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INTERNET

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... Internet 'feeds' of their live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC) ... Open Directory. Search engines continues. Metasearch engines ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTERNET


1
INTERNET
  • INTERNET

2
CONTENTS
  • Introduction to Internet
  • Internet protocols
  • Types of internet connections
  • Operations of Internet
  • Web browsers web server
  • Search Engines

3
Internet- An introduction
  • The terms "Internet" and "World Wide Web" are
    often used in every-day speech without much
    distinction. However, the Internet and the World
    Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet
    is a global data communications system. It is a
    hardware and software infrastructure that
    provides connectivity between computers. In
    contrast, the Web is one of the services
    communicated via the Internet. It is a collection
    of interconnected documents and other resources,
    linked by hyperlinks and URLs

4
(No Transcript)
5
Defination
  • The Internet is a global system of interconnected
    computer networks that interchange data by packet
    switching using the standardized Internet
    Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a "network of
    networks" that consists of millions of private
    and public, academic, business, and government
    networks of local to global scope that are linked
    by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless
    connections, and other technologies.
  • The Internet carries various information
    resources and services, such as electronic mail,
    online chat, file transfer and file sharing,
    online gaming, and the inter-linked hypertext
    documents and other resources of the World Wide
    Web (WWW).

6
History
  • The first node to node connection, ARPANET is
    launched by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects
    Agency, U.S.A.)
  • ARPANET were interconnected between UCLA and SRI
    International in Menlo Park, California, on
    October 29, 1969.
  • The first TCP/IP-based wide-area network was
    operational by January 1, 1983, which is also
    know as official birth of internet..

7
Continue..
  • Commercial uses of network started in year 1988.
  • Commercial electronic e-mail services such as
    OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve were used.
  • Educational networks, such as Telenet, Tymnet,
    Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the
    growing Internet.

8
Internet Protocols
  • Communication Protocols-
  • a) TCP/IP
  • b) Sockets
  • FRP (File retrieval protocols)
  • FTP (File transfer protocols)
  • Gopher
  • HTTP

9
Types of Internet connections
  • Dial- up connections- With a dial up
  • account, you use your modem to convert
    computer bits and bytes into modulated signals
    that the telephone lines can transmit. These
    signals are reeived by modem at your ISP
    demodulated into bits and bytes for their
    computers.

10
Continued
  • Leased line- If your computer need to be
    connected to the internet all the time, contact
    your telephone company for a leased line, the
    same type of line that large organizations use.

11
Continued
  • VSAT connection- A new development in the
    comunication satellite world is the development
    of low-cost microstations, sometimes called
    VSATs(very small aperture terminal). These tiny
    terminals have 1- meter antennas and can put out
    about 1 watt of power.

12
Operations of internet
  • WWW (world wide web)
  • E-mail (electronic mail)
  • Web Chat
  • Remote access
  • File sharing
  • Streaming media
  • Voice telephony (VoIP)
  • Marketing

13
World Wide Web
  • The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the
    Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext
    documents accessed via the Internet. With a Web
    browser, a user views Web pages that may contain
    text, images, videos, and other multimedia and
    navigates between them using hyperlinks. The
    World Wide Web was created in 1989 by British
    scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee, working at the
    European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
    in Geneva, Switzerland, and released in 1992.
    Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role
    in guiding the development of Web standards (such
    as the markup languages in which Web pages are
    composed), and in recent years has advocated his
    vision of a Semantic Web.

14
E-mail
  • The concept of sending electronic text messages
    between parties in a way analogous to mailing
    letters or memos predates the creation of the
    Internet. Even today it can be important to
    distinguish between Internet and internal e-mail
    systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored
    unencrypted on many other networks and machines
    out of both the sender's and the recipient's
    control. During this time it is quite possible
    for the content to be read and even tampered with
    by third parties, if anyone considers it
    important enough. Purely internal or intranet
    mail systems, where the information never leaves
    the corporate or organization's network, are much
    more secure, although in any organization there
    will be IT and other personnel whose job may
    involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing,
    the e-mail of other employees not addressed to
    them.

15
Chat
  • There are many live sites on the web. There are
    hundreds of sites denoted exclusively to chat and
    many sites offer areas as an additional features
    some sites provides links to hundreds of chat
    servers. A seasoned IRC used may find the
    web based chat rather slow and cumbersome
    compared to a session from an IRC client. Many
    web chat sites do not show new messages
    automatically and often you need to scroll

16
Chat continued
  • Through several screens to pick up the thread of
    a conversation, making it a very difficult task.
  • on the other hand , a web based chat
    is usually more colorful than the IRC on some
    sites you can include images with your
    messages. Some of the places on the web ,
    where you can do chat online are given below,
    most of the services are free but you should
    register before you start chating
  • www.gmail.com\chat
  • www.ymail.com\masenger

17
Remote access
  • In telecommunication, the term remote access has
    the following meanings
  • Pertaining to communication with a data
    processing facility from a remote location or
    facility through a data link. One of the more
    common methods of providing this type of remote
    access is using a VPN.
  • Remote desktop software
  • A PABX service feature that allows a user at a
    remote location to access by telephone PABX
    features, such as access to Wide Area Telephone
    Service (WATS) lines.
  • Remote Access is also the name of a DOS-based BBS
    software.

18
File Sharing
  • File sharing refers to the providing and
    receiving of digital files over a network,
    usually following the peer-to-peer (P2P) model,
    where the files are stored on and served by
    personal computers of the users. Most people who
    engage in file sharing on the Internet both
    provide (upload) files and receive files
    (download).
  • P2P file sharing is distinct from file trading in
    that downloading files from a P2P network does
    not require uploading, although some networks
    either provide incentives for uploading such as
    credits or force the sharing of files being
    currently downloaded.

19
Streaming media
  • Many existing radio and television broadcasters
    provide Internet "feeds" of their live audio and
    video streams (for example, the BBC). They may
    also allow time-shift viewing or listening such
    as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again
    features. These providers have been joined by a
    range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never
    had on-air licenses. This means that an
    Internet-connected device, such as a computer or
    something more specific, can be used to access
    on-line media in much the same way as was
    previously possible only with a television or
    radio receiver.

20
Voice Telephony
  • VoIP stands for Voice over IP, where IP refers to
    the Internet Protocol that underlies all Internet
    communication. This phenomenon began as an
    optional two-way voice extension to some of the
    instant messaging systems that took off around
    the year 2000. In recent years many VoIP systems
    have become as easy to use and as convenient as a
    normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the
    Internet carries the actual voice traffic, VoIP
    can be free or cost much less than a normal
    telephone call, especially over long distances
    and especially for those with always-on Internet
    connections like cable.

21
Marketing
  • The Internet has also become a large market for
    companies some of the biggest companies today
    have grown by taking advantage of the efficient
    nature of low-cost advertising and commerce
    through the Internet, also known as e-commerce.
    It is the fastest way to spread information to a
    vast number of people simultaneously. The
    Internet has also subsequently revolutionized
    shoppingfor example a person can order a CD
    online and receive it in the mail within a couple
    of days, or download it directly in some cases.
    The Internet has also greatly facilitated
    personalized marketing which allows a company to
    market a product to a specific person or a
    specific group of people more so than any other
    advertising medium.

22
Continued
  • Examples of personalized marketing include online
    communities such as MySpace, Friendster, Orkut,
    Facebook and others which thousands of Internet
    users join to advertise themselves and make
    friends online. Many of these users are young
    teens and adolescents ranging from 13 to 25 years
    old. In turn, when they advertise themselves they
    advertise interests and hobbies, which online
    marketing companies can use as information as to
    what those users will purchase online, and
    advertise their own companies' products to those
    users.

23
Web server
  • The term web server can mean one of two things
  • A computer program that is responsible for
    accepting HTTP requests from web clients, which
    are known as web browsers, and serving them HTTP
    responses along with optional data contents,
    which usually are web pages such as HTML
    documents and linked objects (images, etc.).
  • A computer that runs a computer program as
    described above.

24
Web browsers
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • Internet Explorer holds the lion's share of the
    browser usage today, but it came into the game
    later than its main competitor.
  • Microsoft has met with a good deal of criticism
    in recent years concerning Internet Explorer
    because of its alleged intent to make IE an
    integral and necessary element of the Windows
    operating system. Competitors complained that
    Microsoft tries to lock them out of the market by
    making IE the only Web browser effectively usable
    by the Windows system.

25
Continue.
  • Netscape
  • Netscape was one of the first commercial browsers
    on the scene and dominated the browser market
    until Microsoft got serious about Internet
    Explorer. There are some Internet users who are
    fiercely loyal to Netscape and there are sites on
    the Web that are best viewed using Netscape.
  • In either of these browsers, if you want to save
    a Web site that you find useful and want to
    return to, try using the Favorites (MS Internet
    Explorer) or Bookmarks (Netscape) function found
    on the menu bars at the top of the browser screen

26
Continue..
  • Apart from IE and netscape there are some more
    web browser are in the market-
  • Mozilla firefox
  • Opera etc

27
Search Engines
  • Search engines are really just massive databases
    in which information from Internet documents are
    stored. The information in these databases is
    collected using a computer program (called a
    "spider" or a "robot") that scans the Internet
    and gathers information about individual
    documents. These special programs work
    automatically to find documents or they are asked
    by a creator of a Web site to visit the site to
    be included in a database.

28
Continues..
  • Examples of search engines-
  • Search Engine Showdown
  • Google search engine
  • AltaVista search engine
  • Search Directories
  • Yahoo! Search Directory
  • World Wide Web Virtual Library
  • Open Directory

29
Search engines continues
  • Metasearch engines
  • Metacrawler for searching the search engines
  • Ixquick the world's most powerful meta search
    engine
  • Dogpile, metasearch engine
  • Ask.com
  • Aol.com etc

30
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