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21st Century Perspectives: Leadership for Practitioners

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Title: 21st Century Perspectives: Leadership for Practitioners


1
21st Century Perspectives Leadership for
Practitioners
  • Peter Evans
  • Manager, Engagement Program Management Office
    (EPMO), HP Services, South Pacific and Australia
  • peter.evans_at_hp.com , Ph 0419 383 776
  • 25 September 2007

2
Topics
  • Context
  • What is Management?
  • What is Leadership? Good leadership?
  • Leadership and the Victoria Police Force
  • What they do, how they do it and who they lead
  • Two Managerial Models for Leadership
  • How Hewlett-Packard defines leadership
  • How ISR defines leadership
  • Conclusions

3
Topics
  • Context
  • What is Management?
  • What is Leadership? Good leadership?
  • Leadership and the Victoria Police Force
  • What they do, how they do it and who they lead
  • Two Managerial Models for Leadership
  • How Hewlett-Packard defines leadership
  • How ISR defines leadership
  • Conclusions

4
Classical definitions management and leadership
  • Management is achieving results through others
  • Managers rely on the efforts of other people and
    must induce them to expend effort
  • Scientific management theories of the 20th
    century focused on control, order and hierarchy
  • 21st century management theories are emphasising
    empowerment, values and flexibility
  • Leadership is the process of influencing others
    to achieve organisational goals.
  • Leadership power can come from
  • Position (i.e., formal power as manager)
  • Expertise / knowledge
  • Respect or affection
  • The ability to influence pay, promotion or
    recognition
  • The ability to punish

5
Some Classical Leadership Models
  • Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid
  • Fiedlers contingency model
  • Hershey Blanchards situational leadership
    theory
  • Path-goal theory
  • Spreier, Fontaine Malloys model

6
Successful Leaders …
  • Clarify what is important to them, especially
    their own values and beliefs
  • Adopt the right leadership style for the
    situation, organisation staff
  • Get their right balance between focus on task and
    on people
  • Have functional expertise, change management
    skills local knowledge
  • Demonstrate the courage to do what is right
    despite personal risk or discomfort
  • Are assertive … with respect
  • Say no when necessary … but predictably and
    consistently
  • Take well-reasoned stands to resolve important
    issues
  • Lead others to follow through on difficult
    actions or initiatives
  • Generate breakthroughs by championing new ideas
    and initiatives
  • Are willing to make bold yet well-reasoned moves
  • Demonstrate inspiring leadership and courage such
    that others want and choose to follow

Source Successful Managers Handbook, 7th
Edition - Personnel Decisions International
ePredix, Minneapolis 2004, pages 516-517,
558-568 (Chapter 25), 603-604
7
Leaders and Followers
  • Leaders cannot lead unless others are willing to
    follow or be involved. In most organisations
    people will not follow someone just because he or
    she has the title of leader or manager. People
    will follow when they share the vision, it makes
    sense, and they trust a leader who is passionate
    about the vision.

Source Successful Managers Handbook, 7th
Edition - Personnel Decisions International
ePredix, Minneapolis 2004, page 619
8
Topics
  • Context
  • What is Management?
  • What is Leadership? Good leadership?
  • Leadership and the Victoria Police Force
  • What they do, how they do it and who they lead
  • Two Managerial Models for Leadership
  • How Hewlett-Packard defines leadership
  • How ISR defines leadership
  • Conclusions

9
Management Tasks
  • Implement strategy, policy and position
  • Manage area of responsibility within corporate
    policy framework
  • Improve service delivery
  • Seek to contribute collaboratively to corporate
    goals and objectives
  • Leadership and development of staff
  • Communicate strategy, policy and position

Source Victoria Police Organisation Chart
10
Leadership Outcomes
  • Objective setting
  • Team harmony
  • Clear thinking and better decision making
  • Positive performance management
  • Proactive coaching and mentoring
  • Resolving conflict constructively
  • Adapting to change positively
  • Safer workplaces
  • Lower absenteeism
  • Enhanced morale
  • Strengthened moral code and ethics
  • A motivated, inspired and unified team

Source Victoria Police Leadership Programs
Brochure (for Airlie Leadership Development
Centre)
11
Victoria Police What they do
  • Victoria Police contributes to a high quality of
    life for individuals in the community by ensuring
    a safe and secure society and underpins the
    economic, social and cultural wellbeing of
    Victoria. Since Victoria Police first began
    providing police services in 1853, its role has
    expanded from one focused primarily on law
    enforcement, to one of community assistance,
    guidance and leadership. Only about 20 of police
    work is directly related to fighting crime. The
    larger part of our work relates to general
    policing and assisting the community. Our mission
    is to provide a safe, secure and orderly society
    by serving the community and the law.
  • (Victoria Police web-site About Victoria Police
    page, http//www.police.vic.gov.au/content.asp?Doc
    ument_ID3)

12
Victoria Police What they do
  • Their core responsibilities include targeting
    community needs and issues in the following
    high-profile areas
  • Traffic and transport
  • Community and family
  • Victoria Police seeks to actively promote and
    maintain harmonious relationships with Victoria's
    diverse community.  Those relationships are based
    on mutual respect, tolerance and trust.
  • Police work with different sectors of the
    community such as families, children, youth and
    multicultural communities to address particular
    issues.
  • The programs and activities that focus on
    community and family issues are a very important
    part of police work. They help to ensure that
    people feel safe in going about their daily
    activities.
  • Crime prevention
  • Victoria Police works together with local
    community and businesses to identify crime and
    safety issues and establish effective solutions.
  • Forensic services
  • (Source Victoria Police web-site Our Focus
    page, http//www.police.vic.gov.au/content.asp?Doc
    ument_ID9 http//www.police.vic.gov.au/content.a
    sp?Document_ID270)

13
Victoria Police How they do it
  • … intelligent, confident, community, partnership
  • (Victoria Police, The Way Ahead Strategic Plan
    2003-2008 and Victoria Police web-site banner)
  • Intelligent and confident policing focused on the
    development of partnerships and a community
    capacity that empowers individuals to build a
    safer Victoria
  • (Chief Commissioners Message in Victoria Police,
    The Way Ahead Strategic Plan 2003-2008, page 3
    and Front cover, Victoria Police 2004-2005
    Report)
  • Confident policing encourages innovation and
    creative problem-solving. It is about a people
    centred and enabling management style that aims
    to create police as community leaders who are
    capable, ethical and high performing
  • (Victoria Police, The Way Ahead Strategic Plan
    2003-2008, page 7)
  • Partnership policing is about everyone not just
    the police being responsible for tackling the
    problems that affect community safety. It also
    promotes community environment.
  • (Victoria Police, The Way Ahead Strategic Plan
    2003-2008, page 17)

14
Victoria Police Who they serve and lead
  • Outcomes
  • Reduced Crime Rate
  • Reduced Road Toll and Road Trauma
  • High Levels of Customer Satisfaction
  • High Levels of Community Perceptions of Safety
  • Stakeholders
  • Staff
  • Community
  • Road Users
  • Court System
  • Politicians
  • Media
  • Victims of Crime
  • Perpetrators of Crime

A Leadership Role in Developing Friendly,
Safe, Caring and Confident Communities
Source Victoria Police Measuring Our
Performance, 2006-07
15
Topics
  • Context
  • What is Management?
  • What is Leadership? Good leadership?
  • Leadership and the Victoria Police Force
  • What they do, how they do it and who they lead
  • Two Managerial Models for Leadership
  • How Hewlett-Packard defines leadership
  • How ISR defines leadership
  • Conclusions

16
HPs Leadership Framework An interdependent system
Strategy
  • Our corporate objectives
  • Our corporate strategy
  • Our value proposition

Values and behavior
Structure and processes
  • Our shared values
  • Our standards of conduct
  • Our operating model

Metrics, results and rewards
  • Our balanced scorecard

17
ISRs Organisational Leadership Effectiveness
Framework
Effective leaders demonstrate certain behaviours
in a particular sequence
Source ISR Seminar May 2004, The Key Elements
that Differentiate Financially High Performing
Organisations
18
ISRs Framework of Organisational Leadership
Effectiveness The focus of different levels and
the need for cascaded leadership
A companys leadership reaches well beyond a few
good men and women at the top. It typically
includes the 3 to 5 of employees throughout the
organisation who can deliver breakthroughs in
performance. (Tsun-yan Hsieh and Sara Yik,
Leadership as the starting point of strategy,
The McKinsey Quarterly, 2005 No. 1, p67)
19
ISR As Leadership is Critical, What Do Effective
Leaders Do?
  • Demonstrate certain behaviours (what) at the
    right time (when) and in a specific sequence
    (how).
  • Bring their followers along with them. Leaders
    behaviour encourages employees to adopt a view of
    the world similar to their leaders.
  • Ensure alignment with one another on the
    strategy.
  • Understand and act on the cultural drivers that
    best impact the execution of the strategic
    priorities.
  • Leaders pull the cultural drivers to create
    the appropriate operating environment that
    engenders employee engagement.

20
Topics
  • Context
  • What is Management?
  • What is Leadership? Good leadership?
  • Leadership and the Victoria Police Force
  • What they do, how they do it and who they lead
  • Two Managerial Models for Leadership
  • How Hewlett-Packard defines leadership
  • How ISR defines leadership
  • Conclusions

21
  • When mores are sufficient, laws are unnecessary
    when mores are insufficient, laws are
    unenforceable.
  • Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), Sociologist

22
  • Great things can happen when you dont care who
    gets the credit. 
  • Mark Twain

23
  • It is wonderful when the people believe in the
    leader…
  • It is more wonderful when the leader believes in
    the people

24
  • Good leaders
  • - lead themselves
  • - lead others
  • - lead context
  • - lead change
  • …Tsun-yan Hsieh and Sara Yik (McKinsey Quarterly)

25
  • …Good leaders are one the people fear and hate.
  • Great leaders, the people honour and praise.
  • Greatest leaders, the people do not notice their
    existence.
  • Lead people by walking beside them..
  • And when the best leader's work is done, the
    people say,
  • "We did it ourselves.
  • …Old Chinese philosophy

26
  • We are the peoples police. We are here to serve.
    We serve our communities, we serve our citizens,
    we serve our residents, and we serve our
    children.
  • The laws we enforce and how we enforce them are
    the peoples laws. The peace we keep isnt just
    the peace of the few, or the rich, or the famous,
    or the powerful - we keep the peoples peace -
    all the peoples peace.
  • …Christine Nixon, Chief Commissioners
    Message Victoria Police, Business Plan 2006/07

27
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28
Topics
  • Backup
  • HPs Shared Values
  • HPs Corporate Objectives
  • HPs Standards of Conduct

29
HP Way
30
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31
HP Way
32
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33
HP Way
34
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35
Victoria Police organisation values behaviours
  • Flexibility
  • Leadership
  • Approachable and consistent when dealing with
    colleagues, partners and the community
  • Apply fair process
  • Strongly commit to the organisational values
  • Guide, trust, develop and empower colleagues
  • Make timely decisions that are guided both by
    values evidence
  • Inspire participation and commitment through a
    shared vision
  • Integrity
  • Professionalism
  • Respect
  • Support

Victoria Police, Business Plan 2006/-7, page 16
36
Ethical Decision Making
  • Will the decision pass Scrutiny?
  • Community, Police Force, Ombudsman, Media
  • Is the decision Ethical?
  • Compliance with Policies, Procedures, Practices
  • Compliance with Code of Ethics and Code of
    Conduct
  • Is the decision Lawful?
  • The Law
  • Regulations
  • Chief Commissioners Instructions
  • Other Force Rules
  • Is the decision Fair?
  • On the Community, Colleagues, Your Family,
    Yourself

Source Victoria Police Code of Conduct and Code
of Ethics
37
Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid
  • The best leaders are intensely task-focused and
    intensely people-focused
  • Their model is based on the assumption that there
    are ten major emerging principles of human
    behaviour critical to effective leadership
  • Fulfilment through participation is the
    motivation that gives character to human activity
    and supports productivity
  • Open communication is essential for the exercise
    of self shared responsibility
  • Accepting others as capable of reaching standards
    of excellence promotes trust and respect
  • Shared participation in problem solving and
    decision making stimulates active involvement and
    commitment, productivity and creative thinking
  • Conflicts are solved by direct confrontation of
    their causes, with understanding and agreement as
    the basis of cooperative effort
  • Mutual agreement is the strongest basis for
    supervision
  • Effective integration between boss and
    subordinate enhances synergy
  • Management is by objectives
  • Organisation members who cooperate are
    interdependent in giving mutual support
  • Learning from work experience is through critique
    and feedback

38
Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid
High
9,9 Team Management Work accomplishment is
from committed people, interdependence through a
common stake in organisation purpose leads
to relationships of trust and respect.
1,9 Country Club Management Thoughtful attention
to needs of people for satisfying relationships
leads to a comfortable, friendly
organisation atmosphere and work tempo.
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Concern for People
5,5 Middle-of-the-road Management Adequate
organisation performance is possible, through
balancing the necessity to get out work with
maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory
level
9,1 Authority-Compliance Efficiency in operations
results from arranging conditions of work in such
a way that human elements interfere to a minimum
degree.
1,1 Impoverished Management Exertion of minimum
effort to get required work done is
appropriate to sustain organisation membership.
Low
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9
Low Concern for Production
High
Source R.R. Blake J.S. Mouton, The Managerial
Grid III The Key to Leadership
Excellence, Houston Gulf Publishing Company,
1985, page 12
39
Fiedlers Contingency Theory
  • Leaders least preferred co-worker orientation
    measured
  • Either task-oriented or relationship-oriented
  • Situational factor assessed
  • Leader-member relations ? support leader has from
    group members
  • Task structure ? clarity of a tasks goals,
    methods performance standards
  • Position power ? amount of power organisation
    gives leader to get tasks done

Decreasing situational favourability/control
good
poor
Elements of situation
high
low
low
high
Octant
Leader charac- teristics
Source F.E. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership
Effectiveness, New York McGraw-Hill, 1967
40
Hershey and Blanchards Situational Leadership
Theory
  • Situational leadership model states leader
    behaviours must change based on follower
    readiness
  • Follower readiness
  • Ability (job readiness) ? ability, skill,
    knowledge, experience needed for a task or way of
    working
  • Willingness (psychological readiness) ?
    confidence, commitment and motivation to complete
    a task

MODERATE
Source P. Hersey K.H. Blanchard, Management of
Organizational Behavior Utilizing Human
Resources, Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall, 1988
41
Hershey and Blanchards Situational Leadership
Theory
  • Situational leadership model states leader
    behaviours must change based on follower
    readiness
  • Leader behaviour
  • Task behaviour ? how much leader tells people
    what to do how, when where to do it and who
    is to do it
  • Relationship behaviour ? how much leader uses
    two-way or multiway communication
    listen/facilitate

(high)
2 Explain decisions and provide opportunity
for clarification
3 Share ideas and facilitate in
decision making
High task high rel.
High rel. low task
(Supportive Behaviour) RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR
High task low. rel
Low rel. low task
4 Turn over responsibility for
decisions and implementation
1 Provide specific instructions and
closely supervise performance
(low)
(high)
TASK BEHAVIOUR (Guidance)
42
Hershey and Blanchards Situational Leadership
Theory
  • Leader behaviour
  • Telling
  • Used for low-readiness (R1)
  • Give people directions on what to do how to do
    it
  • Selling
  • Used for low-moderate readiness (R2)
  • Give specific directions, but support enthusiasm
  • Participating
  • Used for moderate-high readiness (R3)
  • Supportive, participating style emphasising
    communication and collaboration
  • Delegating
  • Used for high readiness (R4)
  • Little support or direction needed

(high)
2 Explain decisions and provide opportunity
for clarification
3 Share ideas and facilitate in
decision making
High task high rel.
High rel. low task
(Supportive Behaviour) RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR
High task low. rel
Low rel. low task
4 Turn over responsibility for
decisions and implementation
1 Provide specific instructions and
closely supervise performance
(low)
(high)
TASK BEHAVIOUR (Guidance)
43
Path-goal theory
  • Explains how leader behaviour influences
    subordinates motivation and job satisfaction
  • Leaders seek to influence subordinates
    perception of work goals and paths to achieve
    both work and personal goals
  • Based on expectancy motivation theory
  • Effort-performance expectancy
  • Probability that effort will lead to performance
    level required
  • Performance-outcome expectancy
  • Probability successful performance will lead to
    outcomes / rewards
  • Valence
  • Anticipated value of outcomes / rewards

Source R.H. House T.R. Mitchell, Path-Goal
Theory of Leadership, Journal of Contemporary
Business, Autumn 1974, pp 81-97
44
Path-goal theory
  • Considers two dimensions which can affect
    path-goal
  • Leader behaviours (all assumed to be usable by
    same leader …)
  • Directive ? task-oriented
  • Supportive ? relationship-oriented
  • Participative ? consultative
  • Achievement-oriented ? challenging
  • Situational factors
  • Subordinate characteristics ? traits, skills,
    abilities, needs
  • Context characteristics ? task, work group,
    organisations formal authority system
  • The leader must consider the situational factors
    to assess which leader behaviours will best
    enhance subordinates path-goal motivation and
    job satisfaction. Practical approach
  • Anticipated end result ?
  • Expectancy theory element ?
  • Situational factor to be changed ?
  • Leader behaviour to be selected

45
Six Styles of Leadership
  • Directive
  • Entails strong, sometimes coercive behaviour
  • Visionary
  • Focuses on clarity and communication
  • Affiliative
  • Emphasises harmony and relationships
  • Participative
  • Collaborative and democratic
  • Pacesetting
  • Characterised by personal heroics
  • Coaching
  • Focuses on long-term development and mentoring

Source S.W. Spreier, M.H. Fontaine, R.L. Malloy,
Leadership Run Amok The Destructive Potential of
Overachievers, Harvard Business Review, June
2006, pages 77, 80
46
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