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RESPONSE TO TERRORISM Basic Concepts

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Basic Concepts Courage is not the absence of fear, but being able to do what is right in the presence of it. Adapted from FEMA SS-534 Emergency Response to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RESPONSE TO TERRORISM Basic Concepts


1
RESPONSE TO TERRORISMBasic ConceptsCourage
is not the absence of fear, but being able to do
what is right in the presence of it.
  • Adapted from FEMA SS-534 Emergency Response to
    Terrorism
  • Self-Study Program
  • June 1999

2
OBJECTIVES Following this module, the
participant will be able to
  • Define terrorism.
  • Describe risks associated with terroristic
    events.
  • Identify primary indicators.
  • Identify and use self-protective measures.
  • Assume initial scene control.
  • Initiate notification procedures to begin
    response.

3
TERRORISM DEFINEDThe unlawful use of force
against persons or property to intimidate or
coerce a government, civilian population, or any
segment thereof, in the furtherance of political
or social objectives.
Kill one, frighten ten thousand. Sun Tzu
4
SAFETY is concern number one
  • Be alert for suspicious activity.
  • Notify authorities.
  • Follow instructions.
  • Dont add to the problem.
  • Leave the area when instructed.
  • Protect yourself.

5
T-D-S
6
The three common elementsof terrorist acts
  • Illegal use of force
  • Intended to intimidate or coerce
  • Support of political/ social objectives

7
POTENTIAL TARGETS
  • Government facilities
  • Public assembly buildings
  • Mass transit systems
  • Telecommunications
  • Symbolic Sites

8
CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT
  • You may be asked to assist during initial
    evacuation or provide technical expertise.

9
CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENTRange of Terrorist
Incidents
  • Significant threat
  • Confirmed presence of
  • an explosive device or
  • WMD capable of
  • causing a significant
  • destructive event,
  • prior to any injury
  • or property loss.

10
CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENTRange of Terrorist
Incidents
  • Limited consequences
  • detonation of an explo-
  • sive device, use of WMD,
  • with or without warning,
  • that results in limited
  • injury or death and
  • consequences which are
  • within state and local
  • capabilities.

11
CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENTRange of Terrorist
Incidents
  • Major consequences resulting in substantial
  • injury or death, such that consequences exceed
  • State and local capabilities.

12
CRISIS MANAGEMENT
  • Military/Law Enforcement Response Measures to
  • identify, acquire and plan use of all resources
    needed to
  • anticipate, prevent and/or resolve a threat or
    act of terror.

13
PRESIDENTIAL DECISION DIRECTIVE 39
  • Reduce vulnerability
  • Respond to manage consequences of terrorism.
  • Crisis Management
  • FBI has lead role - focus on criminal aspects.
  • Consequence Management
  • FEMA has lead role, focus on alleviating damage,
    loss, hardship and suffering.
  • Emergency Response Team
  • Establishes Disaster Field Office.

14
CATEGORIES Terrorist Incidents
  • Biological
  • Nuclear
  • Incendiary
  • Chemical
  • Explosive

15
T-D-S
16
Pose a serious threat due to their accessibility,
potential for rapid spread, and ability to cause
multiple casualties.
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
  • Routes of Entry
  • Inhalation
  • Absorption
  • Ingestion
  • Injection

17
COMMON BIOLOGICAL AGENTSMost likely routes of
exposure are inhalation and ingestion
  • Bacteria
  • Rickettsia
  • Viruses
  • Toxins

18
BACTERIA RICKETTSIA
  • Bacteria single-celled organisms
  • Multiply by cell division
  • Rickettsia smaller than bacteria
  • Live inside individual host cells to cause
    disease
  • Bacteria examples
  • Anthrax (bacillus anthracis)
  • Cholera (Vibrio cholerae)
  • Plague (Yersinia pestis)
  • Rickettsia example
  • Q-fever (coxiella burnetii )

19
VIRUSES
  • Simplest type of microorganisms
  • Lack a system for their own metabolism
  • Depend on living cells to multiply
  • Wont live long outside a host
  • Examples
  • Smallpox
  • Equine encephalitis
  • Hemorrhagic fevers
  • (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa).

20
TOXINS
  • Toxic substances of NATURAL origin
  • Produced by a plant, animal, or microbe
  • Examples
  • Botulism (botulinum)
  • SEB (staphyloccal enterotoxin B)
  • Ricin


21
TOXINS
  • Differ from chemical agents
  • because...
  • They are not man made
  • More complex materials
  • By weight are usually more toxic than many
    chemical agents

22
T-D-S
23
THE NUCLEAR THREAT
  • Threatened detonation of a nuclear weapon
  • Use of a threat as extortion
  • No known instance of any non-governmental group
    close to obtaining or producing a weapon
  • Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)
  • Use of a conventional explosive to disperse
    nuclear material to contaminate a large area
  • Example, truck bomb positioned near a nuclear
    power plant or an explosive device placed near
    nuclear cargo in transport

24
NUCLEAR RADIATION TYPES
  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gamma

25
NUCLEAR RADIATION TYPES Alpha
  • Heaviest, most highly charged
  • Wont penetrate the skin
  • Stopped by a sheet of paper
  • Internal hazard if radioactive particles are
    ingested by eating, drinking or breathing

26
NUCLEAR RADIATION TYPES Beta
  • Smaller particle
  • Surface tissue penetration
  • Generally will not reach inner organs
  • May enter through unprotected open wounds, cause
    skin burns
  • Poses an internal hazard if ingested.
  • Disposal of contaminated clothing and thorough
    washing with soap and water as protective
    measure.

27
NUCLEAR RADIATION TYPES Gamma
  • Most penetrating
  • Produces acute symptoms
  • Skin burns
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Hair loss

28
  • This is heavy stuff, time for a break..

..be back in ten minutes.
29
T-D-S
30
An incendiary device is any mechanical,
electrical or chemical device used intentionally
to initiate combustion and start a fire.
INCENDIARY INCIDENTS
31
INCENDIARY DEVICES?
32
CHEMICAL INCIDENTS
  • NERVE AGENTS disrupt the central nervous system
  • BLISTER AGENTS (VESICANTS) cause severe burns
  • BLOOD AGENTS interrupts Hemoglobin transport
  • CHOKING AGENTS stress respiratory system
  • IRRITATING AGENTS incapacitates by causing
  • tearing,
  • respiratory distress,
  • pain.

33
ROUTES OF EXPOSURE
  • INHALATION (primary)
  • ABSORPTION
  • DIRECT SKIN CONTACT
  • nerve,
  • blister
  • irritant agents
  • INJECTION (least likely)

34
NERVE AGENTS
  • Toxic even in small concentrations
  • Effects similar to organophosphate pesticides,
    but of a much higher toxicity

35
Early outward warning signs and symptoms
NERVE AGENTS
  • Runny nose, nasal congestion
  • Profuse tearing, dimmed or blurred vision
  • Pinpoint pupils, eye pain aggravated by sunlight
  • Excessive salivation, abdominal pain, nausea
  • Involuntary urination and/or defecation
  • Chest pressure, cough, difficulty breathing
  • Excessive sweating
  • Muscle tremors, involuntary twitching
  • Giddiness, anxiety, difficulty in thinking or
    sleeping

36
NERVE AGENTS
  • Resemble water or light oil in pure form
  • Odorless
  • Typically dispersed as aerosol
  • Important indicators and clues
  • Small explosions
  • Presence of spray devices
  • Dead insects, birds, animals, people!

37
Blister Agents
  • Readily penetrate clothing
  • Quickly absorbed
  • Very toxic, but less so than nerve agents
  • Effects similar to common corrosives
  • Examples
  • Mustard Gas (H, HD)
  • Lewisite (L)

38
Clinical symptoms may not appear for hours or
days
BLISTER AGENTS
  • Eyes (1 hr) Reddening, tearing, burning,
    gritty
  • Skin (1-12 hrs) Itching, redness, tenderness,
    burning pain, blisters,most intense in warm,
    moist areas of the groin and armpits
  • Respiratory (2-12 hrs) Burning sensation in
    nose/throat, hoarseness, profusely running nose,
    severe cough, shortness of breath
  • Digestive (2-3 hrs) Abdominal pain, nausea,
    bloody vomiting and diarrhea

39
BLISTER AGENTS
  • Are heavy, oily liquids
  • Dispersed by aerosol or evaporation
  • Be alert for small explosions, fires or spray
    equipment
  • In a pure state are nearly colorless and odorless
  • Dark color and a garlic or onion odor
  • Outward signs
  • Eye and respiratory irritation
  • Similar symptoms appearing in many individuals

40
Result in asphyxiation by interfering with the
ability of blood to transport oxygen
BLOOD AGENTS
  • Toxic at high concentrations rapid death
  • Common industrial compounds
  • hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK)
  • When under pressure are liquids
  • In pure form are gases
  • Victims require prompt removal to fresh air
  • And respiratory therapy in a hospital

41
BLOOD AGENTS
  • Bitter almonds or peach blossoms
  • Clinical symptoms
  • Respiratory distress
  • Vomiting /diarrhea
  • Vertigo / headaches

42
Cause asphyxiation by respiratory edema (fluid
in the lungs, resembling drowning)
CHOKING AGENTS
  • Common industrial chemicals
  • Examples chlorine, phosgene
  • Clinical symptoms
  • Severe eye irritation, coughing, choking
  • Phosgene has odor of newly cut hay

43
Designed to incapacitate, riot control agents
IRRITATING AGENTS
  • Generally non-lethal, but can result in
    asphyxiation
  • Confined spaces, high concentrations
  • Examples
  • Chloropicrin, MACE (CN),
  • Tear gas (CS)
  • Capsicum (pepper spray)
  • Dibenzoxazepine (CR)
  • Clinical symptoms include
  • Eyes and throat burning, irritation, tearing
  • Respiratory distress, coughing, choking,
    difficulty breathing
  • Digestive nausea and vomiting, if in high
    concentrations

44
T-D-S
45
EXPLOSIVE INCIDENTS
  • Explosives used in 77 of U.S. incidents
  • Public safety agencies FIND only 20
  • Residential properties common U.S. targets

46
EXPLOSIVE INCIDENTS
  • 78 of terrorist bombs detonated or ignited
  • 22 failed to function as designed
  • 4 were preceded by a warning or threat

47
BOMB THREATS
  • Telephone bomb threats are most common
  • All bomb threats should be considered real.
  • E-mail threats are more difficult to trace.

48
EVACUATION CRITERIA
  • Pre-planned evacuation/assembly area
  • Have an alternate assembly point
  • Prior to use check evac area for suspect items
  • If any suspect item or vehicle is present, use
    alternate assembly point
  • Use terrain features or solid objects as
    shielding
  • If evacuating inside a structure go to farthest
    lateral point at least several floors below the
    device.

49
EVACUATION CRITERIA
  • Avoid areas with flammable/hazmat, windows
  • Take a roll call and account for absentees
  • 300 ft. from small devices if you have shielding
  • 1000 ft. minimum from large devices in the open
  • Large device or vehicle bomb is suspected gt1000
    ft.

50
EXPLOSIVESDefinition
  • Any substance, article or device designed to
    function by an extremely rapid release of gas and
    heat.
  • For our purposes, if it goes boom, its a bomb.

51
EXPLOSIVES/INCENDIARY Recap
  • IEDs and incendiary devices are designed and
    assembled to explode and cause fires
  • Explosions cause fires, and fires cause
    explosions!
  • Explosions release gas and heat
  • IEDs are designed to kill and terrorize
  • IEDs affect both structures and people
  • Bombings are the most likely terrorist attacks
  • Bombs usually work as designed
  • Always Evacuate after any explosion
  • The potential for secondary devices is real!

52
T-D-S
53
SCENE CONTROL
  • Public safety will coordinate incident response
  • Take control until cavalrys arrival
  • Assist individuals in harms way to safety
  • Deny entry to unauthorized personnel
  • Establish perimeters and operational zones
  • Learn and initiate Incident Command System
  • Establish a safe refuge for the public
  • Begin media control

54
If you witness suspicious activity or events
  • Touch nothing
  • Evacuate the area immediately
  • Leave emergency response to the professionals
  • Be alert
  • Dont become a victim!

55
FEMA Rapid Response Information
Systemhttp//www.rris.fema.gov ERT-Independent
Study http//www.fema.gov/ishome.htmRed Cross
Disaster Counseling Materialshttp//www.redcross.
org/services/disaster/keepsafe/unexpected.htmlVDE
M Terrorism Preparedness Pagehttp//www.state.va.
us/prepare/terrorism.cfm
Information on the Web
56
Acknowledgements
  • Associated Press
  • Fairfax County Emergency Management
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency
  • National Broadcasting Company
  • Reuters
  • Texas AM University Domestic Preparedness Campus
  • U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical
    Defense (USAMRICD)
  • U.S. Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
  • United States Postal Inspection Service
  • VA Department of Emergency Management
  • Virginia Task Force One
  • Washington Post

57
RESPONSE TO TERRORISMCourage is not the
absence of fear, but being able to do what is
right in the presence of it.
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