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Presented by: Committee for Multicultural Affairs CMA, Native American Network NAN


More than one half Native American entering College Freshman will leave after their first year. Native American retention rate is 15% below the national average. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Presented by: Committee for Multicultural Affairs CMA, Native American Network NAN

(No Transcript)
Presented by Committee for Multicultural Affairs
(CMA), Native American Network (NAN)
Scott A. Zlotak, MA, Director of Diversity Serv
ices, Dakota State University, Madison, South

Steve Martin Native American Advisor, Dakota Stat
e Sociology, Madison, South Dakota
Terry Mena, MA, Apartment Manager, University Vil
lage Student Apartments, Florida Atlantic
University, Boca Raton, Florida
Juan Guardia, MS Assistant Director for Hispanic
Student Affairs, George Mason University,
Fairfax, Virginia
Stacy Callahan, MS, Career Counselor/Internship
Coordinator Maryland Institute College of Art,
Baltimore, MD
Charles Randy Gilland, MS, Assistant Director
of the Career Development Center, East Carolina
University, Greenville, North Carolina
Molly Springer, Graduate Student
University of San Diego, San Diego, California

Student Development Theory(Foundation /Old
Arthur Chickering and Marcia Baxter Magolda are
two of the dominant student development theorists
that seek to explain the evolution of students in
higher education. Although Chickerings and Baxte
r Magoldas theories are well founded, yet more
research must focus on the needs and desires of
students of color/culture. The new paradigm in st
udent development theory must shift to include
class and culturally contextual and relevant
Student Development Theoretical Foundation for
Cultural Models
(Part 1)
Chickerings 7 Vectors Developing competence Ma
naging emotions Developing autonomy Establishing
identity Freeing interpersonal relationships De
veloping purpose Developing integrity
Baxter Magolda 4 areas focuses on cognitive and
meta-cognitive development. Absolute knowledge.
Transitional knowledge. Independent knowledge. C
ontextual knowledge.
Student Development Theoretical Foundation for
Cultural Models
(Part 2)
Janet Helms Deconstructing Racial Identity-6 St
atuses Model Obliviousness Disintegration
Reintegration Psuedoindependence Immersion/
Emersion Autonomy
William Cross Nigrescence, Cross Racial
Identity Scale- 8 levels of evolution
Pre-encounter Assimilation Miseducation Racial
Self-Hatred Immersion/Emersion Anti-White Inten
se Black Involvement Internalization Nationalist
Biculturalism Multiculturalism
Acculturation and Identity, Sandra Choney
American Indian Model
Acculturation refers to the degree to which the
student accepts and adheres to both the
mainstream and cultural values. Walking in both
Worlds. Model focuses on American Indian develop
ment. Students of color/culture all go through a
process of defining their identity.
Part of this identity search is to come to terms
with their cultural norms and also synthesizing
their values into the dominant society.
1Traditional, 2Transitional, 3Bicultural,
4Assimilated, 5Marginal
New Student Development Paradigm
The new paradigm in Student Development Theory
must shift to include class and culturally
contextual and relevant material.
No longer will theories solely based on the
traditional mainstream paradigm be functional to
help engage students of culture.
For One to succeed, One must know about
themselves and their true history.
Students must be empowered with pride and
Current Trends
More than one half Native American entering
College Freshman will leave after their first
year. Native American retention rate is 15 belo
w the national average. For every 100 Native stu
dents entering ninth grade, 60 will finish high
school. About 20 will enter college and only 3 w
ill graduate with a four-year degree
Source National Institute for Native Leadership
in Higher Education, 2002
Why Is There a Need For the Shift?
Native American Student Challenges
Low enrollment rate and high attrition rate in
institutions of higher education.
Feeling of alienation/isolation on campus
community. Institutionalization of Western philos
ophies and values in Higher Education.
Native communities are not being included in the
decision making process. Inter-cultural and Intra
-cultural Oppression
Tribal Differences not being validated.
Lack of Native American faculty, staff and role
models. Lack of Culturally Relevant Support and
Developmental Services. Lack of awareness about t
he needs of Native Students. Lack of collaboratio
n efforts between college and tribal
institutions. Lack of financial resources
Why Is There a Need For the Shift..
(focus on Native American Retention Model)
Campus Challenges
George Mason University
Dakota State University
East Carolina University
Summary of practices attained from the 1996
RETAIN Conference
Best Practices From RETAIN Conference 1996
Social adjustment programs such as counseling,
peer advising, and survival skills seminars.
Academic support services like study groups and
tutoring. Faculty involvement in student recruitm
ent, advising and reaching out to Native American
students on campus Information services
Best Practices From RETAIN Conference 1996
Cultural awareness and performance on campus
Institutional administrative systems which
conduct research and strive for diversity
Pre-College preparation programs
Financial aid services Connections to the local c
ommunity Student groups and clubs which strive to
involve fellow students in social and cultural
RETAIN-over 45 higher education institutions with
significant numbers of American Indian Students
Best Practices
Washington State Teacher Certification
Strong cross-cultural emphasis
Tribe pays for most of the students costs and
allows work release time for students to attend
classes Native language is offered for credit Fo
od is present in all classes Students teach the f
aculty Book and incentive scholarship money is of
Retention of American Indians NOW UCLA
Operated by students Offers four components Peer
counseling Study hall which encourages group stu
dy and provides transportation home
Program component which provides academic,
social, cultural workshops talking circles
Resources component which provides academic,
social, cultural information
Best Practices
First Nations and Higher Education The 4
RsRespect, Relevance, Reciprocity,
Responsibility. Respect For Who (Indigenous St
udents) They Are. Relevance to Their (Indigenou
s Students) World View. Reciprocity Between the
Institution, other students and Indigenous
Students Responsibility in Their (Indigenous Stu
dents)Own Lives
Wopila-Thanksgiving Acknowledge Elders whom have
provided guidance and understanding in creating
this model. I hope that this will bring honor
and respect to their teachings and ways
Dr A.C. Ross, Oglala and Santee, Pine Ridge, SD
W. Ambrose Little Ghost, Spirit Lake Nation, ND
Claude Tokala Two-Elk, Sicangu, Rosebud SD
Gene Thin Elk, USD, Oglala, Pine Ridge, SD
The L/D/Nakota Sacred Hoop Model at Dakota State
University synthesizes the theoretical
foundations mentioned and the traditional Lakota
Cosmology. The main emphasis of the model is to
facilitate students through the 4 phase process
and the life cycle of the Wheel.
Ethnology of the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota
(Sioux) Nations
Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota are the three dialect
groups which make up the Oceti Sakowin, the
Seven Council Fires
The Seven Council Fires Sisseton, Wahpeton, Wahp
ekute, Mdewakanton, Yankton, Yanktonai
Tetons Divided into Seven Bands
Oglala, Brule, Hunkpapa, Miniconjous, Sans Arc,
Two Kettle, Black feet.
My people have always been here, we came out of
the ground. The Lakota/Dakota people have a
rich legacy and connection to the Black Hills.
My people followed the buffalo from the dawn of
creation. We migrated with the buffalo. This
took us in a huge elliptical pattern starting
here-the Black Hills then to the south east
region-North Carolina, up to New York State, and
back.-- Severt Young Bear, Oglala Lakota 
The L/D/Nakota World-Cosmology
                   7 Sacred Rites to Pray and
Walk on this Earth-White Buffalo Calf Woman.

Keeping of the Soul Inipi-Sweat Lodge Hanblechey
api-Vision Quest Wiwanyag Wacipi-Sundance Hunkap
i-Making of Relatives Ishan Ta Awi Cha Lowan- P
reparing a Girl for Womanhood Tapa wanka Yap-Thro
wing of the Ball
The L/D/Nakota World views life in a holitisc and
cyclical nature. All things exist in 4 stages.
The four phase process is extremely important to
understand the cognition and metacogntiion of
L/D/Nakotas People and especially students.
Many Ceremonial Practices are conducted in a 4
phase process. The process includes Callin
g Welcoming Processing (healing) Releasing.

Sacred Hoop Model The L/D/Nakota Cosmology
Calling Welcoming Processing (healing) Releasi
The Medicine Wheel/Sacred Hoop is a symbol that
most Native American Nations recognize, and have
this symbol in the belief system. Moreover, this
symbols is universally found throughout many
cultures, for example the Gaelic Cross, and the
conventional direction compass.
These stages in the process refer to the leaders
relationship to the Spirit Helpers, i.e. first
round the Calling of the Spirits, second round
Welcoming the Spirits, Healing round, and the
final round is the Releasing or Sending the
Spirits back
Sacred Hoop Model L/D/Nakota Cosmology
The Medicine Wheel is divided into four vectors,
each vector represents a cardinal direction, a
color, value and associated with each a
spiritual/cultural archetype.
Everything exists in fours, there are four
quarters of life, four cardinal directions, four
seasons, the four first grandfathers water,
fire, rock, and air. These were the Creators
first born and are the oldest in the World. The
number four has sacred meaning for natives who
see the individual standing in the center of the
circle surrounded by the four directions. Dr.
Martin Broken Leg.
Black West-Generosity Red - North Fortitude
Yellow - East -Bravery White- South-Wisdom

Sacred Hoop Model L/D/Nakota Values
Black West direction Wakinyan Oyate (Thunder
and Lightning Beings). Woohitika Bravery is
associated with this direction
White- South Direction The place of the
Wamakanskan Oyate (Animal Nation). The
Wacantognaka Generosity is associated with this
Red- North Direction Tatanka Oyate (Buffalo
Nation). Red is one of the most significant
colors, it is considered Wakan-sacred,
Wowacintanka Fortitude is associated with this
Yellow - East Direction The place of the Hehaka
Oyate (Elk Nation). Wokape Wisdom is associated
with this direction.
Sacred Hoop Model At DSU
Using the importance and cultural significance of
the Wheel to the L/D/Nakota people, programs and
services can be created within this context to
better represent and acknowledge the active
participation of the American Indian student in
institutions of higher learning.
Sacred Hoop Model at Dakota State University
Scott Zlotak
Sacred Hoop Model
Recruitment Strategy -Road Show -SAG
E Program Scholarships Aggressive/Intrusive Mo

Sacred Hoop Model
(Welcoming) Transitional Programs Student Suppor
t Programs
Introduce Student Involvement
Creating a sense of belonging MLC and AINA Peer S
ocials ODS and NAAO Staff Personal Introduction M
eetings Intrusive monitoring Aggressive adviseme
nt Mentoring
Sacred Hoop Model
Upper Class Development Professional Preparation
Major/Minor Declaration (Processing/Healing)
Leadership Involvement (MLC AINA)
Academic Advising/ Personal Counseling
Retention Programs Scholarships Cultural Eve
nts (Honor the Elders Wacipi Pow-Wow
Cultural Practices (Inipi, other ceremonies)
Aggressive/Intrusive Monitoring
Sacred Hoop Model
Honor and Awards Job/Internship Ceremony
Leadership Mentor Roles Placement Aggressive/I
ntrusive Monitoring
George Mason University Adaptation of the Sacred
Hoop Model
Presently, there are no organizations and
activities for the American Indian Students on
the GMU campus (besides American Indian Heritage
Week). The lack of programs and models created
the impetus for the adaptation of the Sacred Hoop
Model, We anticipate the Fall 2002 being the
pilot year.
Scott Zlotak
Sacred Hoop Model
George Mason University
-Recruitment Strategy -Local High School w/
high population of Native American students
(NA). -Coordinate with Admissions to outreac
h N.A. students for general admittance and summer
transition programs. -Increased visibility and in
volvement for N.A. students by way of Orientation
and Office of Diversity Programs and Services.

Sacred Hoop Model
George Mason University
Intrusive monitoring Native American Exposure to
various Leadership Opportunities (American Indian
Heritage Week) Encourage active creation of a Na
tive American Students
Sacred Hoop Model
George Mason University
Empower Native American Students to seek and
establish more Leadership through out the Campus
Assist with declaration of majors.
Sacred Hoop Model
Graduating Seniors give back to new Native
students through Admissions Fairs PREVIEW O
Senior Students High School Visits
George Mason University
Career Development Process Sacred Hoop Model
East Carolina University
Maryland Institute College of Art
Cultural Ceremonies
Career Development Stages
Outreach (1st Year or Pre-Intake) Marketing D
evelopment/Exploration (2nd Intake) Self Asse

Calling (1st Quadrant) Welcoming (2nd Quadran

East Carolina University
Career Development Process Sacred Hoop Model
Maryland Institute College of Art
Cultural Ceremonies
Career Development Stages
Healing/Processing (3rd Quadrant) Releasin
(4th Quadrant)
Resources/Decisions ( 3) Action/Decision Sel
f-Marketing/Progression (4th ) (Evaluation/Proc

  • Orientation Residential Life
  • Calling (1st Quadrant)
  • Welcoming (2nd Quadrant)
  • Healing/Processing (3rd Quadrant)
  • Releasing/Returning (4th Quadrant)

Implications for Adopting Culturally
Developmental Models In Higher Education
Due to the historical experience of Native
American people, their situation and relationship
with the mainstream community is fragile.
The application of the Lakota/Dakota/Nakota Medi
cine Wheel is a new venture. This model needs to
be systematically monitored and assessed for its
effectiveness. Euro-centric perspectives have
driven student developmental models. The
implementation of culturally relevant cognitive
and psycho-social models are essential for the
full articulation and involvement of Native
American students. College and Universities m
ust dedicate and commit to providing the
personal, social, academic and cultural support
for Native students to be successful.
Implications for Adopting Culturally
Developmental Models In Higher Education
There will need to be extensive amount of
adaptation to fit the variance of Native
American Nations. Another challenge facing the
application of the model is the extensive range
of assimilation and acculturation of the Native
American student population and their degree of
conformability in dealing with their cultural
identity. (Rural v. Urban v. Reservation
Bi-Cultural traditional v. non-traditional
etc) Difficulty of adapting a cultural model
in a homogeneous institution. More intensive t
ransitional programs between two-year, tribal and
mainstream institutions.
Implications for Adopting Culturally
Developmental Models In Higher Education
Utilize the strengths and assets of the Native
American community in the area. Focus groups of
students and local Native American community to
asses the needs of the area. Institutional com
mitment to a culturally relevant model must come
from top down.
We would like to thank our Elders, Ancestors and
Allies who have given us the ability and guidance
to be here and share with you the knowledge and
Thank You