • Develop a scientific approach for each element of
    a persons job
  • Scientifically select, train, teach, and develop
    workers
  • Encourage cooperation between workers and
    managers so that each job can be accomplished in
    a standard, scientifically determined way
  • Divide work and responsibility between management
    and workers according to who is better suited to
    each task

5
Evolution of Motivation Theory
  • 1. Scientific Management
  • 2. Hawthorne Studies
  • 3. Hierarchy of Needs
  • 4. Theories X and Y
  • 5. Motivator-Hygiene Theory

6
Principles of Scientific Management
  • 1. Develop a science of every job element
  • 2. Scientifically select, train, instruct
    workers
  • 3. Cooperation between workers managers
  • 4. Match individuals to well-suited tasks and
    responsibilities

7
Learning Goal 2
  • What did Elton Mayos Hawthorne studies reveal
    about worker motivation?
  • Increases in performance are tied to a complex
    set of employee attitudes
  • Employees singled out for special attention
    develop pride that motivates workers to increase
    productivity
  • Employees will perform better if they feel that
    management is concerned about their welfare

8
Hawthorne Studies
  • Hawthorne Effect
  • The phenomenon that employees perform better
    when they feel singled out for attention or feel
    that management is concerned about their welfare

9
Learning Goal 3
  • What is Maslows hierarchy of needs, and how do
    these needs relate to motivation?
  • Maslows hierarchy of needs consisted of
  • Physiological needs
  • Safety needs
  • Social needs
  • Esteem needs
  • Self-actualization needs
  • Managers can increase employee motivation by
    modifying organizational and managerial practices
    to help employees meet all levels of needs

10
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization needs
Esteemneeds
Social needs
Safety needs
Physiological needs
11
Learning Goal 4
  • How are McGregors Theories X and Y used to
    explain worker motivation?
  • Theory X states
  • People dont like to work and will avoid it if
    they can
  • People must be controlled, directed or threatened
    to get them to make an effort
  • Workers want to avoid responsibility but want job
    security
  • Theory Y states
  • Work is as natural as play or rest
  • People want to be self-directed and will try to
    accomplish goals in which they believe
  • Positive incentives will motivate workers
  • People seek responsibility and are willing to
    help solve problems
  • McGregor believed Theory Y assumptions describe
    most employees

12
McGregors Theories of Human Motivation
  • Theory Y
  • work is as natural as play
  • people respond to positive incentives
  • people enjoy responsibility like to solve
    problems
  • Theory X
  • people dislike work
  • people need to be controlled, threatened
  • people avoid responsibility
  • value security

13
Learning Goal 5
  • What are the basic components of Herzbergs
    motivator-hygiene theory?
  • Certain job factors are consistently related to
    employee job satisfaction (satisfiers)
  • Achievement and recognition
  • The nature of work itself
  • Responsibility and advancement
  • Growth
  • Certain job factors can create job
    dissatisfaction (dissatisfiers) if not
    well-managed
  • Company policy
  • Relationships with supervisors, peers, and
    subordinates
  • Working conditions, salary, and benefits
  • Job security

14
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Motivating factors
  • intrinsic job elements that lead to worker
    satisfaction
  • Hygiene factors
  • extrinsic elements of the work environment that,
    if not managed well, lead to worker
    dissatisfaction

15
Learning Goal 6
  • What three contemporary theories on employee
    motivation offer insights into improving employee
    performance?
  • Expectancy theory - motivation depends on link
    between
  • Effort and performance
  • Performance and outcome
  • Outcomes and personal needs
  • Equity theory - based on individuals perceptions
    about how fairly they are treated compared with
    coworkers
  • Goal-setting theory - employees are highly
    motivated to perform when specific goals are
    established and feedback on progress is offered

16
Contemporary Motivation Theory
  • 1. Expectancy Theory
  • 2. Equity Theory
  • 3. Goal-Setting Theory

17
  • Expectancy theory
  • The probability of a behavior depends on
  • (1) strength of individuals belief that the
    behavior will have a particular outcome, and
  • (2) whether the individual values the outcome

18
  • Equity theory
  • Worker satisfaction is influenced by employees
    perceptions about how fairly they are treated
    compared with their coworkers

19
Equity Theory
  • Upward social comparison comparing oneself to
    another who is better off on a particular
    attribute
  • frequently results in decreased satisfaction
  • Downward social comparison comparing oneself to
    another who is worse off on a particular
    attribute
  • frequently results in increased satisfaction

20
Learning Goal 7
  • How can managers redesign existing jobs to
    increase employee motivation and performance?
  • Job enlargement horizontal expansion of a job
    by increasing number and variety of tasks
    performed
  • Job enrichment vertical expansion of a job to
    provide more autonomy, responsibility, and
    decision-making authority for employee
  • Job rotation shifting of workers from one job
    to another to broaden an employees skill base
  • Popular motivational tools Work-scheduling
    options, employee recognition programs,
    empowerment, variable-pay programs

21
Applying Motivation Theory
  • 1. Motivational job design
  • job enlargement
  • job enrichment
  • job rotation
  • 2. Work scheduling options
  • job sharing
  • 3. Recognition, empowerment, economic
    incentives
  • variable pay

22
Job Characteristics Model
  • 1. Skill variety
  • 2. Task identity
  • task has visible results
  • 3. Task significance
  • 4. Autonomy
  • employee freedom and independence
  • 5. Task feedback
  • working on task provides performance feedback

Source Hackman Oldham, 1976, Organizational
Behavior and Human Performance, v. 16, pp.
250-279.
23
Learning Goal 8
  • What different types of teams are being used in
    organizations today?
  • Problem-solving teams
  • Employees from same department, area of
    expertise, and level of hierarchy
  • Meet to share information and discuss ways to
    improve processes and procedures in specific
    functional areas
  • Self-managed work teams
  • Highly autonomous groups that manage themselves
  • Set goals, plan and schedule work activities,
    select team members, evaluate team performance

24
Learning Goal 8 (contd.)
  • What different types of teams are being used in
    organizations today?
  • Cross-functional teams
  • Employees of same hierarchical level but
    different functional areas of the organization
  • Allows people with various areas of expertise to
    pool resources, develop new ideas, solve
    problems, coordinate complex projects
  • Virtual team
  • Employees from different geographic or
    organizational locations that use a combination
    of telecommunications and information
    technologies to come together
  • Work together to accomplish a common goal but
    rarely meet face-to-face

25
  • Group cohesiveness
  • the degree to which group members want to stay
    in the group and tend to resist outside
    influences

26
2 Types of Cohesiveness
1. Interpersonal cohesiveness strong bonds
liking between people 2. Task cohesiveness
strong commitment to the group task among
members Cohesiveness can increase team
performance, but interpersonally cohesive teams
may lack task focus
Source Kenrick et al., Social Psychology, p. 441.
27
Pros and Cons of Teams
  • Cons
  • take longer to reach solution
  • members may suppress disagreement
  • group may be dominated by a few individuals
  • lack of accountability
  • Pros
  • more information knowledge
  • can generate more alternatives
  • often higher-quality decisions
  • group participation increases acceptance of
    solutions

28
Types of Teams
  • 1. Problem-solving
  • within one area
  • within one management level
  • 2. Cross-functional
  • within one management level
  • across different areas
  • 3. Self-managed
  • autonomous

29
Building Blocks of High Performance Teams
  • 1. Skills
  • 2. Accountability
  • 3. Commitment
  • Problem solving
  • Technical/functional
  • Interpersonal
  • Small number of members
  • Mutual accountability
  • Individual accountability
  • Specific goals
  • Common approach
  • Meaningful purpose

30
Learning Goal 9
  • What initiatives are organizations using today to
    motivate and retain employees?
  • Investing more in employee education and training
  • Makes workers more productive
  • Less resistant to job change
  • Managers are offering employees a chance for
    ownership in the company
  • Employers are providing work-life benefits to
    help employees achieve a better balance between
    work and personal responsibilities
  • Telecommuting and job sharing
  • Subsidized child care
  • On-site fitness centers

31
Trends in Motivation
  • Improved Education Training
  • Increased Employee Ownership
  • More Work-Life Benefits
  • Deloitte Touche consulting firm offers
    Work/life
  • Balance options
  • reduced hours, reduced workload, continuing
    part-time, flextime, telecommuting, assistance
    programs (Source Deloitte Touche,
    www.dttus.com)
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