Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease Dr Subhash Donde - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease Dr Subhash Donde

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Title: Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease Dr Subhash Donde


1
Aluminium Is it a risk factor for Alzheimers
Disease?
  • Dr. Subhash Donde
  • Dept. of Zoology, Kirti College, Dadar,Mumbai-400
    028.

2
Dr. Alois Alzheimer
3
Alzheimers disease Statistics
  • 25 million sufferer all over world
  • 75 million at risk of developing AD in next 20-25
    years
  • Age wise prevalence of AD
  • 1 prevalence at age of 60-64 years
  • 50 prevalence at age of 90 years and above

4
  • The avg. annual cost per person with AD
  • ranges from 15,000 to 50,000
  • (USA, EU, Japan)
  • Lifetime cost per patient over 175,000
  • 15-20 of total cost is meant for treatment
  • while rest is for nursing/caring patients.
  • Who suffer more -the patient or the family?
  • 200 compounds tested during last decade

5
Brain of normal and Alzheimer patient lateral
view
6
(No Transcript)
7
  • AD is a multifactorial, polygenic disease. 5000
    research papers world-wide in last 20 years
    documented genetic basis of the disease.
  • 10 different genes associated with AD and more
    than 50 genes involved in dementia
    (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
  • Environmental factors such as Aluminium is also
    strongly linked with AD

8
  • Some heavy metals induced neurodegenerative
    diseases
  • Manganese Parkinsonism
  • Lead Acute encephalopathy and severe mental
    retardation
  • Aluminium
  • 1 Microcytic anemia
  • 2 Ostemalacia
  • 3 Encephalopathy
  • 4 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)/ Sporadic
    motor neuron disease
  • 5 Alzheimer's disease (AD)

9
  • Aluminium neurotoxicity Historical account
  • Dolken (1897) produced neuronal degeneration in
  • rabbits brain by injecting aluminium tartarate
  • Klatzo (1965) produced same results as above
  • Crapper (1973) repeated above results in cats
    brain.
  • Wisniewski and Wen (1992) reported
    dissimilarities
  • in senile plaques and NFTs found in AD brain and
    those
  • produced in aluminium treated animals.
  • Landsberg (1992) opined that Al found in senile
  • plaques might have originated as contamination of
    dyes
  • used to stain plaques.
  • Savory (1995) and other reported similarities in
  • immunochemical ultra structural hallmarks of AD
    brain
  • And aluminium treated animal models and cultured
  • neurons

10
Extra cellular senile plaques and intraneural
NFTs in AD brain
11
AD and Al-induced animal model of AD Similarities
  • Hallmark of Brain of Alzheimers patient
  • Extra cellular senile plaques (ß amyloid protein)
  • Intraneural neurofibrillary tangles
    (phoshorylated tau protein)
  • Degeneration of synapses and neurons
  • Al-induced AD model / cultured neuron
  • Aluminium caused neurofibrillary degeneration
  • Presence of PAH and immunoreactivity for tau
    protein
  • Neuronal death and degeneration of synapses

12
Role of tau protein in microtubule formation
13
Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein
and formation of NFTs in Alzheimer brain
14
  • Sources of Aluminium exposure
  • Drinking water(Aluminium sulphate- flocculent)
  • Leaching through utensils (low grade Al-Pb
  • Alloy)
  • Tea
  • Antacids (Aluminium hydroxide)
  • Antiperspirants (Aluminium chorohydrate)
  • Occupational exposure (mining/smelting)
  • (aluminium dust or fumes)

15
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Neurotoxicity of aluminium is well established in
  • connection with Alzheimers disease.
  • Hence following steps need to be taken in order
    to
  • Avoid lifetime exposure of aluminium
  • Low grade aluminum vessels should be replaced
  • with either coated or high grade alloys of
    aluminium
  • Cooking acidic food in Al vessels should be
    avoided
  • Aluminium based antacids should be replaced by
  • another harmless preparation
  • Use of antiperspirant should be kept at minimum.

16
Brain of (A) normal and (B) Alzheimer patient
(note enlarged sulci)
17
View of brain within cranium (note overall
shrinkage in brain due to neuronal death)
18
PETscan of brain of normal and AD patient (Arrow
points to areas with dead neurons)
19
Thanks !
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