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MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration

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MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration Chapter 5 Introduction to DNS in Windows Server 2008 DNS Resource Records Information ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Network Infrastructure Configuration


1
MCTS Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008
Network Infrastructure Configuration
  • Chapter 5
  • Introduction to DNS in Windows Server 2008

2
Objectives
  • Discuss the basics of the Domain Name System
    (DNS) and its terminology
  • Configure DNS clients
  • Install a standard DNS server on Windows Server
    2008
  • Create standard DNS zones

3
Domain Name System
  • Primary function is to translate human-readable
    host names
  • Assists the flow of e-mail
  • Provides mail exchanger records that tell a
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server where
    to send an e-mail message
  • Supported on the Internet by thousands of
    distributed servers, or DNS servers

4
Domain Name System (continued)
  • Activity 5-1 Resetting Network Adapters and
    Disabling DHCP
  • Time Required 20 minutes
  • Objective Reset the network adapters on lab
    servers

5
DNS Terminology
  • DNS namespace
  • DNS domain
  • Fully qualified domain name
  • Hosts
  • Host name
  • DNS record
  • DNS zone

6
DNS Terminology (continued)
  • DNS namespace
  • Organized into the following domains root domain
    (.), top-level domain (TLD), second-level domain,
    and subdomain
  • DNS domain
  • The portion of the namespace to the right of the
    host name
  • Fully qualified domain names
  • The entire name for a specific host that needs to
    have a DNS record created

7
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8
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9
DNS Terminology (continued)
  • Activity 5-2 Using Whois
  • Time Required 5 minutes
  • Objective Research domain names

10
DNS Terminology (continued)
  • Hosts
  • A computer on the Internet that provides a
    specific resource
  • Host name
  • Name given to a computer, or host, to make
    connecting to it easier
  • DNS zone
  • Collection of connected nodes served by an
    authoritative DNS name server
  • DNS records
  • DNS uses records to provide the information it
    stores in its database

11
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12
DNS Terminology (continued)
  • Activity 5-4 Resolving DNS Records with NSLookup
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Query a DNS server with nslookup

13
DNS Queries in Windows Server 2008
  • Iterative query
  • A DNS client requests the best answer that its
    DNS server can provide
  • Recursive queries
  • Queries where the client requires an answer from
    its DNS server

14
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15
Configuring DNS Clients
  • DNS clients
  • Often referred to as DNS resolvers
  • Windows Server 2008
  • Uses the DNS Client service to perform DNS
    queries on behalf of the client

16
DNS Client Settings
  • DNS servers
  • For a client to resolve DNS queries, it needs to
    know which server to contact
  • First DNS server in the list is called the
    preferred DNS server
  • DNS suffix
  • DNS domain appended to all unqualified name
    queries, or a query that contains only a host
    name

17
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18
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19
DNS Client Settings (continued)
  • Activity 5-5 Adding an Alternate DNS server
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Add an alternate DNS server

20
DNS Client Settings (continued)
  • Activity 5-6 Adding a Domain Suffix to IP
    Properties
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Configure a client with an additional
    DNS suffix

21
DNS Client Settings (continued)
  • Activity 5-7 Creating a Full Computer Name
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Change the computer name

22
Dynamic Updates
  • Windows Server 2008
  • Supports dynamic updates with both standard and
    Active Directory Domain Servicesintegrated
    domains
  • Dynamic updates
  • Sometimes referred to as DDNS

23
Installing DNS in Windows Server 2008
  • DNS
  • A role that can be installed on Windows Server
    2008 Full and Server Core versions
  • Often combined with other services such as DHCP

24
Installing Cache-Only DNS Servers
  • Cache-only DNS server
  • Server that has the DNS role installed
  • Does not hold a DNS zone so it is not
    authoritative for any DNS zones
  • Does it maintain any DNS records

25
Installing Cache-only DNS Servers (continued)
  • Activity 5-8 Installing DNS on MSN-SRV-0XX
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Install the DNS Server role

26
Installing Cache-only DNS Servers (continued)
  • Root hints
  • Provide IP address pointers to top-level DNS
    servers
  • When configured, a DNS server can perform queries
    when it receives domain name requests for zones
    in which it is not authoritative
  • Provide referral answers to queries in a DNS
    servers quest to resolve an unknown domain name
    request
  • Forwarders
  • Servers used to resolve names

27
DNS Zones
  • Zones
  • Building blocks for creating your DNS
    infrastructure
  • DNS zones
  • Classified in three ways
  • The information they store
  • Where they are stored
  • Their read/write status
  • Fall into two categories
  • Standard and Active Directory

28
Standard Zones
  • zone.dns
  • Used to store DNS records
  • Found in the systemroot\system32\DNS folder
  • Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
  • Industry standard of DNS servers on the Internet
    and networks running DNS on UNIX/Linux systems

29
Standard DNS Zone Types
  • Primary DNS zone
  • The zone that is authoritative for a specific
    domain and its name records
  • Secondary DNS zone
  • Read-only version of the DNS records for a zone
  • Stub zone
  • Read-only copy of a zone that obtains its
    resource records from the name servers that are
    authoritative for a particular zone

30
Standard DNS Zone Types (continued)
  • Activity 5-9 Installing a Primary DNS Zone for
    bentech.local
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Create a primary DNS zone

31
Standard DNS Zone Types (continued)
  • Activity 5-10 Installing a Secondary DNS Zone on
    MSN-SC-0XX
  • Time Required 15 minutes
  • Objective Install DNS on Server Core

32
Direction of DNS Zones
  • Forward lookup DNS zones
  • Allow a DNS client to resolve an FQDN to an IP
    address
  • Reverse lookup DNS zone
  • Maps IP addresses to host names

33
Direction of DNS Zones (continued)
  • Activity 5-11 Creating a Reverse Lookup Zone
  • Time Required 15 minutes
  • Objective Create a reverse lookup zone

34
DNS Resource Records
  • Information in a DNS record
  • Owner, Time-to-Live (TTL)
  • Class, Type
  • Resource Record Data (RDATA)
  • Start of Authority (SOA)
  • Record is the starting point for information
    related to a zone
  • Name server (NS) record
  • Identifies a DNS server that is authoritative for
    a zone

35
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36
DNS Resource Records (continued)
  • Host (A) record
  • Provides host nametoIP address resolution for
    DNS clients
  • Host (AAAA) Records for IPv6
  • Records map a host name to an IPv6 address
  • Mail exchanger (MX) record
  • Specifies the server that is responsible for
    handling e-mail
  • Alias records
  • Used to create an alias for a specific host

37
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38
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39
DNS Resource Records (continued)
  • Pointer records
  • Resolves IP address to host names for DNS clients
  • Service locator records
  • Provides the following information
  • Location of services it needs
  • Network protocol needed to access the previously
    mentioned services
  • Domain services it provides

40
DNS Resource Records (continued)
  • Activity 5-12 Creating DNS Records in the DNS
    Console
  • Time Required 10 minutes
  • Objective Create DNS records

41
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42
Standard DNS Zone Transfers
  • Master server
  • Provides updated DNS record information to
    secondary servers
  • Slave server
  • Gets its updates from the master zone transfer
    partner specified on the Zone Transfer tab in DNS
  • Zone transfers from the master to the secondary
    server come in two varieties
  • Incremental zone transfers (IXFRs)
  • Full zone transfers (AXFRs)

43
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44
Summary
  • DNS
  • Responsible for providing name resolution for
    clients on public and private networks
  • Core functionality of DNS
  • To provide host nametoIP address resolution, or
    forward lookups
  • Standard zones classifications
  • Primary, secondary, and stub zones
  • DNS
  • Uses many types of records to store information
    in its zones

45
Summary (continued)
  • Installing the DNS role can be done through the
    GUI using Server Manager
  • DNS console
  • The main GUI tool responsible for managing DNS
  • Allows you to add, delete, and modify all aspects
    of DNS
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