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Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

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'I wonder whether my fingernails will be longer by the time of my wedding. ... 'I'm going to try to get tickets for a Broadway show for your birthday. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Consumer Attitude Formation and Change


1
Chapter 8
Consumer Behavior,Eighth EditionSCHIFFMAN
KANUK
  • Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

2
Attitudes
A learned predisposition to behave in a
consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with
respect to a given object.
3
What are Attitudes?
  • The attitude object
  • Attitudes are a learned predisposition
  • Attitudes have consistency
  • Attitudes occur within a situation

4
Figure 8.1 Wendys Offers Salads To Differentiate
Itself
5
Structural Models of Attitudes
  • Tricomponent Attitude Model
  • Muliattribute Attitude Model
  • The Trying-to-Consume Model
  • Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model

6
Figure 8.2 A Simple Representation of the
Tricomponent Attitude Model
Conation
Affect
Cognition
7
The Tricomponent Model
  • Cognitive Component
  • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired
    by a combination of direct experience with the
    attitude object and related information from
    various sources.
  • Affective Component
  • A consumers emotions or feelings about a
    particular product or brand.
  • Conative Component
  • The likelihood or tendency that an individual
    will undertake a specific action or behave in a
    particular way with regard to the attitude object.

8
Multiattribute Attitude Models
Attitude models that examine the composition of
consumer attitudes in terms of selected product
attributes or beliefs.
9
Multiattribute Attitude Models
  • The attitude-toward-object model
  • Attitude is function of evaluation of
    product-specific beliefs and evaluations
  • The attitude-toward-behavior model
  • Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with
    respect to an object, rather than the attitude
    toward the object itself
  • Theory-of-reasoned-action model
  • A comprehensive, integrative model of attitudes

10
Attitude-Toward-Behavior Model
A model that proposes that a consumers attitude
toward a specific behavior is a function of how
strongly he or she believes that the action will
lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or
unfavorable).
11
Theory of Reasoned Action
A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship
among attitudes,intentions, and behavior.
12
Figure 8.4 A Simplified Version of the Theory of
Reasoned Action
13
Theory of Trying to Consume
An attitude theory designed to account for the
many cases where the action or outcome is not
certain but instead reflects the consumers
attempt to consume (or purchase).
14
Figure 8.5 Ad Illustrating the Theory of Trying
to Consume
15
Table 8.6 Selected Examples of Potential
Impediments That Might Impact Trying
POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS I wonder whether
my fingernails will be longer by the time of my
wedding. I want to try to lose fifteen pounds
by next summer. Im going to try to get tickets
for a Broadway show for your birthday. Im
going to attempt to give up smoking by my
birthday. I am going to increase how often I go
to the gym from two to four times a
week. Tonight, Im not going to have dessert at
the restaurant.
POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS The first
ten people to call in will receive a free
T-shirt. Sorry, the shoes didnt come in this
shipment from Italy. There are only three
bottles of champagne in our stockroom. You better
come in sometime today. I am sorry. We cannot
serve you. We are closing the restaurant because
of a problem with the oven.
16
Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
A model that proposes that a consumer forms
various feelings (affects) and judgments
(cognitions) as the result of exposure to an
advertisement, which, in turn, affect the
consumers attitude toward the ad and attitude
toward the brand.
17
Figure 8.6 A Conception of the Relationship
among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
Exposure to an Ad
Judgments about the Ad (Cognition)
Feelings from the Ad (Affect)
Beliefs about the Brand
Attitude toward the Ad
Attitude toward the Brand
18
Issues in Attitude Formation
  • How attitudes are learned
  • Sources of influence on attitude formation
  • Personality factors

19
Figure 8.8EncouragingTrial
20
Strategies of Attitude Change
  • Changing the Basic Motivational Function
  • Associating the Product With an Admired Group or
    Event
  • Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes
  • Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model
  • Changing Beliefs About Competitors Brands

21
Four Basic Attitude Functions
  • The Utilitarian Function
  • The Ego-defensive Function
  • The Value-expressive Function
  • The Knowledge Function

22
Figure 8.9 Clorox Uses A Utilitarian Appeal
23
Figure 8.10 Suave Uses Ego Defensive Appeal
24
Figure 8.11 AC Delco Uses a Value-Expressive
Appeal
25
Figure 8.12 A Knowledge Appeal
26
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
A theory that suggests that a persons level of
involvement during message processing is a
critical factor in determining which route to
persuasion is likely to be effective.
27
Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation?
Behave (Purchase)
  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Attribution Theory

Form Attitude
Form Attitude
28
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a
consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a
belief or an attitude object.
29
Figure 8.17 Reducing Cognitive Dissonance
30
Postpurchase Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer
has made a purchase commitment. Consumers
resolve this dissonance through a variety of
strategies designed to confirm the wisdom of
their choice.
31
Attribution Theory
A theory concerned with how people assign
casualty to events and form or alter their
attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or
other peoples behavior.
32
Issues in Attribution Theory
  • Self-perception Theory
  • Foot-In-The-Door Technique
  • Attributions Toward Others
  • Attributions Toward Things
  • How We Test Our Attributions

33
Self-Perception Theory
A theory that suggests that consumers develop
attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior.
34
Defensive Attribution
A theory that suggests consumers are likely to
accept credit for successful outcomes (internal
attribution) and to blame other persons or
products for failure (external attribution).
35
Criteria for Causal Attributions
  • Distinctiveness
  • Consistency Over Time
  • Consistency Over Modality
  • Consensus
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