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Curators Office


Loretta Perfectus Walsh was sworn as the Chief Yeoman on 21 March, 1917. Return to Room ... Several were combat widows of Pearl Harbor and Bataan. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Curators Office

Civil War
World War I
Curators Office
Jodi Schoenbachler
  • Jodi Schoenbachler is a 5th grade teacher at
    Westergard Elementary School in Reno, Nevada.
  • Jodi loves teaching American History. She
    is currently involved in projects to enhance her
    students interest in the subject as well.

Return to Museum Entrance

Return to Entrance
World War I Women

Loretta Perfectus Walsh
Dorothy Lawrence
Oleda Christedes
Opha Mae Johnson
Return to Entrance

Artifact 4.2
Dorothy Stratton
Nancy Love
Jacqueline Cochran
Return to Entrance
Loretta Janeta Velasquez
  • Loreta Janeta Velazquez sounded like a mythical
    figure a Cuban-born woman raised in New Orleans,
    where she masqueraded as a male soldier and
    fought in the Civil War. With a fake mustache,
    beard, and a soldier's uniform, the Latina
    enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1861 as
    Lieutenant Harry T. Buford , without her
    husband's knowledge.
  • Wearing a disguise, Velazquez fought at the
    battles of Bull Run and Ball's Bluff , and at the
    siege of Fort Donelson . She continued fighting
    after her husband was killed and after she was
    arrested as a Union spy. Velazquez also fought at
    the Battle of Shiloh-- alongside her new fiance,
    who did not recognize her in disguise.
  • She managed to fool other officers and soldiers
    because she was fair-skinned, walked with a
    masculine gait, smoked cigars, and padded her
    coat to pass as more muscular, according to the
    National Archives and Records Administration.

Return to Room
Albert Cashier
  • Jennie (Irene) Hodgers, aged 19 and Irish,
  • on the 3rd of August 1862, into the 95th Illinois
  • Infantry regiment under the name of Albert
  • She fought in about 40 battles and skirmishes.
  • None of her comrades ever suspected that she was
  • infact a "he". There are some accounts by
  • fellow comrades indicating that the other
  • just thought that Cashier was small and shy, the
  • smallest man in the company, but very brave and
  • fearless. "He kept up on the hardest marches,
  • skillfully handled a rifle and never shirked
  • She spent her entire adult life as a man and  in
  • years she claimed a veteran's pension, which she
  • was more than entitled to for her service in the
  • It wasn't until struck in an automobile accident
  • 1911, breaking her leg, that her sex was revealed
  • when treated by a physician at a veteran's
  • She was admitted to the "Soldiers' and

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Return to Room
  • With the speed and strength of any man in
    battle, hundreds of women answered the call to
    bear arms for the Union or the Confederacy during
    the period known as the Civil War. Many of those
    women were found out, and sent to the hospitals
    to become nurses, sent home, or sent to insane
    asylums as patients. But dozens of other women
    were able to evade detection, fight in battle,
    die as heroes, or survive the war to live rich
    lives as either men or women until their death.
    One such woman to fight in the Civil War as a man
    undetected was Sarah Rosetta Wakeman. What she
    gave her family was economic stability,
    first-hand knowledge of the war, and a hidden
    pride to share with the generations to come.
  • While looking for another job, Rosetta
    Lyons came across recruiters in Binghamton for
    a brigade about to join in the War. She signed
    up, where her word, oath and signature was enough
    to enlist. For two years Private Lyons Wakeman
    fought with her comrades in the 153rd New York
    State Volunteers. She sent most of her earnings
    home with letters, which the family kept. On
    occasion Rosetta signed letters with simply
    Rosetta, but other times with the name of Edwin
    R. or Lyons, showing that she was internally
    struggling with her identity. By mid-1864, after
    her survival through many obstacles, Sarah
    Rosetta Wakeman died of a camp-contracted
    dysentery in Marine General Hospital, where she
    was undetected as a woman, and buried as Lyons
    Wakeman with full military honors at Chalmette
    National Cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana. One
    year later, in 1865, her home state of New York
    counted her as Lyons Wakeman, a causality for the
    Union Forces.

Sarah Rosetta Wakeman

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Emma Edmonds
  • Sarah Emma Edmonds was one of about 400 women who
    enlisted in the army during the civil war. What
    makes Sarah Edmonds special is that she not only
    remained in the army as Frank Thompson for many
    years, she was a very successful spy, as well.
  • Emma lived in Flint Michigan. When the call came
    for Union enlistments she cut her hair, got mans
    clothing and changed her name to Frank Thompson.
    It took several tries, but she was finally
    enlisted as a male nurse in the Second Volunteers
    of the United States Army.
  • When news came that General McClellan was looking
    for a person to act as a spy, Frank Thompson
  • After many successful missions Emma worked long,
    hard hours in a military hospital. She became
    sick with malaria and could not admit herself
    into the hospital because her true identity would
    be discovered. She left camp and went to a
    private hospital where she could be treated as a
    woman. She planned to rejoin her unit when she
    was better, but a nasty surprised awaited her.
    When she read an army bulletin she discovered her
    name on a list of deserters!!
  • Emma bought a train ticket to Washington where
    she worked as a nurse until the end of the war.

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Opha Mae Johnson
  • On August 13, 1918, Opha Mae Johnson became the
    first female Marine when she enlisted in the
    Marine Corps Reserve.
  • Although women weren't allowed in war zones
    during World War I, Johnson and more than 300
    other women served proudly in the United States,
    helping their male counterparts win in France.
  • Less than 100 years after Johnson's service and
    courage, women fill many key roles in the Marine
    Corps, in both the officer and enlisted ranks.

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Dorothy Lawrence
  • Dorothy Lawrence was born in Hendon in 1896.
    Abandoned by her mother, she was adopted by a
    guardian of the Church of England.
  • Lawrence had a strong desire to become a
    journalist and she achieved some success with a
    few articles published in The Times. She was
    living in Paris when war was declared in 1914.
    Lawrence contacted several British newspapers
    offering to work as a war correspondent in
    France. All the editors refused to employ a woman
    to do what they considered to be very dangerous
    work. Lawrence returned to England and in 1915
    disguised herself as a man and joined the
    British Army. Using the name Denis Smith, she
    served for ten days in the British Expedition
    Force Tunneling Company on the Western Front
    before her true identity was discovered. The
    authorities detained her in a French convent
    until she agreed to swear an affidavit promising
    not to tell the public how she had fooled the
    army authorities.

Return to Room
Loretta Perfectus Walsh
  • Loretta Perfectus Walsh was born in
    Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (April 22
    1896-August 6 1925). Due to the events that began
    with World War I, Loretta Perfectus Walsh
    preferred to enlist in the United States Navy.
    She also secured the title of the first active
    duty Navy woman when she joined a 4 year
    enlistment with the U.S. Naval Reserve. This
    happened in 1917. Loretta Perfectus Walsh was
    sworn as the Chief Yeoman on 21 March, 1917.

Return to Room
Oleda Christedes
  • Oleda had played piano for dance-bands throughout
    the Thumb District
  • of Michigan, for six years, since the age of
    thirteen, and she knew all the
  • World War One popular music. While sailing "Over
    There" on the S.S.
  • Olympic, which had been placed in quarantine at
    Southampton, England
  • for two weeks because of the Spanish Influenza
    pandemic, she
  • entertained the troops. When she was asked by the
    Red Cross official
  • to accept a position touring camps and hospitals
    to entertain, she
  • replied that she was in the Army under orders for
    the duration of the
  • War.
  • She was assigned to General Pershing's American
    Expeditionary Force
  • Headquarters in Chaumont, France. Her service
    extended a year after the
  • Armistice in order to operate the telephones for
    the arrangements to
  • return the troops home there was no question but
    that she was there
  • under orders for the duration. Oleda, and all the
    U.S. Army Signal Corps
  • operators, stood inspection in the soldiers'
    ranks, for General Pershing's
  • visiting dignitaries. She remembered President
    Wilson, Marechal Foch
  • and the Prince of Wales. During one leave, which
    was given on
  • pass exactly the same way as to any soldier,
    Oleda traveled to Bordeaux
  • to meet her brother Wallace who was a member of
    the Army's Barber

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Women in Army Corp
  • African American women have long been a
    visible and important part of the American
    defense team. Here, Maj. Charity E. Adams and
    Capt. Abbie N. Campbell inspect the first
    contingent of black members of the Women's Army
    Corps assigned to overseas service in WWII

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Hear Us Roar!
  • Shortly after the US declaration of war,
    the Council of National Defense created an
    Advisory Committee on Women's Defense Work, known
    as the Woman's Committee. The purpose of the
    committee wasto coordinate the activities and the
    resources of the organized and unorganized women
    of the country, that their power may be
    immediately utilized in time of need, and to
    supply a new and direct channel of cooperation
    between women and governmental department.
  • Chairman of the Woman's Committee,
    working energetically and full time, was the
    former president of the National American Woman
    Suffrage Association, Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, and
    another leading member was the suffrage group's
    current chairman and an equally prominent
    suffragette, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt.

Return to Room
Pistol Packin Mamas
WASP (Women Airforce Service Pilots) were
civilian female pilots employed to fly military
aircraft under the direction of the United States
Army Air Forces during World War II. The purpose
of WASP was to free up more male pilots for
combat roles by having female pilots fly missions
such as ferrying aircraft from factories to
military bases, and towing drones/aerial targets.
Eventually the WASP members would number in the
thousands before the wars end. Note The words
on the plane say Pistol Packin Mamas
Return to Room
The Original Assembly Line!
  • Women in the American work force Bertha
    Stallworth, age 21, inspects 40mm artillery
    cartridges at Frankford Arsenal during WWII

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Working for the War
  • In 1944, women comprised 35.4 percent of the
    civilian labor force.
  • In 1945, women comprised 36.1 percent of the
    civilian labor force.
  • The female labor force grew by 6.5 million.
  • At the height of the war, there were 19,170,000
    women in the labor force.
  • Between 1940 and 1945, the female labor force
    grew by 50 percent.
  • One in ten married women entered the labor force.
  • The percentage of married women working outside
    the home increased from 13.9 to 22.5.
  • The percentage of working women with children
    under 10 years of age increased from 7.8 to 12.1
    from 1940 to 1944.
  • In 1944, 37 percent of all adult women were
  • At the height of the war, women comprised 4
    percent of skilled workers.
  • In 1944, skilled female workers made an average
    weekly wage of 31.21 while skilled male workers
    earned 54.65 weekly.
  • From 1940 to 1944, the percentage of women
    workers employed in factories increased from 20
    to 30 percent.
  • From 1940 to 1944, the percentage of women
    workers employed as domestic servants declined
    from 17.7 to 9.5 percent.
  • Female employment in defense industries grew by
    462 percent from 1940 to 1944.
  • Between 1943 and 1945, polls indicated that 61 to
    85 percent of women workers wanted to keep their
    jobs after the war.
  • Between 1943 and 1945, polls indicated that 47 to
    68 percent of married women workers wanted to
    keep their jobs after the war.

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Image acquired at Place URL here
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Artifact 3.4 Title
  • Describe the artifact here.

Insert artifact here
Image acquired at Place URL here
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Jacqueline Cochran
  • Her most distinguished aviation career began in
    1932 when she obtained her pilot's license with
    only three weeks of instruction. From this time
    onward, her life was one of total dedication to
    aviation. After her first air race in 1934, she
    was respected by all for her competitive spirit
    and high skill. Her performance in the aviation
    events of the 1930's is legendary. Among her last
    flight activities was the establishment in 1964
    of a record of 1,429 MPH in the F-104
  • At the beginning of World War II, she became a
    Wing Commander in the British Auxiliary Transport
    Service ferrying U.S. built Hudson bombers to
    England. With the U.S. entry into the War, she
    offered her services to the Army Air Corps and
    formed the famed Women's Air Force Service
    Pilots. This group, more than 1000 strong played
    a major role in the delivery of aircraft to the
    combat areas throughout the world. For this
    service, she was awarded the U.S. Distinguished
    Service Medal.
  • Some of the honors she has been accorded include
    the Harmon Trophy, the General William E.
    Mitchell Award, Gold Medal of the Federation.

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Nancy Love
  • Nancy Harkness Love was born
    on February 14, 1914 in Houghton, Michigan, the
    daughter of a wealthy physician. She developed an
    intense interest in aviation at an early age. At
    16 she took her first flight and earned her
    pilot's license within a month. Although she went
    to all the right schools, including Milton
    Academy in Massachusetts and Vassar in New York,
    she was restless and adventurous. At Vassar she
    earned extra money taking students for rides in
    an airplane she rented from a nearby airport.
    In May, 1940, soon after the Second World
    War broke out in Europe, Nancy Love wrote to Lt.
    Col. Robert Olds. who was in charge of
    establishing a Ferrying Command within the Army
    Air Corps, that she had found 49 excellent women
    pilots, who each had more than a thousand flying
    hours and could help transport planes from
    factories to bases. Lt. Col. Olds took the
    suggestion to Gen. Hap Arnold, Chief of Staff,
    who turned it down. Nancy Love convinced
    Col. Tunner that the idea of using experienced
    women pilots to supplement the existing pilot
    force was a good one. He then asked the 28 year
    old Love to write up a proposal for a women's
    ferrying division. Within a few months, she had
    recruited 29 experienced female pilots to join
    the newly created Women's Auxiliary Ferry
    Squadron (WAFS). Nancy Love became their
    Commander. In September, 1942, the women pilots
    began flying at New Castle Army Air Field,
    Wilmington, Delaware, under ATC's 2nd Ferrying
  • After the war, Nancy Love became
    the mother of three daughters, but she continued
    as an aviation industry leader, as well as a
    champion for recognition as military veterans for
    the women who had served as WASP. Nancy
    Harkness Love died on October 22, 1976. Among the
    things she left behind was a box she had kept
    for more than 30 years. Inside was a handwritten
    list of women pilots she had compiled in 1940 and
    clippings and photographs of each of the women
    who had died under her command. Her job had not
    been easy, but the love and respect she received
    from the WAFS and WASP she commanded during WWII
    is indisputable
  • Describe the artifact here.

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Dorothy Stratton
  • In 1920, when Dorothy C. Stratton received her
  • Bachelor of Arts degree from Ottawa University,
  • career prospects for women were somewhat more
  • restrained than they are today. But it appears
    that the
  • trends of the time did nothing to dampen
  • enthusiasm for personal and professional growth.
  • As the country faced the prospect of World War
    II, Dorothy
  • Felt an urgent need to serve her country. She has
  • quoted as saying that a woman trustee at Purdue
  • she was Dean of Women said, Dorothy, you cant
  • to do this. To which Dorothy replied, I cant
    afford not to.
  • In the nations capitol in November 1942,
  • Roosevelt signed the law establishing the Coast
  • Womens Reserve, and the then Lt. Stratton was
    sworn in
  • as its director. She became the first woman
    accepted for
  • service as a commissioned officer in the history
    of the
  • United States Coast Guard.

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Women Pitch In
  • Applicants had to be U.S. citizens between the
    ages of 21 and 45 with no dependents, be at least
    five feet tall, and weigh 100 pounds or more.
    Over 35,000 women from all over the country
    applied for less than 1,000 anticipated
  • On 20 July the first officer candidate training
    class of 440 women started a six-week course at
    Fort Des Moines. Interviews conducted by an eager
    press revealed that the average officer candidate
    was 25 years old, had attended college, and was
    working as an office administrator, executive
    secretary, or teacher. One out of every five had
    enlisted because a male member of her family was
    in the armed forces and she wanted to help him
    get home sooner. Several were combat widows of
    Pearl Harbor and Bataan. One woman enlisted
    because her son, of fighting age, had been
    injured in an automobile accident and was unable
    to serve. Another joined because there were no
    men of fighting age in her family. All of the
    women professed a desire to aid their country in
    time of need by "releasing a man for combat

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