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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

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Title: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


1
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
2
Purpose of PPE
  • To protect employees from hazards not eliminated
    from the workplace

3
Protective Equipment
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Eyes
  • Face
  • Head
  • Extremities
  • Protective clothing
  • Respiratory devices
  • Protective shields and barriers

4
Design and Condition
  • Safe design and construction for work performed
  • Sanitary and reliable condition
  • Provided
  • Used
  • Maintained
  • Laundered
  • Repaired
  • Replaced
  • Defective and damaged equipment shall not be used
  • Must properly fit users

5
Purchase of PPE
  • The employer is normally responsible for the cost
    of personal protective equipment.
  • PPE used by trades
  • may be an exception

6
Protect Against Hazards
  • Hazards
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological/Infectious
  • Capable of causing injury or impairment in the
    function of any part of the body through (routes
    of entry)
  • Inhalation
  • Skin absorption
  • Ingestion
  • Contact with skin and/or eyes

7
Required Implementation
  • Engineering Control
  • Ventilation
  • Isolation
  • Selected Equipment
  • Redesign process or procedure
  • Administrative Control
  • Personal Hygiene
  • Maintenance
  • Hand washing
  • Scheduled breaks
  • Assignment schedules

8
Certified Hazard Assessment
  • Prepared by
  • Consultant
  • VA Personnel
  • Insert - date of written hazard assessment
  • Insert - how to obtain a copy of the written
    hazard assessment
  • Required by 29 CFR 1910.132d

9
Overview of Hazard Assessment
  • Bloodborne pathogens
  • Latex gloves
  • Gown
  • Safety glasses
  • Hand washing
  • Handling trash
  • Rubber gloves
  • Safety shoes
  • Shops
  • Safety glasses
  • Safety shoes
  • Hearing protection
  • Facilities
  • Rubber gloves
  • Non-slip shoes
  • Safety glasses (when mixing detergents)

10
Reassessment of Hazards
  • Facility safety officer is responsible to
    reassess workplace hazards as necessary by
  • Identifying and evaluating new equipment and
    processes
  • Reviewing accident records
  • Re-evaluating the suitability of previously
    selected PPE

11
Personal Protective Equipment Program
  • Defined by insert appropriate facility policy
  • Ordering
  • Repair
  • Maintenance
  • Other requirements

12
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (29
CFR 1910)
  • General Requirements -- 132
  • Eye and Face Protection -- 133
  • Respiratory Protection -- 134
  • Head Protection -- 135
  • Foot Protection -- 136
  • Electrical Protection -- 137
  • Hand Protection -- 138
  • Hearing Protection -- 95
  • Specialized Standards -- e.g., 1030

13
Eye and Face Protection(29 CFR 1910.133)

14
Hazards to Eyes/Face
  • Physical
  • Flying Particles
  • Molten Metal
  • Potentially Injurious Light Radiation
  • Ultraviolet (UV) light
  • Chemical
  • Gases or Vapors
  • Liquids
  • Acids or Caustics
  • Biological/Infectious
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Semen
  • Body Tissue
  • Wastes
  • Animal Tissue
  • Potentially Infectious Materials

15
Safety Glasses
  • Can be used with side shields (Required if flying
    objects are present)
  • Plastic
  • Can fit over corrective lenses
  • Can be worn alone
  • Can accommodate most types of prescriptive lenses

16
Goggles
  • Should fit face snugly (sealing entire eye area)
  • Specially-coated lenses or ventilation holes may
    prevent fogging
  • Anti-fogging materials can be used
  • When removing goggles, tilt head down so that
    debris on top of goggles does not fall into eyes

17
Other Eye and Face Protection
  • Face Shields
  • Worn for extremely hazardous jobs
  • Worn with safety glasses or goggles
  • Do not completely protect face
  • Hoods
  • Protect entire head and face
  • Can be worn with respirators
  • Sunglasses
  • Provide protection against sun
  • Should filter 99 to 100 percent UV
  • Provide no protection against flying objects
  • Can reduce chances of cataracts

18
Inspection and Maintenance of Eye and Face
Protection
  • Must be kept clean
  • Must be free of scratches and other defects that
    may obstruct vision
  • Must be disinfected
  • Periodically, if used by same person
  • After each use, if shared
  • Headband should be replaced when slack, worn, or
    dirty

19
Eye Safety
  • Review Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) for
    chemicals used
  • Identify eye protection required
  • Become familiar with emergency response
    procedures
  • Contact Lenses
  • Do NOT provide protection
  • Should NOT be worn around chemicals or chemical
    vapors

20
Laser Eye Safety
  • Follow guidance of laser manufacturer
  • Wear safety glasses with filters that protect
    against the wavelength of light for the laser
    being used
  • Partial reflections from Class IV lasers can
    cause permanent eye damage

21
Head Protection(29 CFR 1910.135)

22
Hazards to Head
  • Falling or flying objects
  • Electrical conductors
  • Contamination from bloodborne pathogens
  • Sunburn and sunstroke
  • Cold temperatures

23
Types and Classes of Head Protection
  • Types of protective hats
  • Type 1, Helmets - full brim (at least 1.25)
  • Type 2, Brimless helmets with peak extending
  • forward from the crown
  • Classes of industrial head protection
  • Class A, General service - limited voltage
    protection
  • Class B, Utility service - high voltage
    protection
  • Class C, Special service - no voltage protection

24
Hard Hats (Class A)
  • Hard exterior shell
  • Shock-absorbing lining
  • Headband
  • Crown straps
  • Protects against impact hazards
  • Used in construction

25
Electrical Bump Hats (Class B)
  • Protects against impact and penetration AND
    against high-voltage shock or burn
  • Can be used where there is a possibility of
    bumping against a fixed object
  • Used by electrical workers
  • Sometimes used in construction

26
Other Head Protection
  • Safety Hat or Cap (Class C)
  • Protects against impacts
  • Provides lightweight comfort
  • Provides no electrical protection
  • Hat or Cap
  • Protects against exposure to sun (4 inch brim)
  • Protects against exposure to cold (ear flaps)
  • Generally not considered PPE

27
Specialized Head Protection
  • Hairnets
  • Food service employees
  • Sanitation and cleanliness
  • Hoods
  • Can be used in extremely hazardous situations
  • Can be used with respirators
  • Can provide eye and face protection
  • Surgical Caps
  • Infection control and cleanliness
  • Worn during medical procedures that involve large
    amounts of blood
  • Autopsies
  • Orthopedic surgery

28
Inspection and Maintenance of Head Protection
  • Damage
  • Dents
  • Cracks
  • Penetration
  • Abuse
  • Mutilation
  • Other damage that might reduce the degree of
    protection provided
  • Visually inspect daily
  • Clean periodically
  • May adversely affect protection provided
  • Paint
  • Sunlight
  • Extreme temperatures

29
Foot Protection(29 CFR 1910.136)

30
Foot Hazards and Protection
  • Hazards to Feet
  • Falling or rolling objects
  • Objects that pierce the sole
  • Electrical exposures
  • Slipping
  • Foot Protection
  • Safety Shoes
  • Slip Resistant Soles
  • Shoe Covers
  • Rubber or Synthetic Boots
  • Leather Work Boots

31
Safety Shoes
  • Steel-reinforced toe (protects foot from being
    pierced or crushed)
  • Puncture-resistant or heat-resistant soles
    (optional)
  • Metal-free non-conductive materials (working
    around exposed electrical conductors)

32
Other Foot Protection
  • Boots
  • Rubber/Synthetic
  • May be required when working around chemicals
  • Autopsies
  • Leather
  • Recommended for outdoor maintenance activities
  • Avoid wearing around chemicals
  • Shoe Covers
  • May be required for some medical procedures
  • Slip-resistant Soles
  • OSHA recommends
  • Will reduce the number of injuries resulting from
    slips, trips, or falls

33
Electrical Protection(29 CFR 1910.137)

34
Electrical Protective Equipment (Insulated Rubber)
  • Required when exposed to electrical hazards
  • Blankets
  • Matting
  • Covers
  • Line hose
  • Gloves
  • Sleeves
  • Maintained in a safe and reliable condition
  • Cleaned as needed
  • Requires periodic electrical testing

35
Inspections
  • Before each days use
  • Following any incident that caused damage
  • Insulating properties cannot be degraded
  • Insulating equipment failing to pass inspections
    or electrical tests may not be used unless
    specific requirements are met
  • Cannot use equipment with
  • Hole, tear, puncture, or cut
  • Ozone cutting or ozone checking
  • Embedded foreign objects
  • Swelling, softening, hardening, stickiness, or
    inelasticity

36
Storage
  • Location and manner of storage must protect from
  • Light
  • Temperature extremes
  • Excessive humidity
  • Ozone
  • Other injurious substances and conditions

37
Hand Protection(29 CFR 1910.138)

38
Hand Protection
  • Provided to protect against
  • Absorption of harmful substances
  • Severe cuts or lacerations
  • Severe abrasions
  • Punctures
  • Chemical or thermal burns
  • Harmful temperature extremes
  • Types of hand protection
  • Machine guards
  • Electric eyes
  • Push sticks
  • Controls requiring two hands
  • Gloves

39
Glove Selection Criteria
  • Selection based on evaluation of performance
    characteristics
  • Task(s) to be performed
  • Conditions present
  • Duration of use
  • Hazards and potential hazards identified
  • Selection based on individual characteristics
  • Grip
  • Dexterity
  • Flexibility
  • Hand size
  • Glove length
  • Too tight - may rip
  • Too loose - affects grip and comfort

40
General Purpose Gloves
  • Cotton
  • Can be specially coated
  • Allows handling of delicate components
  • Absorbs oil
  • Leather
  • Rough surfaces
  • Heat
  • Sparks
  • Protect against
  • Abrasion
  • Cuts
  • Punctures
  • Snags
  • Temperature extremes

41
Cut-resistant Gloves
  • Designed for use with sharp knives and blades
  • May contain
  • Cut-resistant yarns
  • Composite materials
  • Metal mesh (Required of most meatcutting and
    de-boning operations)
  • Protect against
  • Cuts
  • Abrasion
  • Some may protect against punctures

42
Special Purpose Gloves
  • Surgical
  • Examination
  • Firefighters
  • Smelters
  • Welders
  • Clean rooms
  • Protect against specific hazards
  • HIV/Hepatitis
  • Heat and burns
  • Patient protection

43
Latex Gloves
  • Natural
  • Required for surgery
  • Can be used for examinations
  • Label NOT required
  • Hypoallergenic gloves NOT tested for natural
    rubber proteins (source of latex allergies)
  • Synthetic
  • Cannot be used for surgery
  • Can be used for examinations
  • Label NOT required

44
Chemical-resistant Gloves
  • Must be selected for the specific chemical used
    (Consult manufacturers guidance)
  • Non-porous
  • Selection based on
  • Potential toxic effects of chemicals used
  • Likely routes of entry
  • Degree of hazard
  • Protect against
  • Dermatitis
  • Chemical burns
  • Cancer
  • Resist
  • Penetration
  • Permeation
  • Degradation

45
Penetration
  • Natural rubber
  • Protects against liquids that mix with water
  • Provides no protection against petroleum or
    oil-based solvents
  • Synthetic rubber resists
  • Oils
  • Greases
  • Acids
  • Caustics
  • Many petroleum products

46
Permeation
  • Must consult manufacturers technical data for
    specific chemical used
  • No protective barrier provides permeation
    protection for all chemicals
  • Often coated with
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  • Nitrile
  • Neoprene
  • Latex

47
Degradation
  • Signs of degradation
  • Stiffer
  • More brittle
  • Softer
  • Weaker
  • Major indication that gloves should be replaced
  • Inspect before each use
  • Rips
  • Holes
  • Weak seams
  • Imperfections

48
Hand Safety
  • Do NOT wear gloves that are damaged
  • Clean off contaminants before you remove gloves
  • Remove gloves safely
  • Properly decontaminate and store gloves
  • Monitor the condition of your gloves as you work
  • Follow manufacturers guidance for maintenance
    and storage
  • Dispose of gloves properly

49
Skin Protection

50
Hazards to Skin
  • Hazards
  • Sunburn
  • Skin Cancer
  • Dermatitis
  • Poison ivy, oak, sumac
  • Insect and animal bites
  • Protections available
  • Protective clothing
  • Sunscreen
  • Insect repellent
  • Scheduling of work
  • Ointments

51
Prevention of Sun Damage
  • Avoid the suns strongest rays (10 a.m. - 4
    p.m.)
  • Wear protective clothing
  • Broad-brimmed hats
  • Long pants
  • Long-sleeved shirts
  • Wear sunglasses (99 - 100 UV ray protection)
  • Always wear a sunscreeen with SPF of 15 or more
  • Avoid sunlamps, tanning beds, and tanning parlors

52
Torso Protection

53
Hazards to Torso
  • Hazards
  • Heat
  • Splashes from hot metals and liquids
  • Impacts
  • Cuts
  • Acids
  • Radiation

54
Types of Protection
  • Options
  • Vests
  • Jackets
  • Aprons
  • Coveralls
  • Full body suits
  • Lead lined coverings
  • Gowns
  • Materials
  • Fire retardant wool
  • Specially treated cotton
  • Leather
  • Rubberized fabrics
  • Disposable suits

55
Lifting or Back Belts
  • Must follow manufacturers guidance
  • Back belts can be obtained by contacting

56
Appropriate PPE for Exposure to Bloodborne
Pathogens
  • Does NOT permit blood or other potentially
    infectious materials to pass through to
  • Employees work clothes
  • Employees street clothes
  • Undergarments
  • Under normal conditions of use
  • Does NOT permit blood or other potentially
    infectious materials to reach
  • Skin
  • Eyes
  • Mouth
  • Other mucous membranes
  • For the duration of time to be used

57
PPE for Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Gloves
  • Gowns or aprons
  • Laboratory coats
  • Face shields or masks and eye protection
  • Goggles or glasses with side shields
  • Mouthpieces
  • Surgical caps or hoods
  • Shoe covers or boots
  • Clinic jackets
  • Resuscitation bags
  • Pocket masks
  • Other ventilation devices

58
Gloves Required for Exposure to Bloodborne
Pathogens
  • When reasonably anticipated that employee may
    have hand contact with
  • Blood
  • Other potentially infectious materials
  • Mucous membranes
  • Non-intact skin
  • When performing vascular access procedures
  • When handling or touching contaminated items or
    surfaces

59
Hearing Protection(29 CFR 1910.95)

60
Hearing Protectors
  • If exposed to 85 dB or greater for eight-hour
    TWA
  • Hearing protection must be available
  • Hearing protection must be worn if
  • No baseline audiogram has been established
  • Hearing threshold has changed an average of 10 dB
    or more at 2000, 3000, or 4000 hertz in either ear
  • Must be worn if
  • Duration Sound Level(hours per
    day) (dBA) 8 90 6 92 4 95
    3 97 2 100
  • 1.5 102 1 105 0.5 110 0.25 or less
    115

61
Locations Requiring Noise Protection
  • Building
  • Room
  • Mechanical room
  • Penthouse
  • Building
  • Room
  • Shop area
  • Building
  • Insert appropriate locations
  • Building
  • Insert appropriate locations

62
Types of Hearing Protectors
  • Earplugs
  • Lightweight
  • Comfortable for long periods of time
  • Made of soft fibers or foam (self-forming)
  • Disposable or reusable
  • Performed, pre-molded, or custom molded
  • Earmuffs
  • Easily put on or removed
  • Require entire ear to fit inside cup (seal)
  • May interfere with glasses or goggles
  • Can be designed for use with hard hats

63
General Considerations
  • Proper initial fit required
  • Must be used correctly
  • Must receive training in the use and care of
    hearing protectors provided
  • Must be allowed to select hearing protectors from
    a variety of suitable hearing protectors provided
    by employer
  • Must be replaced as necessary

64
Hearing Safety
  • If you have to shout to talk to someone within 2
    or 3 feet - Wear hearing protection
  • Off-the-job activities (woodworking, shooting,
    etc.) can hurt your hearing - Hearing protection
    is recommended
  • Never remove hearing protection in high noise
    areas
  • Do NOT share hearing protection with others

65
Respiratory Protection(29 CFR 1910.134)

66
Hazards Requiring Respirators
  • Protect against breathing air contaminated with
    harmful
  • Dusts
  • Fogs
  • Fumes
  • Mists
  • Gases
  • Smokes
  • Sprays
  • Vapors
  • Infectious biological agents
  • Healthcare-related exposures that may require
    respirators
  • Tuberculosis
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Some chemicals used for disinfection or
    preservation (morgues)
  • Animal fecal matter
  • Other related exposures
  • Asbestos
  • Paint fumes

67
Respirators
  • Types of Facepieces
  • Half-face
  • Full-face
  • Hoods
  • Types of Respirators
  • Air Purifying
  • N95 (Tuberculosis)
  • Dust, fume, mist
  • Powered air purifying
  • Air Supplied
  • Self-contained breathing apparatus
  • Air Line

68
General Considerations
  • Written program required
  • Medical examination in accordance with ANSI Z88.6
  • Annual follow-up
  • Certification by NIOSH
  • Selection in accordance with ANSI Z88.2
  • Fit testing required in accordance with ANSI
    Z88.10
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Proper storage

69
Emergency Response(29 CFR 1910.120)
  • Facility Emergency Response Plan addresses PPE
    if
  • An industrial facility intends to use the medical
    center, if there is an emergency
  • Medical center provides support during responses
    to natural phenomenon
  • Level A - Encapsulating chemical protective suit
  • Level B - Respiratory protection

70
Summary
  • PPE must
  • Protect against the hazard
  • Protect the route of entry
  • Be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition
  • Be used properly
  • PPE is available by contacting
  • Your supervisor
  • Facility safety office personnel
  • If you have questions concerning PPE provided
    contact
  • Your supervisor
  • Facility safety personnel
  • If you have questions concerning the health
    effects associated with PPE contact employee
    health personnel
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