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The University of the West Indies St. Augustine


The air-drying behaviour of Shark Fillets. Canadian Bio-Systems Engineering. ... Mapping Land Susceptibility on A Small Mountainous Tropical Island Using GIS. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The University of the West Indies St. Augustine

The University of the West IndiesSt. Augustine
  • Research Day 2006
  • Research in the Faculty of Engineering
  • By
  • Professor C. K. Sankat
  • Dean, Faculty of Engineering

  • The Mission of the Faculty of Engineering is to
    be the provider of a world quality education in
    Engineering, Geoinformatics and Geoscineces and
    research and development programmes in support of
    Caribbean Business, Industry and Infrastructure,
    with its graduates, staff and facilities being at
    the forefront in propelling growth, development
    and innovation in the Region.

  • This can be embodied in the growth and
    development of our human capital and their
    overall well being, in our physical capital, in
    the sustainable exploitation of our natural
    resources and the management of our environment
    and in our businesses and industries and the
    supply of goods and services.

  • Since its inception in 1961, the Faculty of
    Engineering of the UWI has been engaged in wealth
    creating activities for the English Speaking
    Caribbean through its
  • Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programmes in
  • - Engineering - Surveying
  • - Food Science - Geo Sciences

An Overview (continued)
  • Research, Development Outreach
  • - Food Agriculture
  • - Education
  • - Manufacturing Industry
  • - Construction Infrastructure
  • - Oil, Gas Petrochemicals
  • - Energy
  • - Water the Environment
  • - Urban Rural Planning
  • - The Future

  • The Faculty has produced approximately 5000
    Engineering, Surveying Geo Science Graduates,
    serving all of the English speaking Caribbean,
    from the Bahamas in the North to Guyana in the
    South. Our graduates have achieved distinctive
    leadership positions managing major facets of the
    wealth creating industries and infrastructure in
    petroleum, oil, gas petrochemicals, in food,
    beverage and agriculture, in bauxite, alumina,
    cement, iron steel, in housing, roads,
    buildings, in the provision of electricity,
    water, telecommunications, waste and
    environmental management, in entertainment, etc.

  • Our Research Development and Outreach efforts
    are concentrated in either joint or individual
    activities of Staff and Students. For example-
  • Research Development Work
  • There is a rich output of creative, innovative
    work particularly from our Undergraduate and
    Postgraduate students in the Faculty.
  • Undergraduate Student Projects approximately
  • M. Sc Projects - approximately 110 of these
  • M.Phil/Ph.D Theses - approximately 8 of these
  • Individual Staff Research

  • Transferring knowledge from the Faculty to
    Government, Businesses and Industry is as
  • important as fundamental research and this is
  • facilitated through
  • Individual staff linkages with Industry
  • The work of the Engineering Institute and the
  • The Business Development Office of the Campus
  • Specialised conferences and workshops
  • Our flagship publication, the West Indian Journal
    of Engineering

There is much more to be done here.
(No Transcript)
  • Food Production Processes Relishes,
  • Juices, Condiments
  • Food characterisation/ Food Quality
  • /Utilization
  • Food safety (the poultry industry, potable
  • water, etc.)

  • Akingbala, J.O., Oyewole, O.B., Uzo-Peters, P.O.,
    Karim, O.R. and Baccus-Taylor, G.S.H., (2005).
    Evaluating stored cassava quality in gari
    production. Journal of Agriculture, Food and
    Environment, Vol. 3, (1) 74-79
  • Dookeran, M. Baccus-Taylor, G.S.H., and
    Akingbala, J.O. (2004). Laboratory manufacture
    and comparison of Ginger (Zingiber officinale
    Roscoe) beer quality. Journal of Agriculture,
    Food and Environment, Vol. 2, (34) 29-33
  • Mujaffar, S. and Sankat, C.K. (2005). The
    air-drying behaviour of Shark Fillets. Canadian
    Bio-Systems Engineering. Vol. 47, (3), 11-21.

Examples of Food Agriculture (continued)
  • Sankat, C.K. and Castaigne, F. (2004), Foaming
    and Drying behaviour of Ripe Bananas.
    Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie
    (LWT), Vol. 37, 517-525.
  • Sankat, C.K. and Harrynanan, L. (2004).
    Refrigerated Storage of the Seeded Breadfruit
    (Breadnut) or Chataigne. West Indian Journal
    of Engineering, Vol. 27, (1), 1-9.
  • Sankat, C.K. and Maharaj, R. 2005. Effect of
    Shrink Wrapping and Controlled Atmospheres on the
    Post-Harvest Browning and Quality of Breadfruit.
    ASEAN Food Journal Vol. 13, (1), 29-40.

Examples of Food Agriculture (continued)
  • M. Forman-Thomas, G.S.H. Baccus-Taylor and J.
    Akingbala. Reformation, Production and Quality
    Evaluation of Soy and Worchestershire Sauces
    Using a Cold Process. Annual Institute of Food
    Technologists Conference and Exhibition, New
    Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 16-20, 2005
  • G.S.H. Baccus-Taylor. Food Safety Practices and
    the Caribbean. Regional Conference on Food
    Safety, organized by the Caribbean Industrial
    Research Institute (CARIRI) and WAITRO, Trinidad,
    May 17 18, 2005.
  • Mayaki, O.M., Akingbala, J. O., Gaccus-Taylor, G.
    S. and Thomas, S, (2003). Evaluation of
    breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) in traditional
    stiff porridge foods. Journal Of Food
    Agriculture And Environment 1, 54-59.

  • It is now generally recognised that development
    of a countrys human resources is essential to
    its prosperity and growth and to the effective
    use of its physical Capital
  • Developing new methods for learning, promoting
    wider access for Undergraduate Postgraduate
    education facilitating Computer Aided Education
    (CAE), quality etc.

Examples of Educational Technology Research
Development (continued)
  • Mallalieu, K. An E-learning strategy
    foundation block for a knowledge-based society.
    2005. CTU 8th Telecommunication Policy Seminar,
  • Gift, S.J.G. and Ward, R. (2005). E-Learning in
    a Wireless Classroom. July 2005. ACHEA 5th
    Annual Conference. Tobago.
  • Muddeen, F. and Gabriel K. The Development of a
    MATLAB Instrumentation Tutor. International
    Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 21, No. 3
  • Pun, K.F., Ellis, R.L.A. and Chan, L, (2005).
    Development of a Quality Manual for a Research
    and Educational Centre A Case Study, Asian
    Journal on Quality, Vol. 6, (2), 131 - 146.

Examples of Educational Technology Research
Development (continued)
  • Yam, R.C.M. and K.F. Pun, (2005). Enhancing
    quality teaching in operations management an
    action learning approach, The Asian Journal on
    Quality, Vol. 6, (1), 2005, 43- 57.
  • Shrivastava, G. S., (2004). Fluid Mechanics and
    the Undergraduate Civil Engineer, Journal of
    Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil
    Engineers, 130 (10) 953-956.

  • Replacing Linear Regression Models by Neuro Fuzzy
    Modelling using new tools to treat with large
    amounts of historical data and to deal with
    complexity so as to model, predict and manage the
    future. Application of the research work of Dr.
    A. Kong are in the financial sector (commercial
    stock markets), the industrial sector (building
    and rejuvenating our industries) and the
    infrastructural sector (roads, telecoms, etc.).

Managing the Future (Continued)
  • Kong, A. Fast Computing A fusion of
    Foundations, Methodologies and Applications.
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. Vol. 9, No. 6

Managing the Future (Continued)
  • Building future wealth through the investment in
    Research and Development, Innovation, Technology
    Transfer and Country Models which may be used to
    foster this are also being studied.
  • Sankat, C.K., Pun, K.F. and Motilal, C.B. 2005.
    The Technology Transfer Vehicle for
    Agro-Innovation Development in the Caribbean A
    Model. Acta Horticulturae (674), 343-350.

Managing the Future (Continued)
  • On managing the future for resource mapping
    disaster preparedness, better environmental
    management and protection, there is considerable
    on going research and development work.
  • Wilson, B. (2004). A note on the foraminiferal
    biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the San José
    Calcareous Silt Member (Manzanilla Formation) at
    the Forres Park Landfill, Central Trinidad.
    Caribbean Journal of Science (40), 388-391.

Examples of Managing the Future (Continued)
  • Baban, S.M.J., and Sant, K.J. (2005). Mapping
    Landslide Susceptibility for the Caribbean Island
    of Tobago using GIS, Multi-Criteria Evaluation
    techniques with a varied weighted approach.
    Caribbean J. of Earth Sciences. Vol. 38, 11-20.
  • Baban, S.M.J., and Sant, K.J. (2004). Mapping
    Landslide Susceptibility on A Small Mountainous
    Tropical Island Using GIS. Asian J.
    Geoinformatics. Vol. 5, (1), 33-42.
  • Baban, S.M.J., Ramlal, B., and Raid Al-Tahir.
    (2004). Issues in Information Poverty and
    Decision-Making in the Caribbean Region, A Way
    Forward. The West Indian Journal of Engineering.
    Vol. 27, (1), 28-37

  • Finding oil and gas
  • Seismic surveys - bp and others are using the
    latest seismic techniques using the detailed
    properties of the P and S waves and how they are
    modified through the earth's surface. As S waves
    do not travel through liquid (eg water) the
    receivers (hydrophones) have to be laid onto the
    seabed. This is costly but can be very

Oil, Gas And Petrochemicals (continued)
  • Hydrates
  • Hydrates are composed of water molecules but
    have gas contained in the space of the three
    dimensional lattice of the water molecules. The
    interactions make the gas plus water stable above
    the normal freezing point of water to form an ice
    like compound. Natural gases particularly methane
    can be trapped. Worldwide the quantities are
    believed to be huge but - no one knows exactly
    how much or worse - how best to extract this gas
    in a way that is inherently safe. Until this can
    be assured hydrate gas is a dream - however it
    could be the base of energy wealth.

Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals (Continued)
  • Heavy Oil
  • This is viscous dense black sticky oil - there is
    much in Trinidad but it is difficult to extract
    at economic rates. Enhanced oil recovery
    particularly heavy oil is being used to obtain
    some of this oil. new procedures are being
    conceived and eventually pilot tested on real
  • Processingoil and gas produced from the
    reservoirs are not very beneficial as they are.
    The oil and gas have to be processed into useful
    products. Refineries do this and separate oil
    into components and maybe crack or break the long
    molecules into shorter ones to make fuels or
    modify the molecules to be better fuels. Gas can
    be converted into LNG and sold as energy, or made
    into methanol or ammonia to be sold or made into
    fertilizer. Methanol can be used as a fuel or
    fuel additive or polymerized into plastics.

Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals (Continued)
  • Processing (continued)
  • There are many plastics and methanol is a useful
    starting point. The energy from gas can be used
    to make electricity or used as energy - eg to
    convert bauxite to alumina and subsequently into
    aluminium, or making iron from iron ore. The
    energy can also be used to make cement, glass
  • These basic products are the start of the wealth
    creating chain. From aluminium come car engine
    blocks or many other aluminium products.

Examples of Research and Development
  • Thomas, S and Dawe, R. A. Review of ways to
    transport natural gas energy from Countries which
    do not need gas fro domestic use. (2003). Energy
    (28) 1461-1477.
  • Kromah, M., Thomas, S. and Dawe, R. A.
    Transporting Natural Gas Around The Caribbean.
    (January 2003). West Indian Journal of
    Engineering Vol 25 (2) 18-32.
  • Roopa, I., Dawe, R.A. and Samuell, T. (2005). The
    effectiveness of downhole heating in heavy oil
    reservoirs the limiting conditions, Petroleum
    Science and Technology, (23), 681-692.
  • Wilson, B. (2004). A note on the foraminiferal
    biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the San José
    Calcareous Silt Member (Manzanilla Formation) at
    the Forres Park Landfill, Central Trinidad.
    Caribbean Journal of Science (40), 388-391.

Examples of Research and Development (continued)
  • Wilson, B. (2004). Benthonic Foraminiferal
    Paleocology across a Trangressive-Regressive
    Cycle in the Brasso Formation (Early-Middle
    Miocene) of Central Trinidad. Caribbean Journal
    of Science (40), 126-138.
  • Smith, J. V. (co-presenter), Grierson, L. and
    Caffyn, A. Gas to Products Research at UWI.
    (February 2005) Gas to Products From Research to
    Reality, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Shrivastava, G. S., (2004). Fluid Mechanics and
    the Undergraduate Civil Engineer, Journal of
    Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil
    Engineers, 130 (10) 953-956.

  • Recent developments of the World Trade
    Organisation and other international trade
    agreements have forced industries worldwide to
    face a new era of intense global competition
    (Dangayach and Deshmukh, 2001). Associated with
    rapid technological changes and product variety
    proliferation, this has led to an emerging
    scenario in which industries must continuously
    implement best practice management principles,
    strategies and technologies (Carpinetti et al.,
    2000). Manufacturing enterprises should define
    clear organisational objectives and compete
    effectively not only in the local context, but
    also in a wider regional and global marketplace.

Manufacture and Industry (continued)
  • It has been argued that the achievement of
    organisational objectives is realised through
  • the deployment of strategic decisions
  • the alignment of resources with strategy and
  • the enhancement of the ability to compete on
  • competitive criteria (e.g. quality, cost,
  • and flexibility).

Manufacture and Industry (continued)
  • Many recent studies have found that the
    formulation and execution of viable
    organisational strategies (Barnes 2002 Porter,
    1998 Segal-Horn, 1998) determine how a company
    competes in the marketplace.

Source Pun, Kit Fai. An empirical
investigation of strategy determinants and
choices in manufacturing enterprises. Journal of
Manufacturing Technology Management. Vol. 16
(3) 282-301
  • Pun. K.F., (2004). A Conceptual Synergy Model
    of Strategy Formulation for Manufacturing,
    International Journal of Operations and
    Production Management, Vol. 24, (9), 903 - 928.
  • Pun, K.F. and Chin, K.S. (2005). On-line
    Assessment of New Product Development
    Performance An approach, Total Quality
    Management and Business Excellence, Vol. 16, (2),
    157 169.

Managing Manufacturing for Competitiveness
  • Chowdary, B.V. and P. Praveen (2005). Formation
    of Virtual Manufacturing Cells by Incorporating
    Flexibility, Global Journal of Flexible Systems
    Management, Vol. 6, (1), 1 - 8.
  • Chowdary, B.V., J. Slomp, and N.C. Suresh (2005).
    Design of Virtual Manufacturing Cells A
    Mathematical Programming Approach, International
    Journal of Robotics and Computer Integrated
    Manufacturing, Vol. 21, (3), 273 - 288.

  • The creation of small, medium and large
    manufacturing and production industries. The
    development and improvement of software and the
    management of support tools. The application of
    efficient performance and quality measurement
    systems in such enterprises in the Region are
    priorities for the Faculty.

Examples of Manufacturing Technologies
  • Lewis, W.G., K.F. Pun and T.R.M. Lalla (2004). A
    Generative Research Methodology for TQM
    implementation in Small and Medium-sized
    Manufacturing enterprises. The Asian Journal on
    Quality, Vol 5, (2), 89 - 105.
  • Ramesh, K., Lewis, W.G. (2005). Nanotechnology
    advances around the World and its relevance to
    the Caricom Region. West Indian Journal of
    Engineering, Vol. 28, (1), 24 - 35.

  • One of the most dynamic and responsive
    industrial sectors is that of construction. It
    is one of the most important providers of
    employment, its output (as capital formation) is
    very economically significant, it has strong
    backward and forward linkages with other
    industries (which result in high, economic
    multipliers and make it a particularly powerful
    tool for economic manipulation), and, in
    addition, its output is highly visible, which
    gives it added political appeal. Given this
    profile, it is important for policy-makers to
    know how the construction sector responds to
    changes in other aspects of the economy,
    particularly those that are relatively easy to

Source Lewis, T. M. (2005) The Economics of
the Construction Sector of Trinidad
Tobago. West Indian Journal of Engineering.
Vol. 28. (1) 13-23.
Examples of Research Development in the
Construction Sector
  • Labour issues in the Construction Sector the
    competitiveness of the Construction Sector in the
    Caribbean development of a construction cost
    database comparisons of the costs of
    constructions in different Caribbean Countries.

Examples of Research Development in the
Construction Sector (continued)
  • Lewis, T.M. (2005). Public procurement and
    corruption in Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of
    Construction Procurement, Vol. 10, (1), 4-15.
  • Lewis, T.M. (2005). The Demand for Labour in
    Construction. Proceedings, CIB Symposium,
    COMBINING FORCES Advancing Facilities
    Management and Construction through Innovation,
    June 13-16, Helsinki.

Examples of Research Development in the
Construction Sector (continued)
  • Lewis, T.M. (2005). The Economics of the
    Construction Sector of Trinidad and Tobago. West
    Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 28, (1),
  • Lewis, T.M. and Imbert, C.A.C. (2005). Policy
    Imperatives for International Trade in
    Construction Services in the Caribbean Community.
    West Indian Journal of Engineering,

  • Examples
  • Sharma, A. K. and Sirju, K., (2004). Strength and
    Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Columns,
    Proceedings of International Conference on
    Advances in Concrete and Construction, December
    2004, Hyderabad, India, 139-149 pages.
  • Clarke, R. P. and Sharma, A.K., (2004) Hysteretic
    Behaviour of Ferrocement-Retrofitted Clay Tiles
    Walls, American Concrete Institute (ACI)
    Structural Journal Vol. 101, No. 3, 387-394.
  • Sharma, A.K., (2005). Testing of repaired
    reinforced concrete beams, Proceedings of Third
    International Conference on Construction
    Materials Performance, Innovations and
    Structural Implications, ConMat05, Vancouver,

Supporting Construction Through Materials
Technology (Continued)
  • Examples
  • Ekwue, E. I., Stone, R. J., Maharaj, V. V., and
    Bhagwat D. (2005). Thermal Conductivity and
    Diffusivity of Four (4) Trinidadian Soils as
    affected by Peat Content. Transactions of the
    American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Vol.
    48 (5). 1803-1815.
  • Manohar, K., Ramlakhan, D. and Kochhar, G.S.
    (2005). Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Wood
    by means of a Water-Activated Guarded-Hot-Plate
    Apparatus, West Indian Journal of Engineering,
    Vol. 28, (1), 61 - 68.
  • Manohar, K., Ramroop, K and Kochhar, G.S. (2005).
    Thermal Conductivity of Trinidad - Guanapo Sharp
    Sand, West Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol.
    27, (2),18 - 26.

  • In most developing countries, planning was
    initially concerned with economic growth. Upon
    gaining political independence, post-colonial
    countries set about addressing the unmet backlog
    of physical and social infrastructure problems,
    low rates of economic growth, and poverty. Since
    the post-independence era, development in
    non-industrialized countries has undergone
    significant changes in both scope and approach
    and has arisen from shifts in international
    agency policies as well as from local factors.
    These transformations are reflected in issues
    such as the provision of infrastructure, of which
    water supply is a prime example.

Source Mycoo, Michelle. (2005). Shifting
Paradigms in Water Provisioning Policies A
Trinidad Case Study. Water Resources
Development. Vol. 21, (3) 509-523
Examples of Water and the Environment
  • Shrivastava, G. S., (2005). Watershed Management
    for Environmental Quality and Food Security,
    Water Encyclopedia Surface and Agricultural
    Water, John Wiley Sons, New York, pg. 479.
  • Mycoo, Michelle (2005). Utility Performance and
    Consumer Willingness to Pay for Water in the
    1990s Case Study of Trinidad, West Indian
    Journal of Engineering, Vol. 27, (2), 45-53.
  • Baban, S.M.J., and Sant, K.J. (2004). Mapping
    Landslide Susceptibility on A Small Mountainous
    Tropical Island Using GIS. Asian J.
    Geoinformatics. Vol. 5, (1), 33-42.

  • Improved circuitry for a wide variety of
    industrial applications computers,
    communication equipment, measurement systems etc.
    Instrumentation designers and manufactures could
    utilise these circuits in their products and
  • Examples
  • Gift, S.J.G., Maundy, B., and Aronhime, P.
    (2004). New Current Feedback Amplifier
    Configuration. International Journal of
    Electronics. Vol. 91 (11), 675-684.

Examples of Instrumentation (continued)
  • Gift, S.J.G. and Maundy, B., (2004).
    High-Performance Active Bandpass Filter Using
    Current Feedback Amplifiers. International
    Journal of Electronics. Vol. 91, (10), 563-570.
  • Gift, S.J.G. (2005). The Operational Conveyor and
    its Application in an Accurate Current Amplifier
    with Gain-Independent Bandwidth. International
    Journal of Electronics. Vol. 92, (1), 33-47.

Instrumentation and Controls (continued)
  • Maximising the profitability of our process
    industries through for example raising product
    throughput and readucing energy consumption are
    important for competitiveness. Research and
    development work focusses on developing concrete
    guidelines for engineers to tune and choose the
    appropriate controllers for our process and food

Examples of Controls
  • Foley, M.W., Julien, R. H., and Copeland, B.
    (2005). A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning
    Methods. The Canadian Journal of Chemical
    Engineering. Vol. 83 (4) 712-722.
  • Riverol, C. and Pilipovik, V. (2005). Tuning a
    space-time scalable PI controller using thermal
    parameters. Heat and Mass Transfer Journal, Vol.
    41, (5), 465-470.
  • Foley, M.W., Ramharack, N.R. and Copeland, B.
    (2005). Comparison of PIC Controller Tuning
    Methods. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
    Research. Vol. 44 (17), 6741-6750.

  • Issues of land tenure and ownership, land use
    policy, urban and rural settlements, squatting
    and urban squalor are matters that are reflective
    of the wealth of nations. Settlements, towns and
    cities with their associated transportation
    systems in developed societies are characterised
    by the attention to details in their planning and
    growth and can serve as benchmarks for developing
    societies. Current research in the Faculty
    addresses some of these concerns.

Examples of Land Tenure Use, Urban Rural
  • Mohammed, A., and Balbosa-Phillip, A. (2005).
    Transportation in Port of Spain Socio-Spatial
    Segregation and Access to Downtown, in Bussiere,
    Y., (ed) Urban Transportation in Latin America
    and the Caribbean, FLASCO, Costa Rica. 167-201.
  • Mohammed, A., (2004). Is there a Unique
    Caribbean Capital City Form? The Caribbean
    Architect, Vol. 3, (2), 86-87.
  • Mycoo, M. (2005). Minimising Foreign Control of
    Land A Case Study of St. Lucia, Land Use Policy.
    Elsevier, UK Vol. 22, (4) 345-357
  • Griffith-Charles, C. (2004). Trinidad We are
    not Squatters, We are Settlers in R. Home and H.
    Lim (eds) Demystifying the Mystery of Capital
    Land Tenure and Poverty in Africa and the
    Caribbean. London Glasshouse Press 99-120.

  • Understanding the workings of our unique national
    instrument, the steelpan, is finally getting
    focussed attention in the Faculty. Understanding
    the acoustics of the pan, amplification
    techniques, as well as methods for its
    manufacture are all under investigation.
  • Examples of current research are
  • Copeland, B., Morrison, A., Rossing, T. (2005).
    Sound Radiation from Caribbean Steelpans.
    Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.
    Vol. 117, No 1, 375-383.
  • Copeland, B. (2004). Steelpan Technology
    Research. Its implications on strategies for
    developing a local innovation culture. UWI/bpTT
    Distinguished Lecture Series. Trinidad

  • There is much happening in Research and
    Development in the Faculty of Engineering and in
    particular work that can lead to wealth
    production. This effort of staff and students
    needs to be intensified and sustained. The most
    important challenge however, is for our Research
    Development, like that of many other Faculties
    of the UWI, to be impacting on our societies.
    This can be demonstrated by new products,
    processes, and systems, or through public
    policies for example.

Conclusion (continued)
  • The key to achieving this may be to have very
    strong stakeholder involvement in our research,
    manifested by financial, technical and
    entrepreneurial support. This may facilitate
    rapid technological transfer, from University to
    Industry in particular. Building a forward
    looking reward system, for all involved,
    internally at the UWI, and nationally, will
    propel this change.

Conclusion (continued)
  • However we are attempting to create a change of
    values entrenched in our societies. Building more
    creative, innovative, entrepreneurial societies
    where indigenous wealth creation is rooted, will
    take some time. However do we have any options?

  • I wish to thank my colleagues in the Faculty for
    supporting this effort and in particular
    Professor J. Akingbala and Dr. B. Ramlal for
    leading the team and also Professor K. F. Pun,
    Dr. W. G. Lewis, Dr. A. Kong, Dr. G. Shrivastava
    and Dr. A. C. Pilgrim for their contributions.