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Nutrition:

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desire to eat.associated with hunger....more psychological. Nutrition. Science of food ... dehydration can result within hours and can be fatal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nutrition:


1
Chapter 7
  • Nutrition
  • Eating For Optimal Health

2
Many Dietary Choices
  • Exotic and foreign foods
  • dietary supplements
  • artificial sweeteners/flavors
  • no-fat, low-fat artificial fats
  • cholesterol free, high protein, high-
    carbohydrate low calorie

3
Healthy Eating
  • Hunger..a physiological need to eat
  • Energy requirement in todays society
  • work, school, history, preference
  • cultural preferences for FOOD
  • economic status
  • food security issues
  • Appetite desire to eat..associated with
    hunger.more psychological..

4
Nutrition
  • Science of food
  • relationship between physiological function and
    essential elements in food
  • Nutrients
  • proteins,carbohydrates (CHO), fats, vitamins,
    minerals Water (H2O)

5
Diets of Affluence
  • high fat calories
  • red meat / potatoes/ rich deserts
  • recent trends..more white meats and more fruits
    and vegetables
  • BUT!!!!! Heart disease, cancer, hypertension,
    cirrhosis of the liver, tooth decay and chronic
    obesity.
  • ..still major health risks!
  • A preoccupation of food
  • eating too much of the wrong foods
  • disordered eating

6
Responsible Eating Changing Old Habits
  • Consume more calories then we need
  • calorie - a measurement of energy potential in
    food
  • CHO 4 Kcal/g
  • FAT 9 Kcal/g
  • PROTEIN 4 Kcal/g

7
Nutrition
  • PROCESS
  • nutrients are absorbed from the
  • small intestine into bloodstream
  • for use by cells
  • metabolized into usable
  • compounds
  • for building/repair/muscular
  • work.

8
NUTRITION IS IMPORTANTFOR
  • energy production for muscular work growth and
    synthesis of body materials
  • providing materials for tissue maintenance
  • regulation of bodily processes

9
The Digestive Process
  • Provides the body with chemicals for energy and
    body maintenance
  • essential nutrients delivered via food intake
  • broken down to be absorbed and delivered to cells
    3,000,000,000,000

10
The Process.
  • Start Mouth - salivary glands (saliva) -
    prepares food / moistens / breakdown
  • Esophagus Tube 20 to 25cm - connects mouth to
    stomach
  • Stomach HCL acid food enzymes mixture
    mucus lines stomach for protection
  • Small Intestines 8 meters long
  • 3 parts - duodenum, jejunum ileum
  • secretes digestive enzymes liver pancreas
    (Fats, Proteins CHO)

11
Nutrients are Absorbed Into Blood
  • The Liver
  • determines destination - stored, sent to cells,
    organs or excreted
  • The Large Intestine
  • solid wastes (fiber, water,salts etc)

12
The Calorie
  • Calorie
  • a unit for measuring the energy of food -
    1 calorie produces enough energy to raise the
    temperature of 1g of water 1 degree
  • caloric measurements are made in thousands of
    calories therefore the term calories is
    interchangeable with Kilocalories ( kcal.)

13
RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance)
  • the levels of nutrient intake that is necessary
    for the maintenance of good nutrition of
    practically all healthy persons.

14
Factors causing variations in food
requirements
  • Age
  • sex
  • physical size
  • activity level
  • pregnancy
  • convalescence

15
Energy Balance
  • Isocaloric Balance
  • Positive Balance
  • Negative Balance

16
CARBOHYDRATES (CHOs)
  • compound consisting of carbon,
  • hydrogen and oxygen (C6H12O6)
  • most efficient energy source both immediate and
    time released
  • average Canadian diet has 46 kcal from CHO
  • energy yield 4 Kcal/g.

17
Main function.. CHOs
  • energy
  • also rich in vitamins, minerals, and water.
  • when CHO enters the body, it is converted to
    glucose, the energy source for cells (very
    important for nervous system and brain).

18
Categories of Carbohydrates
  • SIMPLE c-c-c-c-c-c
  • COMPLEX CHO c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c- c
    -c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c-c

19
Simple Sugars
  • composed of one or two simple sugar units
    (fructose, glucose and galactose)
  • found mainly in fruitsprovide immediate energy

20
Two forms of simple sugar
  • Monosaccharides
  • consist of one molecule of sugar - the structural
    unit of simple CHO (fructose, galactose, and
    glucose).

21
Disaccharide
  • combination of Monosaccharides includes sucrose,
    which is table sugar - combination of 1 fructose
    plus 1 glucose molecule Lactose (milk products)
    1 glucose plus 1 galactose molecule
  • Maltose 2 glucose molecules

22
PROCESSED SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN CANADA
  • Mean consumption for each Canadian over 15 years
    150 lbs. of sugar per year - 75 in form of
    processed foods and beverages
  • This represents more than 20-25 of caloric
    intake
  • 33 teaspoons of sugar per day 6 stalks of sugar
    cane
  • tooth decay

23
DISADVANTAGES OF HIGH SUGAR INTAKE
  • Processed sugars - poor CHO - contain no other
    nutrients i.e. no vitamins and minerals
  • EMPTY CALORIES
  • results in a situation where 100 of nutrients
    must be obtained from 75 of calories in the
    diet.

24
COMPLEX CHO (polysaccharides)
  • composed of three or more simple sugars bonded
    together
  • found in grains, fruits, stems, roots, and leaves
    of vegetables
  • provide longer lasting energy

25
Three Types of CHO
  • Starches
  • plant source - whole grain foods, rice,
  • potatoes
  • Fiber (Cellulose)
  • not digested by enzymes in small intestine
  • insoluble speeds movement of foods
  • through digestive tract, increases fecal bulk
  • and maintains regularity of bowel
  • movement

26
CHO...
  • Soluble fiber digested in
  • the large intestine (fruits,
  • veggies oat bran,dried
  • beans)
  • decreases blood cholesterol
  • and cardiovascular disease
  • Controls pacing of
  • absorption of CHO into
  • bloodstream.
  • Prevents dramatic swings
  • in blood sugar levels

27
Canadians Should double their intake of fiber,
bulk, roughage20 to 30 grams
  • Protection against
  • colon/rectal cancer
  • breast cancer
  • constipation
  • diverticulosis
  • heart disease
  • diabetes
  • obesity

28
Eat Less Processed Food to Increase Fiber Intake
  • CARCINOGENS - ?
  • skins of fruits veggies
  • fiber from food rather
  • than pills/powder
  • spread out fiber intake
  • drink plenty of liquids

29
Im soooo hungry I could eat a Vegetable!
30
EATING TOO MUCH CHO !CAN IT BE TRANSFORMED INTO
FAT?
  • Glycogen
  • glucose molecules
  • bonded together
  • stored mainly in liver and
  • muscle
  • relatively fast energy for
  • muscles
  • EATING TOO MUCH CHO CAN BE TRANSFORMED
    INTO FAT

31
FATS
  • Many negative associations with fat
  • essential for insulation and maintenance
  • of body temperature
  • padding
  • healthy skin and hair
  • proper cell function
  • carrying of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E,
  • K to cells
  • add flavor and texture to our food
  • high-energy yield 9 Kcal/g

32
Two major types Triglycerides and Steroids
  • 95 of total fat in body
  • excess Kcal are converted to Triglycerides and
    stored in adipose tissue (fat cells)
  • each triglyceride is composed of three fatty acid
    molecules attached to one glycerol molecule
  • fatty acids consist of a chain of hydrogen (H)
    and carbon (C) atoms, with a few oxygen (O) atoms

33
Triglycerides
  • some Triglycerides are a major
  • concern because of the type of
  • fatty acid they contain...
  • fatty acids can be saturated or
  • unsaturated (monounsaturated
  • or polyunsaturated)

34
SATURATED FATS
  • chains containing the maximum number of H atoms
  • solid at room temperature - butter, lard etc.,
    usually animal fat
  • associated with increased cholesterol levels.

35
UNSATURATED
  • chains able to hold more H atoms
  • plant fats, usually liquid at room
  • temperature
  • if room for only 1 H atom
  • monounsaturated
  • if room for more than 1 H atom
  • polyunsaturated
  • both mono- and polyunsaturated
  • appear to lower total blood
  • cholesterol

36
Steroids (cholesterol)
  • essential in formation of
  • Vitamin D
  • sex hormones (androgen, estrogen and
    progesterone)
  • protects nerve fibers

37
Lipoproteins
  • transport mechanism for cholesterol in blood
  • three types of lipoproteins
  • HDL
  • LDL
  • VLDL

38
HDL (High Density Lipoproteins)
  • transports circulating cholesterol from blood to
    liver for metabolism and elimination from body
  • the "good" cholesterol
  • help protect against coronary artery disease

39
LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins) and VLDL (Very Low
Density Lipoproteins)
  • transport cholesterol from digestive tract to
    blood - "bad" cholesterol
  • associated with an increase risk of coronary
    artery disease

Exercise HDL, LDL VLDL, ratio of LDL/HDL
40
PROTEINS
  • carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and
    nitrogen (N)
  • essential for growth, maintenance, and regulation
    of body tissues and processes
  • all living organisms contain protein
  • major component of all cells
  • help build muscle, bone, skin, and blood

41
Proteins
  • major constituent of antibodies, essential part
    of immune system
  • aid in formation of hormones such as insulin and
    thyroxin, which regulate metabolism
  • essential for enzyme formation
  • high energy yield 4 Kcal/g
  • when CHO or Fat are insufficient, protein can be
    used as an energy source at expense of tissue
    growth

42
Proteins
  • extra protein ingested will be broken down to be
    used as calories or converted into body fat
  • proteins are formed from varying combinations of
    20 (21, 22 or 23) amino acids
  • amino acids are linked together in a string and
    form proteins
  • amino acids are linked in various combinations to
    form various types of proteins

43
Proteins
  • body makes all but 8 amino acids - called
    essential amino acids must come from diet (milk
    products, poultry, fish)
  • animal protein contains significant amounts of 8
    essential amino acids, but also contain saturated
    fat and cholesterol
  • any food containing all 8 essential amino acids
    is known as complete protein

44
Proteins
  • no source of vegetables or cereal protein
    provides all 8 essential amino acids
  • 3 combinations of incomplete protein which make
    complete protein
  • 1. grains and legumes
  • 2. grains and milk products
  • 3. seeds and legumes

45
Protein
  • Ways to ensure adequate protein
  • intake...
  • eat a varied diet containing all three nutrients
    proteins, carbohydrates and fat if insufficient
    kcal from carbohydrates and fat body uses
    proteins.
  • AND How Much Protein Should I
  • Eat??????

46
Are YOU Eating Enough protein?
Years Sex protein (g/kg body
wt) 16-18 M 0.88 F 0.81 gt19 M 0.82 F 0.74 Ad
ult male of 70 kg (above 19 years) should eat 70
X 0.82 or 57.4 g/day 2 glasses of milk 2 eggs 4
ounces of meat Canadians eat approximately 90
g/day 2 X RDA excess stored as fat or used as
energy
Athletes 1.5 g/kg body wt
47
VITAMINS, MINERALS, WATER
  • VITAMINS
  • complex organic substances found in food, or
    chemically made, that are essential in small
    amounts for bodily processes
  • no difference found in food or chemically made
  • do not provide energy but play a role in
    metabolism
  • deficiency diseases result when inadequate
    amounts are consumed

48
Grouped According to Solubility
  • Water Soluble
  • not stored in the body,
  • need to be replaced daily
  • These are.
  • B-group and Vitamin C

49
Fat Soluble Vitamins.
  • stored in the body and
  • can reach toxic levels if
  • consumed in megadoses
  • (many times the RNI)
  • Recommended Nutrient
  • Intake
  • Vitamins A, D, E, K
  • can act as antioxidants
  • may slow down the
  • destruction of cells

50
MINERALS
  • inorganic elements essential
  • for body function/regulation
  • components of hormones
  • /enzymes
  • function with vitamin
  • absorption
  • their potency can be
  • destroyed by various means
  • - heat, baking soda, etc.

51
Two Groups of Minerals
  • Macro-minerals lt 5 grams
  • required in relatively large
  • amounts - (calcium,
  • magnesium, sodium,
  • potassium, phosphorus,
  • sulfur,chlorine)
  • Trace minerals gt 5 grams
  • required in small amounts
  • (iron, zinc, manganese,
  • copper,iodine, colbolt)

52
WATER
  • most important nutrient of all
  • cannot survive for more than a few days without
    water, but can without other foods
  • dehydration can result within hours and can be
    fatal
  • water carries nutrients to cells, removes waste,
    and regulates body temperature
  • about two-thirds of body mass is water

53
H2O and You
  • females have about 50 as water and males 60,
    due to storage of water in active tissue
  • - males have greater muscle mass
  • requirements for water intake daily vary - 6 to
    10 cups - depending on environment and activity
    levels

54
H2O
  • water lost through urination, perspiration,
    breathing
  • 5 loss could result in fatigue, loss of
    concentration physical ability
  • 15 loss could result in death

55
OPTIMAL NUTRITION THROUGH FOOD CHOICES
  • proportion of CHO, protein and fat
  • is essential. Current percentage of
  • calories from different nutrients is,
  • for the average Canadian, not in
  • the appropriate "balance
  • basic dietary guidelines should be
  • considered
  • fat lt30
  • protein about 12
  • CHO about 58

56
A Balanced Diet.. HOW?
  • one way to achieve balanced diet is to consider
    the number of daily servings of each of the four
    basic food groups
  • lifestyle of the average college student today
    and the impact of "fast foods".
  • fast foods are excessively high in sodium, fat,
    simple CHO and calories

57
Normal Eating vs. A Diet
  • potential for the development of certain problems
  • too much sodium - relates to water retention
    high blood pressure
  • inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals
  • excess caloric intake, etc.

58
NUTRITION AND THE CONSUMER
  • Be aware of food additives
  • - used to
  • maintain or enhance
  • nutritional value
  • help in processing or preparation
  • maintain freshness
  • make food more appealing

59
Labeling Usually two kinds of info
  • nutritional info. per serving i.e. serving size,
    calories per serving protein, fat and CHO per
    serving
  • percentage of RDA.

60
VEGETARIANS
  • obtain majority of nutrients from plant sources
  • may be vegetarian vegetables legumes only
  • lacto-vegetarian eat vegetables legumes plus
    milk products
  • lacto-ovo-vegetarian vegetables legumes, milk
    plus eggs
  • each of above presents different challenge in
    terms of receiving all the RDA of nutrients
    required

61
VEGETARIANS.
  • specifically vitamins D, B12 and riboflavin can
    be a problem. Also, zinc, calcium and iron may
    be difficult to include
  • lack of calories for children vegetarians can be
    a problem

62
ATHLETES
  • optimal performance sound nutritional status
  • information and misinformation relates to
    athletic nutrition
  • protein needs - usually too much is consumed in
    the mistaken belief that
  • since muscles are made of protein then high
    protein diets will help build muscle

63
Athletes
  • CHO - energy for performance is essential.
    Should be primarily coming from complex CHO
  • 60-70 CHO, 15 protein, 25-30 fat
  • important to replenish within two hours for
    optimal glycogen synthesis

64
STRESS
  • generally agreed that diet is related to stress.
    Foods can produce stress response e.g. caffeine
    pseudo-stressors
  • Stress can impact to deplete certain nutrients,
    such as Vitamin C
  • poor nutrition can result in greater
    susceptibility to the effects of stress

65
DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES
  • Nutritional needs change throughout the life span
  • importance of adequate diet for pregnant women
  • requirements for infants children
  • reduction in caloric need with increasing age
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