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Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins [1844

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Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins [1844 1916] John Biglin in a Single Scull c. 1873 Thomas Eakins Thomas Eakins was one of many Americans who invaded Paris during the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins [1844


1
Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins 1844 1916
  • John Biglin in a Single Scull
  • c. 1873

2
Thomas Eakins

3
  • Thomas Eakins was one of many Americans who
    invaded Paris during the latter part of the
    nineteenth century to complete their artistic
    education.

4
  • After returning to his hometown of Philadelphia
    in 1870, Eakins never left the United States
    again.
  • He believed that great artists relied not on
    their knowledge of other artists works but on
    personal experience.

5
  • For the length of his professional career, from
    the early 1870s until his health began to fail
    some forty years later, Eakins worked exactingly
    from life, choosing as his subject the people of
    his hometown of Philadelphia.

6
  • He painted several hundred portraits, usually of
    friends, family members, or prominent people in
    the arts, sciences, medicine, and clergy.

7
  • The portraits offer an overview of the
    intellectual life of Philadelphia in the late
    19th and early 20th centuries
  • Individually, they are incisive depictions of
    thinking persons.

8
At first Eakins painted only acquaintances
  • The artists wife
  • And setter dog.

9
Baby at Play
10
Portrait of Mrs Kern Dodge (Helen Peterson Greene)
11
Portrait of Frank B. A. Linton (Thomas Eakins -
1904
12
Ashbury W Lee 1905

13
Miss Amelia Van Buren

14
In 1886 Eakins described her as
  • "a lady of perhaps thirty years or more, and from
    Detroit. She came to the Academy some years ago
    to study figure painting by which art she hoped
    to support herself, her parents I believe being
    dead. I early recognized her as a very capable
    person. She had a temperament sensitive to color
    and form, was grave, earnest, thoughtful, and
    industrious. She soon surpassed her fellows, and
    I marked her as one I ought to help in every
    way...."

15
Eakins's helpfulness included unusual methods
  • He once disrobed privately for Van Buren in order
    to demonstrate an anatomical point, an action
    that he characterized as purely professional.
  • Nevertheless, the story was one of numerous
    controversial incidents used by Eakins's
    political adversaries to prompt his dismissal
    from the Pennsylvania Academy.

16
  • Eakins produced a number of large paintings which
    brought the portrait out of the drawing room and
    into the offices, streets, parks, rivers, arenas,
    and surgical amphitheaters of his city.

17
  • These active outdoor venues allowed him to paint
    the subject which most inspired him
  • The nude or lightly clad figure in motion.
  • In the process he could model the forms of the
    body in full sunlight, and create images of deep
    space utilizing his studies in perspective.

18
  • For the rest of his career, Eakins remained
    committed to recording realistic scenes from
    contemporary American life.

19
Self- Portrait

20
  • No less important in Eakins' life was his work as
    a teacher.
  • As an instructor he was a highly influential
    presence in American art.

21
  • Eakins's attitude toward realism in painting, and
    his desire to explore the heart of American life
    proved influential.

22
  • He taught hundreds of students, among them his
    future wife Susan Macdowell, African-American
    painter Henry Ossawa Tanner, and
  • Thomas Anshutz, who taught, in turn, Robert
    Henri, George Luks, John Sloan, and Everett
    Shinn, future members of the Ashcan School, and
    other realists and artistic heirs to Eakins'
    philosophy.

23
  • Though his is not a household name, and though
    during his lifetime Eakins struggled to make a
    living from his work, today he is regarded as one
    of the most important American artists of any
    period.

24
  • Eakins also took a keen interest in the new
    technologies of motion photography, a field in
    which he is now seen as an innovator.
  • Eakins was a controversial figure whose work
    received little by way of official recognition
    during his lifetime.
  • Since his death, he has been celebrated by
    American art historians as "the strongest, most
    profound realist in nineteenth-and
    early-twentieth-century American art".

25
'Lincoln and Grant', bronze sculptures by William
Rudolf O'Donovan (men) Thomas Eakins (horses),
1893-1894, Grand Army Plaza, Brooklyn, New York
City
26
  • During the three years Eakins was abroad,
    competitive rowing on the Schuylkill River, which
    runs through Philadelphia, had become the citys
    leading sport.
  • The Super bowl of Philadelphia !

27
Schuylkill River, which runs through Philadelphia

28
  • In England, rowing had long been regarded as the
    exclusive activity of gentlemen, but in
    Philadelphia anyone could take part, since rowing
    clubs made the expensive equipment available to
    all.

29
  • Those who chose not to participate could gather
    on the banks of the river to cheer the oarsmen
    on, and rowing competitions became some of the
    most popular sporting events of the century.

30
  • Eakins was an enthusiastic rower himself, but
    after his time in Paris he regarded the activity
    less as a form of recreation than a fertile
    source of subject matter that combined his
    dedication to modern life with his interest in
    anatomy.

31
  • Even before he embarked on a classical European
    education that involved drawing from the nude,
    Eakins had studied human anatomy as part of his
    artistic training.

32
  • Fascinated by the mechanics of movement, he was
    naturally drawn to athletes in action.

33

34
  • In 1872, the Biglin brothers came to Philadelphia
    to compete in a championship sculling race.

35
  • They were both professional rowers, and John
    Biglin was a superstar, unmatched as a single
    sculler
  • (a rower who pulls an oar in each hand)
  • and believed to possess the ideal rowers
  • physique.

36
  • Here, Biglin appears in his scull, or racing
    shell, in the heat of competition, his face fixed
    in concentration as a second shell streams
    forward on a parallel course.

37

38
  • Eakins has chosen the critical moment when the
    oarsman reaches the end of a backward stroke and
    prepares to dip his oars into the water
  • His next stroke will propel his racing shell
    ahead of the competition and right out of the
    pictures frame.

39

40
  • The river is full of activity on this bright
    summer day,
  • With a fleet of sailboats and a crew team visible
    in the distance, our attention is focused on
    Biglin, whose body and scull form an elongated
    triangle in the center of the picture.

41

42
  • The composition itself, with broad, even bands of
    sky and water, emphasizes the horizontal and
    imparts a stillness to the scene
  • That counteracts the excitement of the
    competition.

43
  • When Eakins painted John Biglin in a Single
    Scull, he had only recently begun to work in
    watercolor

44
  • However, he applied himself to mastering the
    medium with the dedication and self-discipline he
    admired in the athletes he portrayed.

45
Water Colors
  • Unlike oil paint, watercolor does not allow for
    error
  • It cant be scraped off the surface and painted
    over if the artist makes a mistake or changes his
    mind.
  • Oil paints easily allows for this.

46
  • Many painters enjoy the spontaneity of the
    watercolor technique.
  • Eakins worked to ensure that everything came out
    right on his first attempt.

47
  • To establish the exact position of the rower, he
    first made an oil painting that could be
    corrected, if necessary.

48

49

50
  • And to place the reflections accurately in the
    water, he made detailed perspective drawings
    almost twice the size of the final work.

51
Perspective drawing
52
  • The painstaking process seems to have paid off.
  • Eakins sent a replica of John Biglin to his Paris
    teacher, Jean-Léon Gérôme, to demonstrate the
    progress hed made since returning to
    Philadelphia.

53
  • Gérôme praised Eakinss watercolor as entirely
    good.
  • I am very pleased, he wrote, to have in the
    New World a pupil such as you who does me honor.

54
Find these elements
  • Sailboats
  • Tower
  • Second scull
  • Crew team

55
  • Describe the rowers arms.
  • What did Eakins need to know in order to
    accurately draw and paint this mans arms?

56
  • How did Eakins show distance in this painting?
  • Where are the spaces between the ripples largest?

57
  • In watercolor, artists sometimes purposely leave
    areas blank to reveal the white color of the
    paper.
  • Where do you see very white areas that are
    probably the paper?

58
  • These areas are located in the highlights on the
    waves in the foreground, the clouds, and the
    lightest part of Biglins shirt.

59
  • What geometric shape does Biglins head, body,
    boat, and arms form?

60
I need a volunteer !
  • Extend your arms and lean forward and pretend to
    row as John Biglin does in the painting.
  • How will his hands and arms might move in the
    next few seconds?

61
  • Which direction the boat is moving?
  • Which boat is ahead in the scull race?
  • Now imagine where the second boat could be within
    a minute or two.

62
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63
Max Schmidt in a single scull

64
Biglin Brothers
65
The Biglin Brothers Turning the Stake
66

67
Grandfathers and Influences, The Badlands
68
Whistling for Plover
  • In this bird-hunting scene set in the marshes of
    southern New Jersey, he used dry, tightly
    controlled brushstrokes to model his central
    figure and more fluid washes for the landscape.
  • While the subject matter and academic approach
    (including extensive preparatory studies)
    parallel his work in oil, the artist preferred
    watercolor for this sun-drenched picture because
    it allowed him to paint
  • in a much higher key with all the light
    possible.

69
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70
The Banjo Lesson

71
"Negro Boy Dancing" (1878)

72

73

74
Music

75
The Singing Cowboy
76
The Agnew Clinic (1889)
77
The Gross Clinic, or, The Clinic of Dr. Gross
  • An 1875 painting by American artist Thomas
    Eakins. It is oil on canvas and measures 8 feet
    (240 cm) by 6.5 feet (200 cm).
  • Dr. Samuel D. Gross, a seventy-year-old professor
    dressed in a black frock coat, lectures a group
    of Jefferson Medical College students.
  • Included among the group is a self-portrait of
    Eakins, who is seated to the right of the tunnel
    railing, sketching or writing.
  • Seen over Dr. Gross's right shoulder is the
    clinic clerk, Dr. Franklin West, taking notes on
    the operation. Eakins's signature is painted into
    the painting, on the front of the surgical table.

78

79
  • The Gross Clinic, 1875, Philadelphia Museum of
    Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.
  • According to one prescient reviewer in 1876 This
    portrait of Dr. Gross is a great work--we know of
    nothing greater that has ever been executed in
    America.

80
  • On November 11, 2006 the Board of Trustees at
    Thomas Jefferson University agreed to sell The
    Gross Clinic to the National Gallery of Art in
    Washington, D.C., and
  • The Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in
    Bentonville, Arkansas
  • For a record 68,000,000, the highest price for
    an Eakins painting as well as a record price for
    an individual American-made portrait.

81
  • On December 21, 2006, a group of donors agreed to
    pay 68,000,000 in order to keep the painting in
    Philadelphia.
  • It is displayed alternately at the Philadelphia
    Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of
    Fine Arts.

82

83

84
Essay Question 1
  • Describe this mans expression?
  • What can you tell about his character from this
    painting?

85
Essay Question 2
  • What does this picture suggest about Americans
    leisure activities in the late 1880s?

86
Essay Question 3
  • Why is Biglin the only single scull rower shown
    in the painting?

87
Extra Credit Question
  • Why do we pray the word of God (scriptures)?
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