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Plumbing Systems for Buildings


Plumbing Systems for Buildings ARC 473/573 Common Plumbing Systems Sanitary Drainage System Storm Drainage System Domestic Water System Domestic Water Heating System ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plumbing Systems for Buildings

Plumbing Systems for Buildings
  • ARC 473/573

Common Plumbing Systems
  • Sanitary Drainage System
  • Storm Drainage System
  • Domestic Water System
  • Domestic Water Heating System
  • Plumbing Fixtures
  • Plumbing Specialties
  • Miscellaneous Plumbing Systems

Sanitary Drainage System
  • Conveys Waste and Sewage from all plumbing
    fixtures to an approved or acceptable disposal
  • Community sewer system
  • Sewage is treated, and returned to the
  • Local sewage disposal system
  • Septic field (See Section 11.6 MEEB)

Drainage Pipe Materials
  • Commonly Used Materials
  • Cast Iron Pipe
  • Copper pipe, type DWV
  • Plastic pipe, type PVC

Components of Sanitary Drainage Systems
  • A plumbing fixture is any device used to supply
    water for use, and to collect waste water, waste
    products, as well as human waste.
  • Waste and sewage drain by gravity, wherever
  • Fixture branch horizontal drainage pipe
    collecting drainage from plumbing fixtures.
  • Soil Waste Stacks vertical pipe collecting
    discharge from fixtures and fixture branches.
  • Building Drain horizontal pipe which collects
    all soil and waste stacks, extends to 5 ft beyond
    outside wall.
  • piping.

Components of Sanitary Drainage System (Contd)
  • Building Sewer Extends from a point 5 ft.
    outside building and discharges to community
    sewer, or private disposal system.
  • Building trap a trap installed in the building
    drain to prevent gases, rodents, etc. from
    entering the building thru the sewer. When used,
    a fresh air inlet is required to prevent
    siphoning the trap seal.
  • Cleanout a provision in the sanitary drainage
    piping to cleanout blockages. Required every 100
    ft. on horizontal lines, at base of waste or soil
    stacks, at change of direction of piping g.t. 45

Components of Sanitary Drainage System (Contd)
  • Drainage piping conveying discharge from water
    closets, referred to as soil pipe.
  • A sewage ejection pump is used for toilet rooms
    below the level of the sanitary sewer.
  • Generally, two pumps are used, one to back up the

Sanitary Drainage Plan for Branch Bank
Isometric Detail of Sanitary Drainage Piping
Traps and Venting
  • A plumbing trap is a device used to provide a
    water seal at the outlet of a plumbing fixture.
  • Every plumbing fixture requires a trap.
  • The trap serves to seal out methane and other
    harmful gases that reside in the sewer.
  • Each time the fixture is used, a small amount of
    water remains in the pipe or trapway.
  • Traps prone to evaporation (floor drains) require
    a means of replenishing the trap.
  • Water closets and urinals generally have built-in

Fixture Trap and Vent
Fixture Trap
  • Lavatories, sinks, floor drains, drinking
    fountains generally have traps made from pipe.
  • Each fixture trap must be vented to atmosphere
  • Water and waste accelerating down pipe pushes air
    in front, creates partial vacuum behind tends
    to create unbalanced pressure in piping.
  • A vent is a separate pipe connected to the
    fixture drain pipe downstream of the trap.
  • The vent serves to relieve excess pressures that
    could blow out, or suction out the water forming
    the trap seal.
  • Individual fixture vent pipes must be ½ the
    diameter of the fixture drain, and minimum 1-1/4

Plumbing Fixtures
  • Water Closet
  • Operates by principal of siphon
  • Refer to ANSI A117.1 for Barrier Free Design
  • Types
  • Flush Tank typically for residential use
  • Flush Valve typically for non-residential use
  • Floor mounted typically for residential use
  • Wall mounted typically for non-residential use
  • Requires Fixture Carrier

Plumbing Fixtures (Contd)
  • Urinals
  • Wall Hung
  • Floor (rarely used)
  • Lavatories
  • Wall Hung
  • Splash back (most common)
  • Slab
  • Shelf Back
  • Ledge Back
  • In Counter
  • Under Counter

Maximum Flow Rates and Consumption of Plumbing
  • Water closet 1.6 gallons/flush
  • Urinal 1.0 gallons/flush
  • Shower head 2.5 gpm at 80 psi
  • Lavatory, private 2.2 gpm at 60 psi
  • Lavatory, public, non-metering .5 gpm at 60 psi
  • Lavatory, public, metering .25 gallons per
    metering cycle
  • Sink faucet 2.2 gpm at 60 psi.

Flush Valve, Wall Hung Water Closet
  • American Standard Corp. Afwall

Water Closet Fixture Carrier
  • Steel carrier bolts to floor
  • Cantilevered water closet bolts to carrier
  • Josam Corporation

Flush Valve, Floor Mounted Water Closet
  • Does not require a fixture carrier
  • Floor maintenance is more difficult
  • American Standard Corp. Madera

Floor Mounted, Floor Outlet, Tank Type Water
  • Typical Residential Design
  • American Standard Corp. Cadet

Floor Mounted, Wall Outlet Tank Type Water Closet
  • American Standard Yorkville

Wall Mounted Urinal
  • American Standard Lynbrook

Wall Mounted Lavatory, Splashback Design
  • American Standard Lucerne

Wall Mounted Wheelchair Lavatory Slab Design
  • American Standard Wheelchair Users Lavatory

Lavatory Fixture Carrier
  • Carrier is framed within wall.
  • Arms carry weight of cantilevered lavatory
  • Josam Corp.

Vitreous China Counter Sink
  • American Standard Standard Collection Countertop

Counter Sink w/ ADA Faucet
Mop Receptor in Janitors Closet
  • 2x2 unit shown
  • Wall mounted faucet, pail hook and hose
  • Vacuum breaker prevents backflow

Pipe Size
  • Fixture Unit Method
  • Each Plumbing fixture is assigned a Drainage
    Fixture Unit DFU, Table 22.2, p. 1017 (p. 998
    10th ed., p. 691, 9th ed.)
  • Pipes are selected from tables based upon the
    number of DFUs that they carry, or vent. Table
    22.3-22.5, pp. 1018-1020 (pp. 999-1001 10th ed.,
    pp. 693-695, 9th ed.)

Pipe Size (Contd)
  • Example
  • A horizontal fixture branch conveys drainage from
    the following
  • 4 flushometer (flush valve) water closets
  • 4 urinals
  • 8 Lavatories
  • 2 Service sinks
  • How many fixture units does the pipe carry?

Example (contd)
  • Refer to Table 22.2
  • 4 w.c.s x 4 dfus 16
  • 4 urinals x 4 dfus 16
  • 8 lavatories x 1 dfu 8
  • 2 Sinks x 2 dfus 4
  • Total 44 dfu
  • Refer to Table 22.3 a 4 dia. pipe is required.

  • Urbanization alters the natural storm water
    pathways that have developed over the centuries. 
  • Until recently, the accepted approach to storm
    water disposal has been to collect storm water
    using gutters, roof drains, catch basins, and
    convey it to a body of water (lakes, ponds,
    rivers, streams) through an underground piping
  • Various pollutants, including salts, oil,
    chemicals, organic compounds, and harmful metals,
    are carried by surface drainage into piped storm
    drains and eventually pollute these bodies of

Sources of Pollutants
  • Motor Vehicles
  • Manufacturing Plant Emissions
  • Lawn fertilizing
  • Animal waste
  • Garbage
  • Construction debris
  • Etc.

Storm Drainage (Contd)
  • NYS DEC now requires a Storm Water Pollution
    Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for any site disturbance
    greater than one acre.
  • The storm water must be treated to filter out the
    majority of harmful contaminants.
  • The US Green Building Councils LEED Rating
    System provides credits for buildings which
    promote sustainable sites, including storm water

Storm Drainage (Contd)
  • Use of on-site disposal methods reduces the
    burden on the community storm water disposal
    system, and include
  • Roof retention the roof acts as a temporary
    storage volume, releasing the collected rainwater
    slowly, either as on-site infiltration, or to
    storm sewers at a slower rate, thus not
    overtaxing the community storm water system.
  • Onsite Infiltration storm water is collected
    and discharged to the ground onsite.
  • Useful Where soils are dry and absorptive.
  • In buildings with basements or crawlspaces,
    footing drains must be included with sump pumps
    to prevent water from penetrating foundation and
    leaking into basement.
  • Porous pavement uses high porosity asphalt,
    concrete, incremental paving units, and open
    celled pavers to allow surface drainage to
    penetrate to earth on the site.

Collection Systems
  • The roof is intentionally designed to drain to 
  • Roof drains (flat roof areas)
  • Gutters (sloped roofs)
  • Roof drains connect to roof leaders or
    conductors, which are vertical pipes that
    ultimately connect to underground building storm
    drain piping.
  • Gutters drain to downspouts, which are either
    connected to the storm sewer, or simply drain to
    splash blocks, drywells, or other onsite disposal

Collection Systems (Contd)
  • Gutters and downspouts in northern climates often
    develop ice, which presents problems during thaw
    periods. Sometimes electric heating cable is
    interlaced along a perimeter band of sloped roofs
    and gutters, so as to keep them operating during
    freeze/thaw periods.
  • Indoor roof leaders or conductors should be
    insulated, so as to prevent condensation from
    forming on the pipes and dripping on to interior
    finish materials.
  • Conventional roof drains are common, which
    include a domed shaped strainer to restrict entry
    of leaves, seeds, etc. Controlled flow roof
    drains are constructed so as to moderate the flow
    of storm water through them.
  • Some buildings with sloped roofs intentionally
    omit gutters. Overhangs drain above gravel
    trenches, which can serve to initiate on-site
    infiltration in dry soils, or drain through
    subsoil piping to an appropriate location.

Size of roof drains, gutters and downspouts
  • The magnitude of the 100 year rainfall in the
    locality must first be assessed.
  • (Buffalo, NY 2-1/2 per hour, although many
    designers use 4.)
  • Select practical locations for locations of roof
    drains or gutters.
  • For flat roofs, roof insulation can be built up
    and formed to provide required pitch. Roof drain
    areas should be subdivided into several small
    areas, as well as separate standalone roofs, such
    as vestibule overhangs, etc.

  • Select roof drains for a 6000 s.f. flat roof,
    where it is convenient to divide the roof into
    four square drainage areas, in Miami, Florida
  • Solution
  • Refer to rainfall map, p. 894 (p. 884 10th
    ed.,p. 562 9th ed.) MEEB 
  • Maximum 1 hour rainfall for Miami is 4.5-5/hr.
    Use 5.
  • The horizontal projected area per roof drain is
    6000/4 1500 s.f.
  • Refer to Table 20.8, p. 899 (p. 889 10th ed., p.
    568, 9th ed.)
  • At 5 rainfall per hour
  • A 3 roof drain will drain 1288 s.f. (too small)
  • A 4 roof drain will drain 2768 s.f.

Example (Contd)
  • Use the 4 dia. roof drains, which will afford
    (2768-1288)/2768 x 100
  • 53 additional capacity.
  • Gutters are selected in a similar way, but slope
    must also be considered. 
  • For example, if this building used a sloped roof
    with the same horizontal projected area, and four
    individual gutter segments were used to collect
    water from the roof, a 7 dia. gutter would be
    required at 1/8 per foot slope a 6 diameter
    gutter at ¼ per foot slope see Table 20.7
    (Table 9.7, 9th ed.)

Domestic Water Systems
  • Potable water defined as water that is suitable
    for drinking.
  • Requirement for potable water 
  • Every structure equipped with plumbing fixtures
    and used for human occupancy or habitation must
    provide potable water. (NYS 602.1)
  • Water Sources
  • Community water supply
  • Water obtained from municipalities is generally
    treated and safe to drink

Domestic Water Systems (contd)
  • Well
  • Water obtained from wells must be approved by the
    authority having jurisdiction. In NYS, must
    comply with applicable NYS Health Department

Domestic Water Systems (Contd)
  • Generally, well water can be made potable by
    on-site treatment systems.
  • The water is first tested to determine the type
    of treatment that is required.
  • Types of contamination 
  • Bacterial
  • Chemical
  • Radiological

Materials for Piping
  • NYS code permits various piping materials to be
    used for water service piping and water
    distribution piping. Generally, the most popular
    materials are
  • Water Service Pipe
  • Type K copper tubing ASTM B75, B88, B251, B447
  • Cement lined ductile iron pipe AWWA C151, AWWA
  • PVC plastic pipe ASTM D1785, D2241, D2672

Materials for Piping (Contd)
  • Water Distribution Pipe 
  • Type L, M copper tubing ASTM B75, B88, B251,
  • Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A53
  • CPVC plastic pipe ASTM D2847, F441, F442, CSA
  • Disinfection of piping 
  • All new water distribution piping must be purged
    of harmful matter and disinfected in accordance
    with NYS Health regulations. (NYS 602.3.4)

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Water Services
  • Corporation valve
  • A connection to the street main that is approved
    by the municipal water authority, consisting of a
    connection or tap, and a valve.
  • Curb valve
  • An underground valve accessible from the surface
    to enable shut-off of the water service from
    outside of a building.
  • Water meter
  • Records water consumption for revenue billing and
    other purposes.

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Backflow preventer 
  • Prevents water from within a building from
    flowing back into the public water main, which
    would otherwise contaminate the public water
  • Types
  • Double check valve
  • Reduced Pressure Zone
  • Must adhere to Health department requirements
  • Heated, lighted enclosure
  • Cannot be located in basement or underground

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Main Shut off valve
  • A means to shut off all water supply from within
    a building.

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Pressure reducing valve
  • Required where pressure exceeds 80 psi
  • High water pressures can damage plumbing
    fixtures, cause leaks
  • Water distribution piping
  •  Types
  • Upfeed
  • City Pressure
  • Pumped
  • Downfeed

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Risers
  • Isolation Valves
  • Isolation valves required at each riser
  • Stop valves required at each plumbing fixture

Isometric Detail of Domestic Water Piping for
Branch Bank
Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Piping must be installed to drain to a convenient
    drain valve, for repairs, winterization for
    unoccupied periods.
  • Water hammer
  • Quick closing valves cause water pressure shock
    waves, causing pipe noise and vibration, as well
    as possible damage.
  • Water hammer arrestors absorb excess pressure,
    and are required near all quick closing valves.
    (NYS 604.9)
  • Protection from freezing 
  • Avoid locating domestic water piping in exterior

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Provisions for drainage 
  • Pipe Insulation
  • Required for energy conservation for all hot
    water piping.
  • To prevent condensation on cold water pipes.
  • Water Heating equipment
  • Types
  • Direct fired heating appliance is located where
    water is heated.
  • Most Common type used in residences
  • Consists of insulated storage tank, gas burner

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Water Heaters (Contd)
  • Indirect fired heating appliance located
    separate from where water is heated
  • Storage type
  • Water heated in separate boiler, pump circulates
    hot water to heat exchanger located in a separate
    storage tank.
  • Used where large quantities of hot water are
    required at intervals, where required quantities
    fluctuate, or where there is a limited amount of
    available energy, e.g. schools.

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Instantaneous type
  • Water is heated almost instantaneously as it flow
    through tubes surrounding a coil. Used for
    applications with a continuous hot water flow
  • Semi-instantaneous type 
  • Small storage tank and instantaneous water heater
    with control system used where there are space
    restrictions for large water heating system.

Water Heater Installation Detail
Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Relief valves
  • As water temperature increases in confined
    volume, pressure increases beyond limit, tank
    could rupture and cause harm/damage. A pressure
    and temperature relief valve is required on all
    above with storage tanks.
  • Provisions to prevent scalding
  • Hot water systems must be designed to limit hot
    water temperature at plumbing fixtures within
    safe temperature (110 deg F.)
  • Lavatories, sinks

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Provisions to prevent scalding (contd)
  • Shower valves
  • Pressure balancing valves
  • Automatically compensate for fluctuations in hot
    and cold water pressures.

Components of the Water Distribution System
  • Hot water re-circulating system 
  • Pump generally used to continuously circulate hot
    water from heater to hot water pipes supplying
    most remote fixtures, to eliminate delay when hot
    water faucet is first opened.
  • Often controlled by time clock and thermostat.
  • Wall hydrants, hose bibs for connecting hoses.
  • Vacuum breakers required to prevent backflow.

Hot Water Recirculating System
  • Provides continuous circuit for hot water to flow
    during occupied periods of the building.
  • Hot water is instantly available at lavatories
    and sinks no waiting or wasted water.

Pipe Sizes
  • Sizes established based upon fixture unit
  • Each fixture assigned a water supply fixture unit
    value for hot, cold, and total consumption.
  • Fixture units convert to gallons per minute flow
    based upon Hunters curve
  • Pipes sized so as to provide required pressure at
    each fixture when water is flowing through them.
  • Refer to Section 21.11 beginning on p. 986 11th

Some Sustainable Design Strategies
  • Minimize water usage
  • Low Flow Fixtures
  • Exceed flow rates established by Energy Policy
    Act 1992 (gt30 LEED Credit)
  • Waterless urinals
  • Two stage flush toilets
  • Flow restrictors on showers
  • Metering faucets
  • Collect store rainwater
  • For flush toilets/urinals
  • For irrigation systems
  • Other uses

Sustainable Design Strategies (contd)
  • Minimize energy use
  • Occupancy controlled hot water re-circulating
  • High efficiency domestic water heaters
  • Exceed best practice values for domestic hot
    water pipe insulation