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The European Union

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Title: The European Union


1
The European Union
  • Ankara April 20 21, 2004

2
PART ONE
  • Some historical Milestones

3
Why the European Union?
  • Peace
  • The idea of a united Europe was once just a dream
    in the minds of philosophers and visionaries.
  • Victor Hugo, for example, imagined in the 19th
    century, a peaceful 'United States of Europe'
    inspired by humanistic ideals.
  • The dream was shattered by the two terrible World
    Wars.
  • But from the rubble of World War II emerged a new
    kind of hope. People who had resisted
    totalitarianism during the war were determined to
    put an end to hatred and rivalry between European
    nations and to build a lasting peace between
    former enemies.

4
The Founding Fathers
  • Between 1945 and 1950, a handful of courageous
    statesmen including Konrad Adenauer, Winston
    Churchill, Alcide de Gasperi and Robert Schuman
    set about persuading their peoples to enter a new
    era.
  • There would be a new order in western Europe,
    based on the interests its peoples and nations
    shared together, and it would be founded upon
    treaties guaranteeing the rule of law and
    equality between all countries.

Jean Monnet, Luxembourg, 1952. The European Coal
and Steel Community (ECSC) The First Common
Market,the first European team
  • Robert Schuman (French Foreign Affairs Minister)
    took up an idea originally conceived by Jean
    Monnet and, on 9 May 1950, proposed setting up a
    European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). In
    countries that had once fought each other, the
    production of coal and steel would be pooled
    under a shared authority - the 'High Authority'.
    In a practical but also richly symbolic way, the
    raw materials of war were being turned into
    instruments of reconciliation and peace.

5
Historic steps
  • The first step in European integration was then
    taken when six countries (Belgium, the Federal
    Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg
    and the Netherlands) set up a common market in
    coal and steel
  • Treaty of Paris, which set up the European Coal
    and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951
  • The six member states then decided to build a
    European Economic Community (EEC) based on a
    common market in a wide range of goods and
    services
  • the Treaties of Rome, which set up the European
    Economic Community (EEC) - and the European
    Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) - in 1957
  • Hence,we spoke at the time of the European
    Communities and not yet of the European Union.

6
The first Enlargement
  • Customs duties between the six countries were
    completely removed on 1 July 1968 and common
    policies - notably on trade and agriculture -
    were also set up during the 1960s.
  • In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom
    decided to join the Communities. At the same
    time, the Communities took on new tasks and
    introduced new social, regional and environmental
    policies.
  • To implement the regional policy, the European
    Regional Development Fund (ERDF) was set up in
    1975.
  • Community leaders then first realised that they
    had to bring their economies into line with one
    another and therefore, the need for monetary
    union. After the United States decision to
    suspend the dollar's convertibility into gold,
    the introduction of the European Monetary System
    (EMS) in 1979 helped stabilise exchange rates and
    encouraged the Community member states to
    implement strict policies that allowed them to
    maintain their mutual solidarity and to
    discipline their economies.

7
Map 1
1973
Source DG Enlargement
8
The next two Enlargements
  • In 1981 Greece joined the Communities, followed
    by Spain and Portugal in 1986.
  • This made it all the more urgent to introduce
    'structural' programmes such as the first
    Integrated Mediterranean Programmes (IMP), aimed
    at reducing the economic development gap between
    the 12 member states.
  • A world-wide economic recession in the early
    1980s brought with it a wave of 'euro-pessimism'.
    But hope sprang anew in 1985 when the European
    Commission, under its President Jacques Delors,
    published a 'white paper' setting out a timetable
    for completing the European single market by 1
    January 1993. The Communities adopted this
    ambitious goal and enshrined it in the Single
    European Act, which came into force on 1 July
    1987 and was the first amendment of the Founding
    Treaty of Rome.

9
Map 2
1981
1986
Source DG Enlargement
10
The first 'internal' Enlargement
  • After the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989,
    Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990.
  • At the meantime, the member states negotiated a
    new treaty that was adopted by the European
    Council (i.e. their presidents and/or prime
    ministers) at Maastricht in December 1991.This
    'Treaty on European Union' came into force on 1
    November 1993. The EEC was renamed simply 'the
    European Community' (EC). Moreover, by adding
    areas of intergovernmental co-operation to the
    existing Community system, the Treaty created the
    European Union (EU).The Treaty of Maastricht
    also set new ambitious goals for the member
    states monetary union by 1999, European
    citizenship, new common policies - including a
    common foreign and security policy (CFSP) - and
    arrangements for internal security.

11
Map 3
1995
  • The new European dynamism and the continent's
    changing geopolitics led three more countries -
    Austria, Finland and Sweden - to join the EU on 1
    January 1995. The Union now had 15 member states.

12
A common Currency Euro
  • February 1992 The Treaty on European Union and
    Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is agreed in
    Maastricht is signed and comes into force in
    November 1993. Under this treaty, the national
    currencies will be replaced by a single European
    currency - provided the countries concerned meet
    a number of economic conditions.The most
    important of the 'Maastricht criteria' is that
    the country's budget deficit cannot exceed 3 of
    its gross domestic product (GDP) for more than a
    short period. Public borrowing must not exceed
    60 of GDP. Prices and interest rates must also
    remain stable over a long period, as must
    exchange rates between the currencies concerned.
  • June 1997 The Amsterdam European Council agrees
    the 'stability and growth pact' and the new
    exchange rate mechanism designed to ensure stable
    exchange rates between the euro and the
    currencies of the 11 EU countries that remain
    outside the euro area.
  • 1 January 1999 birth of the euro the 11
    currencies of the participating countries
    disappear and are replaced by the euro, which
    thus becomes the shared currency of Austria,
    Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland,
    Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands Portugal and
    Spain. (Greece joins them on 1 January 2001).
  • 1 January 2002 euro coins and notes are
    introduced

13
Accession Treaty New Enlargements
  • (Photo European Commission)
  • In order to join the EU, would-be member states
    sign an accession treaty with the current member
    states. Ten countries did so on the 16th April
    2003, in Athens. The accession treaties state
    that new member states have the same rights and
    obligations as the existing member states. Some
    obligations, laid down in special protocols, will
    only enter into force after the accession. The
    accession treaties and acts of accession have to
    be adopted unanimously by the existing Member
    States and by every new member state.There have
    been referenda in all current applicant
    countries, except Cyprus, to permit national
    ratification of the accession treaty.
  • Enlargement of the Union to 25 member states has
    gone ahead, keeping to the timetable set by the
    EU institutions. As a politician from one of the
    new member states put it "Europe has finally
    managed to reconcile its history with its
    geography".
  • The period 2007 to 2015 should see further
    enlargements of the European Union.

14
  • Accession countries
  • Ratification by referendum in 9 countries
  • Parliamentary ratification in Cyprus
  • Positive results in all 10 accession countries
  • Malta, 8 March 03 Yes 53.6 No 46.4
  • Slovenia, 23 March 03 Yes 89.2 No 10.3
  • Hungary, 12 April 03 Yes 83.8 No 16.2
  • Lithuania, 10-11 May 03 Yes 89.95 No 8.8
  • Slovakia, 16-17 May 03 Yes 92.5 No 6.2
  • Poland, 7-8 June 03 Yes 77.45 No 22.55
  • Czech Republic, 13-14 June 03 Yes 77.3 No
    22.7
  • Cyprus, 14 July 03 (Parliamentary vote) Yes
    100
  • Estonia, 14 September 03 Yes 66.8 No 33.2
  • Latvia, 20 September 03 Yes 67 No 32.3

15
Ratification of EU Enlargement
  • In the existing EU-15
  • European Parliament
  • Vote took place on 9 April 2003 (before signature
    of Treaty)
  • Parliament gave its assent to the accession of
    all 10 accession countries with between 489 and
    522 votes in favour (individual vote for each
    country).
  • Member States
  • Ratification expected to be a formality
  • So far completed only by Denmark Ratification on
    11 June 2003

16
 biz are degil yapi koalisyon arada ülke , ama
birlesme ortasinda insanlar Jean Monnet
17
PART TWO
  • Institutions and Decision-making

18
How does the Union work?
  • The European Union is more than just a
    confederation of countries, but it is not a
    federal State. It is, in fact, something entirely
    new and historically unique. Its political system
    has been constantly evolving over the past 50
    years and it is founded on a series of treaties -
    from those signed in Paris and Rome in the 1950s
    to the treaties of Maastricht, Amsterdam and
    Nice, agreed in the 1990s.
  • As article 1 of the recent draft Constitution
    states Europe is a union of independent
    countries.
  • The treaties constitute what is known as
    'primary' legislation the member states of the
    Union delegate some of their national sovereignty
    to institutions they share and that represent not
    only their national interests but also their
    collective interest.
  • A large body of 'secondary' legislation has a
    direct impact on the daily lives of European
    Union citizens mainly of regulations, directives
    and recommendations equivalent of laws

19
The Three Pillars
  • The first pillar was established with the
    original European Communities and is dealing with
    the  four freedom of movement  (persons, goods,
    capital and services, single market and
    competition) and covers also a number of other
    issues including agriculture, trade, visa and
    asylum policies.
  • The second pillar includes the Common Security
    and Foreign Policy.
  • The third pillar, Justice and Home Affairs, now
    includes mostly police and judicial co-operation
    in criminal matters.
  • There is a fundamental difference between the
    first pillar and the other two the EU
    legislation is directly applicable and has
    primacy over individual members law for the
    first pillar issues.Decision concerning the
    other two pillars requires unanimity and must be
    approved by national Parliaments to become
    applicable in member states.

20
European Union
European Community
Common Foreign and Security Policy
Justice and Home Affairs
  • Common Policies (e.g. agricultural, social,
    commercial, environmental,
    competition, development, etc.)
  • Monetary Union
  • Citizenship of the Union
  • All areas of foreign policy
  • European Security and Defence Policy
  • Asylum and Immigration
  • External border control
  • Judicial co-operation
  • Police co-operation and Europol

21
The institutional triangle
  • EU policies are the result of decisions taken by
    three main institutions
  • the Council of the European Union (representing
    the member states),
  • the European Parliament (representing the
    citizens)
  • the European Commission (a politically
    independent body that upholds the collective
    European interest).
  • This institutional triangle can function only if
    the three institutions work closely together and
    trust one another. "In order to carry out their
    task and in accordance with the provisions of
    this Treaty, the European Parliament acting
    jointly with the Council and the Commission shall
    make regulations and issue directives, take
    decisions, make recommendations or deliver
    opinions". (Article 249 of the Treaty of
    Maastricht).

22
(No Transcript)
23
The Council of the European Union
  • The Council of the European Union is the EU's
    main decision-making institution. It was formerly
    known as the 'Council of Ministers', and for
    short it is simply called 'the Council'.
  • Each EU country in turn presides over the Council
    for a six-month period. Every Council meeting is
    attended by one minister from each of the member
    states. Which ministers attend a meeting depends
    on which topic is on the agenda.
  • The preparatory work for Council meetings is done
    by the Permanent Representatives Committee
    (Coreper), made up of the member states'
    ambassadors to the EU, assisted by officials from
    the national ministries.
  • The Council and European Parliament share
    legislative power as well as responsibility for
    the budget. The Council has to take its decisions
    either unanimously or by a majority or 'qualified
    majority' vote - in other words, a decision
    cannot be taken unless a specified minimum number
    of votes is cast in its favour. The number of
    votes each EU country can cast roughly reflects
    the size of its population.

24
Qualified Majority Voting
  • The Council decides by unanimity in the most
    sensitive areas (including some first pillar
    issues), and in most cases by Qualified Majority
    Voting i.e. a certain number of votes to member
    states as function of their population size, but
    weighted in a way that favours small countries
    relative to strict proportionality.
  • Until 1 May 2004, the numbers are as follows
  • Germany, France, Italy, the UK 10
  • Spain 8
  • Belgium, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal 5
  • Austria, Sweden 4
  • Denmark, Ireland, Finland 3
  • Luxembourg 2 TOTAL 87
  • The minimum number of votes required to reach a
    qualified majority is 62 out of the total of 87
    (i.e. 71.3).

25
After the next enlargement
  • When new member states join the EU, the number of
    votes each country can cast will be as follows
  • Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom 29
  • Spain and Poland 27
  • Netherlands 13
  • Belgium, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary and
    Portugal 12
  • Austria and Sweden 10
  • Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovakia and Finland
    7
  • Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg and Slovenia
    4
  • Malta 3 TOTAL 321
  • A minimum of 232 votes (72.3) will be required
    to reach a qualified majority. In addition,
  • a majority of member states (in some cases two
    thirds) must approve the decision, and
  • any member state can ask for confirmation that
    the votes cast in favour represent at least 62
    of the EU's total population.

26
The European Council
  • The European Council, which should not be
    confused with the above mentioned Council of the
    European Union, is the forum where the heads of
    state (Presidents and/or Prime Ministers) of the
    EU countries and the President of the European
    Commission meet to discuss general issues.
  • It also discusses current world problems. Its aim
    is to speak with one voice on international
    issues, developing a Common Foreign and Security
    Policy (CFSP).
  • It has no formal decision-making power, yet it is
    the most influential body it is here that all
    the major policy guidelines are set and that all
    decisions on big issues are taken.
  • The European Council meets at least every 6
    months and it takes all decisions unanimously.
  • Its presidency rotates every six months between
    all the EU members (we are now and until June 30
    2004 under Irish Presidency, next will be the
    Netherlands).

27
The European Parliament
  • The European Parliament is the elected body that
    represents the EU's citizens and takes part in
    the legislative process. Since 1979, members of
    the European Parliament (MEPs) have been directly
    elected, by universal suffrage, every five years
    (next election on June 5).
  • Until the 2004 elections there are 626 MEPs.
    Thereafter, enlargements of the EU will increase
    that number. The number of MEPs from each country
    is as follows

28
(No Transcript)
29
  • Parliament and the Council share legislative
    power, and they do so using three different
    procedures (in addition to simple consultation).
  • First, there is the 'co-operation procedure',
    introduced by the Single European Act in 1986.
    Under this procedure, Parliament gives its
    opinion on draft directives and regulations
    proposed by the European Commission, which can
    amend its proposal to take account of
    Parliament's opinion.
  • Second, there is the 'assent procedure', also
    introduced in 1986. Under this procedure,
    Parliament must give its assent to international
    agreements negotiated by the Commission, to any
    proposed enlargement of the European Union and to
    a number of other matters including any changes
    in election rules.
  • Third, there is the 'co-decision procedure',
    introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht (1992).
    This puts the Parliament on an equal footing with
    the Council when legislating on a whole series of
    important issues including the free movement of
    workers, the internal market, education,
    research, the environment, health, culture and
    consumer protection. Parliament has the power to
    throw out proposed legislation in these fields if
    an absolute majority of MEPs vote against the
    Council's 'common position'.

30
  • The Treaty of Amsterdam added another 23 and the
    Treaty of Nice a further seven to the number of
    fields in which the co-decision procedure
    applies.
  • Parliament and the Council also share equal
    responsibility for adopting the EU budget. The
    European Commission proposes a draft budget,
    which is then debated by Parliament and the
    Council. Parliament can reject the proposed
    budget. Then, the entire budget procedure has to
    be re-started. Parliament has made full use of
    its budgetary powers to influence EU
    policymaking. However, most of the EU's spending
    on agriculture is beyond Parliament's control.
  • Parliament played a key role in drawing up the EU
    Charter of Fundamental Rights (proclaimed in
    December 2000) and in setting up the European
    Convention following the Laeken European Council
    in December 2001.
  • Parliament is the body that exercises democratic
    control over the Union. It has the power to
    dismiss the Commission by adopting a motion of
    censure. (This requires a two thirds majority).
    It checks that EU policies are being properly
    managed and implemented - for example by
    examining the reports it receives from the Court
    of Auditors and by putting oral and written
    questions to the Commission and Council. The
    current President of the European Council also
    reports to Parliament on the decisions taken by
    the EU's political leaders.

31
  • Pat Cox was elected President of the European
    Parliament in 2002.
  • Parliamentary debates are dominated by the
    political groups. The largest of these are the
    European People's Party (Christian Democrats) and
    European Democrats - the EPP-ED group the
    Party of European Socialists - PES.

32
The European Commission
  • The Commission has several roles. Among the most
    important are1) Right to initiate legislation
    The Council and the EP cannot approve any piece
    of legislation if it has not been proposed by the
    Commission.
  • 2) Executive power The Commission monitors the
    implementation of the main legislation adopted by
    the EU.
  • 3) Regulatory power Mostly in the area of
    public undertakings and public service
    undertaking.
  • 4) Power of surveillance of European law The
    Commission is the Guardian of the Treaty if it
    detects infringements to the Treaties, after some
    attempts at resolving them it refers the matter
    to the European Court of Justice.
  • 5) Watchdog of the EMU The Commission monitors
    compliance with the economic policies agreed on
    at the beginning of each year, and recommends
    various types of actions to the Council in case
    of non-compliance.

33
  • The Commission and its President (currently
    Romano Prodi) are first nominated and then
    appointed by member states after approval by the
    EP. Currently, each country has 1 commissioner,
    except that the 5 largest countries have 2, for a
    total of 20 commissioners. From 1 May 2004, when
    new member states join the EU, there will be one
    commissioner per country.
  • A common view is that the Commission is an
    unelected, unaccountable body, the quintessential
    technocratic institution. This picture is only
    partially correct. The Commission was designed
    initially as a European think-tank, whose role
    was precisely to propose legislation to the
    bodies with true legislative power. As a
    think-tank, its independence was paramount (the
    Commission has its own financial resources ), and
    the lack of accountability a plus.
  • The Commission is accountable collectively to the
    EP if the latter passes a motion of censure, the
    Commission must resign en bloc. It was when faced
    with just such a motion of censure that President
    Jacques Santer tendered the collective
    resignation of his Commission on 16 March 1999.
  • The Commission is assisted by a civil service
    made up of 36 "Directorates-General" (DGs) and
    services, based mainly in Brussels and
    Luxembourg.

34
(No Transcript)
35
The Co-decision Procedure
The Commission presents its proposals
The European Parliament (EP) gives its opinion
and proposes amendments
The Council adopts a Common Position
The EP accepts or proposes amendments to the
Common Position
The Commission gives an opinion
The Council adopts the act or sends it to
conciliation committee for final decision
The EP, With an absolute majority, can reject
the proposal
36
The European Court of Justice
  • Located in Luxembourg, the Court of Justice is
    made up of one judge from each EU country,
    assisted by eight advocates-general, appointed by
    joint agreement of the governments of the member
    states, appointed for a term of six years, after
    which they may be reappointed for one or two
    further periods of three years. They can be
    relied on to show impartiality.
  • The EU Court of Justice can interpret EU laws
    and seek its application. Court cases can be
    initiated both by governments and private
    citizens. Contrary to the American practice, its
    judicial rulings do not have legal stature in the
    EU. Still, the Court of Justice has acquired a
    considerable status within the EU bodies, as it
    is the only institution that can, at the request
    of the national courts, give a ruling on the
    interpretation of the treaties and on the
    validity and interpretation of EU law.This
    system ensures that EU law is interpreted and
    applied in the same way throughout the European
    Union.
  • It can find any EU member state guilty of failing
    to fulfil its obligations under the treaties. It
    can check whether EU laws have been properly
    enacted and it can find the European Parliament,
    the Council or the Commission guilty of failing
    to act as required.

37
Other Institutions
  • The Court of Auditors, set up in 1977, has one
    member from each EU country. The Court of
    Auditors checks that all the European Union's
    revenue has been received and all its expenditure
    incurred in a lawful and regular manner and that
    the EU budget has been managed soundly. It has
    the right to audit the accounts of any
    organisation that is handling EU funds and, where
    appropriate, to refer matters to the Court of
    Justice.
  • When taking decisions in policy areas covered by
    the EC and Euratom treaties, the Council and
    Commission consult the European Economic and
    Social Committee (EESC). Its members represent
    the various interest groups that collectively
    make up 'organised civil society', and are
    appointed by the Council for a four year term.
    The EESC has to be consulted before decisions are
    taken in a great many fields (employment, the
    European Social Fund, vocational training, etc.)
    On its own initiative it can also give opinions
    on other matters it considers important.
  • The Committee of the regions (CoR), set up under
    the Treaty on European Union, consists of
    representatives of regional and local government,
    proposed by the member states and appointed by
    the Council for a four-year term. Under the
    Treaty, the Council and Commission must consult
    the CoR on matters of relevance to the regions,
    and the Committee may also adopt opinions on its
    own initiative.

38
Conclusion
  • The construction of the EU is the result of a
    delicate balance between two types of
    institutions and decision making methods
    intergovernmental institutions, like the European
    Council and the Council of Ministers, that
    provide a forum for each countrys demand, and
    super national institutions, like the Commission,
    the EP, and the Court of Justice, whose mandate
    and authority transcend the individual
    countries.
  • This dichotomy runs parallel to that between
    Community and intergovernmental methods, and
    between small and large countries. Usually, small
    countries see the Council and the European
    Council as dominated by the large countries
    hence they tend to be staunch supporters of the
    Commission.
  • The distinction also parallels closely that
    between first pillar on one hand and second and
    third pillars on the other, and that between
    Qualified Majority Voting and unanimity. Super
    nationalists typically would like to extend the
    areas covered by the Community method and by QMV,
    at the expense of unanimity. However there are
    issues, like agriculture where, although formally
    not subject to unanimity, no major decision would
    be taken without the consensus of France and
    Germany.

39
  • The new member states will each appoint a
    commissioner who will take up his or her duties
    on 1 May 2004, when the accession treaties come
    into force.
  • Once a new European Parliament is elected in June
    2004 it will vote on the proposed members of
  • the new Commission, which will take up its duties
    on 1 November 2004.

40
PART THREE
  • The Budget of the EU

41
Timetable
  • In the year preceding the budget
  • January Commission prepares budget proposal.
    Each institution analyses its own budget
    requirements.
  • April/May Commission to adopt and publish draft
    budget
  • June/July The budget is adopted and possibly
    amended - by the Council of Ministers
  • October First reading in the European Parliament
    (EP)
  • November Second reading in the Council
  • December Parliament and Council adopt the budget
  • Year of the budget the budget is carried out
  • November Court of Auditors carries out detailed
    audit of the previous budget
  • Following year
  • March Council of Ministers adopts the Court of
    Auditors report and makes a recommendation to
    the European Parliament
  • Spring The EPs budgetary committee discusses
    the Auditors report. MEPs grant or refuse
    discharge in the plenary.

42
EU Budget 2000-2006
Source European Commission
Pre-accessionstrategy
Agriculture
Internal policies
Administration
External policies
Reserves
Structural operations
43
National contributions to the EU budget (EU-25,
in , 2004)
Source European Commission
Acceding Countries
44
Net contributors and recipientsContributions and
receipts in of total own resources/payments to
MS (2002)
Source European Commission
45
Internal Policies 2004
46
PART FOUR
  • Europe, whats next?

47
The Convention
  • EU Constitution Convention of the Future of
    Europe, working on the EU Constitution
  • (Photo European Convention)
  • The Convention on the Future of Europe has
    produced an EU Constitution to replace the
    existing EU and EC treaties. The text was agreed
    upon by 'consensus' in the Convention June 13
    2003. No voting took place.It was presented by
    Valéry Giscard dEstaing to the heads of
    governments and states at the Thessaloniki Summit
    (Greece) on 20th June 2003.
  • The Constitutional Treaty is divided into four
    parts
  • Part I Objectives, values, institutions,
    competences finances, etc. of the Union.
  • Part II Charter of Fundamental Rights
  • Part III Assembles and amends the present EU and
    EC Treaties.
  • Part IV Final provisions
  • At present, a country can only leave the EU after
    a unanimous decision (or by breaching EU law).
    The EU Constitution has a clause allowing Member
    States to leave after negotiating an agreement
    with the EU or on their own accord after two
    years.
  • The Intergovernmental Conference has negotiated
    on this EU Constitution since October 2003. If
    all the Member States and acceding countries sign
    this constitution, it has to be ratified through
    the national parliaments or through referenda and
    will probably enter into force by 2006.

48
Draft constitution
  • The EU faces two main challenges
  • Enlargement over the next decade or two will
    bring the total number of member states to
    perhaps 30 or 35. Can the Council be expected to
    reach unanimous agreement on anything with so
    many ministers around the table? Will EU
    decision-making not simply grind to a halt? How
    will the Union be governed? Who will speak for
    Europe on the world stage? Where will the final
    frontiers of the European Union be drawn?
  • Second, the EU's citizens want to have a greater
    say in shaping EU policies, but they find it hard
    to understand the EU's highly complex
    decision-making system and they perceive
    'Brussels' as too remote from their daily lives.
    Hence the need for a Constitution that clearly
    sets out who is responsible for doing what in the
    European Union. A Constitution that specifies the
    powers and responsibilities of each EU
    institution and what should be left to the
    authorities at regional and national level.
  • The EU needs to invent a new form of 'governance'
    that is simpler, more democratic and brings
    Europe closer to its citizens. The future
    Constitution should meet these needs.
  • The Constitution will be of huge importance for
    the future of the Union. It was the main subject
    of discussion at the intergovernmental conference
    (IGC) that began on 4 October 2003, and it will
    be a major topic of debate in the run-up to the
    European parliamentary elections in June 2004.

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Towards a European Constitution
  • The draft Constitution proposes, among other
    things
  • The President of the European Council should be
    elected by qualified majority for a term of two
    and a half years, renewable once.
  • The President of the Commission should be elected
    by a majority of members of the European
    Parliament. He or she should be proposed by the
    European Council, taking into account the
    European parliamentary elections.
  • An EU Minister for Foreign Affairs should be
    appointed. He or she should be both a Commission
    Vice-President and a member of the European
    Council.
  • The Charter of Fundamental Rights should be
    incorporated into the Treaty.
  • The European Union should be given legal
    personality.
  • There should be more qualified majority voting in
    the Council.
  • The European Parliament should be given greater
    legislative and budgetary powers.
  • The powers and responsibilities of the Union and
    its member states should be spelt out more
    clearly.
  • National parliaments should play a part in
    ensuring that the EU complies with the principle
    of subsidiarity.

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PART FIVE
  • Structural Funds Programme examples

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Structural Funds
  • ESF (European Social Fund) DG Employment
    Social Affairs
  • EAGGF (European Agriculture Guidance Guarantee
    Fund) DG Agriculture, Rural development
    Fisheries
  • ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) DG
    Regio
  • FIFG (Financial Instrument for Fisheries
    Guidance) DG Agriculture, Rural development
    Fishery
  • Cohesion Fund

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European Social Fund (ESF)
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European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
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Regional Action
  • The EU's regional policy consists essentially of
    making payments from the EU budget to
    disadvantaged regions and sections of the
    population, to boost development in backward
    regions, to convert old industrial zones, to help
    young people and the long-term unemployed find
    work, to modernise farming and to help
    less-favoured rural areas.The money is paid
    through specific funds - the European Regional
    Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund
    (ESF), the Financial Instrument for Fisheries
    Guidance (FIFG) and the European Agricultural
    Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF).
  • The total amount allocated in 2000-2006 is 213
    billion euro
  • These payments stimulate investment by the
    private sector and by national and regional
    government. To target the payments where they
    will have the greatest effect, the EU has set
    itself three priority objectives
  • Objective 1 is to help develop regions where the
    wealth produced divided by the number of
    inhabitants - or 'gross domestic product (GDP)
    per capita' - is less than 75 of the EU average.
    This aid, amounting to 135 billion euro, is two
    thirds of all the money allocated to regional
    policy in 2000-2006. It goes to benefit about 50
    regions, representing 22 of the EU's population.
    It is used to get the economy moving in these
    regions by creating the infrastructure they lack,
    providing better training for local people and
    stimulating investment in local businesses.
  • Objective 2 is to help other regions in
    difficulty. They may be areas where the economy
    is being restructured, declining rural areas,
    fishing communities in crisis or urban areas with
    serious problems.
  • Objective 3 is to combat unemployment by
    modernising training systems and helping to
    create jobs.

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  • Specific programmes aimed at these objectives
    include Interreg, which promotes co-operation
    across borders and between regions, and Urban -
    which supports the sustainable development of
    cities and urban areas in crisis.
  • In addition to these 'structural' funds there is
    a 'Cohesion Fund'. This is used to finance
    transport infrastructure and environmental
    projects in EU countries whose per capita GDP is
    less than 90 of the EU average. The countries
    concerned until now have been Greece, Ireland,
    Portugal and Spain (the 10 new Member States will
    benefit from the Cohesion Fund).
  • Thanks to structural schemes such as these,
    financed by the European Union, EU countries have
    been better able to bring their economies into
    line with one another. This economic
    'convergence' is also the result of action by EU
    governments to meet the requirements for economic
    and monetary union.

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Structural Operations 2004
Source European Commission
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Extending structural policy to new member states
  • Enlarging the Union to take in new member states
    will pose a major challenge for economic and
    social cohesion, because development in some
    regions of these countries lags well behind the
    rest of the EU. Enlargement will, in fact, make
    the Union more diverse and require further
    efforts at sectoral and regional adjustment.
  • A number of 'instruments' are already being used
    to help the candidate countries. First there is
    the Phare programme, which channels aid to the
    candidate countries in central and eastern
    Europe. Over the period 2000 to 2006 they will
    receive a total of 10.9 billion in
    'pre-accession' aid.
  • Then there is ISPA (Instrument for Structural
    Policies for Pre-Accession), which finances
    environmental and transport projects and has a
    budget of 7.2 billion.
  • Thirdly, Sapard (an instrument for financing
    agriculture) has a budget of 3.6 billion.
  • After accession, the structural fund programmes
    and Cohesion Fund projects will take over from
    pre-accession aid.

63
The social dimension
  • Financial aid of the ESF is not the only way in
    which the EU seeks to improve social conditions
    in Europe.
  • Social progress is also supported by legislation
    that guarantees all EU citizens a solid set of
    basic rights. Some of these rights are enshrined
    in the Treaties - for example, the right of men
    and women to equal pay for equal work. Others are
    set out in directives about the protection of
    workers (health and safety at work) and essential
    safety standards.
  • In December 1991, the Maastricht European Council
    adopted the Community Charter of basic social
    rights, setting out the rights all workers in the
    EU
  • free movement,
  • fair pay,
  • improved working conditions,
  • social protection,
  • the right to form associations and to undertake
    collective bargaining,
  • the right to vocational training,
  • equal treatment of women and men,
  • worker information, consultation and
    participation,
  • health protection and safety at the workplace,
  • protection for children, the elderly and the
    disabled.
  • At Amsterdam in June 1997, this Charter became an
    integral part of the Treaty and is applicable in
    all the member states.

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Employment policy
  • In 1997, a new chapter on employment was inserted
    into the Treaty of Amsterdam, making job creation
    a priority for the EU's economic policy.
  • At the European Council in Luxembourg in November
    1997, the leaders of the 15 member states agreed
    a co-ordinated strategy for making their
    individual national policies more effective. It
    was a strategy for better vocational training,
    for helping start up new businesses and for
    improving 'social dialogue' - i.e. relations
    between employers and employees.
  • This was later strengthened and given a broader
    scope by the European Council in Lisbon in March
    2000. It became the 'Lisbon strategy', and it was
    directed towards a new and very ambitious goal
    to make the EU, within a decade, "the most
    competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy
    in the world, capable of sustainable growth with
    more and better jobs and greater social
    cohesion".

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The European Employment Strategy
  • Active and preventative measures for the
    unemployed and inactive
  • Foster entrepreneurship and promote job creation
  • More and better investment in human capital and
    strategies for lifelong learning
  • Address change and promote adaptability in work
  • Increase labour supply and promote active ageing
  • Gender equality
  • Promote the integration of and combat the
    discrimination against people at disadvantage in
    the labour market
  • Make work pay through incentives to enhance work
    attractiveness
  • Transform undeclared work into regular employment
  • Promote occupational and geographical mobility
    and improve job matching

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The EES a Key Component of the Lisbon Strategy
  • The Lisbon strategy was designed to enable the
    Union to regain the conditions for full
    employment and to strengthen cohesion by 2010.
    The Council also considered that the overall aim
    of these measures should be to raise the overall
    EU employment rate to 70 and to increase the
    number of women in employment from an average to
    more than 60 by 2010.
  • The Stockholm European Council (March 2001) added
    two intermediate and one additional target the
    employment rate should be raised to 67 overall
    by 2005, 57 for women by 2005 and 50 for older
    workers by 2010. The Barcelona Council (March
    2002) confirmed that full employment was the
    overarching goal of the EU and called for a
    reinforced Employment Strategy to underpin the
    Lisbon strategy in an enlarged EU.

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The Co-ordination of Employment Policies at EU
Level
  • The EES must ensure co-ordination of the
    employment policy priorities to which Member
    States should subscribe at EU level.
  • Heads of State and Government agreed on a
    framework for action based on the commitment from
    Member States to establish a set of common
    objectives and targets for employment policy.
    This co-ordination of national employment
    policies at EU level was to be built around
    several components
  • Employment Guidelines following a proposal from
    the Commission, the European Council shall agree
    every year on a series of guidelines setting out
    common priorities for Member States' employment
    policies.
  • National Action Plans every Member State shall
    draw up an annual National Action Plan which
    describes how these Guidelines are put into
    practice nationally.
  • Joint Employment Report The Commission and the
    Council shall jointly examine each National
    Action Plan and present a Joint Employment
    Report. The Commission shall present a new
    proposal to revise the Employment Guidelines
    accordingly for the following year.
  • Recommendations The Council may decide, by
    qualified majority, to issue country-specific
    Recommendations upon a proposal by the
    Commission.

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The EQUAL Community Initiative
  • The EQUAL Community Initiative operates within
    the broad framework of the European Employment
    Strategy (EES). Running from 2000-2006, it
    promotes new ways of combating all types of
    labour market discrimination and inequalities.
  • EQUAL is based on the following Principles
  • A thematic approach reflecting the priorities
    European Employment Strategy. The EES is not
    concerned with asylum seekers, so this theme has
    been added and added to the other priority EQUAL
    themes selected by Member States.
  • EQUAL exists to test, develop and validate
    innovative approaches to local, national and
    European policy development. Its purpose is to
    integrate solutions that work into policy and
    practice.
  • EQUAL co-finances the work of strategic
    partnerships known as Development Partnerships,
    which bring organisations, agencies, businesses
    and educators together to identify the causes of
    problems and to combine their efforts and
    resources to find innovative integrated
    approaches to solving them.
  • Transnationality is integral to EQUAL. The
    promotion and transfer know-how and good practice
    between partnerships and between Member States is
    a key objective.

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EQUAL vs other EU Programmes
  • EQUAL requires a joint national and transnational
    approach to its work programmes, whereas
    mainstream ERDF and ESF Structural Funds
    Programmes do not require any transnational
    element.
  • In EQUAL the selection of transnational partners
    is relatively open, but in INTERREG transnational
    co-operation is focused on cross-border actions.
  • Unlike EQUAL, projects in the LEONARDO programme
    have to be conceived from the beginning as
    transnational projects with a promoting body or
    contractor, responsible for managing all the
    activities.
  • Unlike most other EU programmes, which require
    co-operation between individual projects, EQUAL
    will encourage and promote multi-actor and
    multi-level transnational collaboration between
    Development Partnerships.

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Programmes
  • Most EU funding is not paid directly by the
    European Commission but via the national and
    regional authorities of the Member States. This
    is the case for payments under the Common
    Agricultural Policy and most payments under the
    structural policy financial instruments (European
    Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund,
    European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund
    and Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance),
    which make up, in money terms, the great bulk of
    EU funding.
  • The Commission pays direct grants to
    beneficiaries (public or private legally
    constituted bodies - universities, businesses,
    interest groups, NGOs - and, in some exceptional
    cases, individuals) in pursuance of other common
    policies in such fields as research and
    development, education, training, the
    environment, consumer protection, and
    information. It also pays direct grants in
    pursuance of EU external policies.
  • Hence, each DG of the Commission is implementing
    specific European Programmes, meeting precise
    objectives and priorities under the various
    common policies of the EU.

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LEONARDO DA VINCI
  • In today's economic climate Europe is facing a
    twofold challenge.
  • First, there is a need to prepare European
    citizens better for entering the labour market,
    thereby reducing the number of unemployed.
  • Second, companies need a skilled workforce to
    cope with rapid scientific and technological
    changes in an increasingly competitive world. To
    meet this challenge the European Commission's
    Leonardo da Vinci programme serves as a
    laboratory of innovation in the field of lifelong
    learning.

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  • Following its initial phase, from 1995 to 1999,
    the Community's Leonardo da Vinci vocational
    training programme is now in its second phase,
    covering the seven-year period from 2000 to 2006.
    The programme promotes transnational projects
    based on co-operation between the various players
    in vocational training - training bodies,
    vocational schools, universities, businesses,
    chambers of commerce, etc. - in an effort to
    increase mobility, to foster innovation and to
    improve the quality of training.The Leonardo da
    Vinci programme aims at helping people improve
    their skills throughout their lives.
  • Community funds for the first phase of the
    programme amounted to 793.8 million,
    approximately 40 of which was used for mobility
    projects. This meant that from the end of 1995 to
    early 2001 about 125 000 people received a grant
    for a work-related stay abroad.In addition, a
    total of over 3 000 pilot and other projects were
    funded producing an eclectic range of training
    products in a variety of media. Funding has
    increased in the second phase and in the year
    2001 around 38 000 people benefited from a
    Leonardo da Vinci grant. The budget for the
    second phase is just under 1.4 billion and the
    programme is open to 31 countries.
  • (Turkey will participate in LdV from 1 January
    2004 subject to conclusion of a formal agreement
    between the European Commission and the Turkish
    Government).

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Useful Links

http//europa.eu.int
Leonardo Da Vinci National Agency Devlet
Planlama TeskilatiAvrupa Birligi Egitim ve
Gençlik Programlari Merkezi (ABEGPM)Necatibey
Cad. No10806100 Bakanliklar - ANKARATel 90
312 294 64 17Fax 90 312 294 64 77e-mail
ulusalajans_at_dpt.gov.tr Mr Emin Senver
(Coordinator LdV)
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http//www.deltur.cec.eu.int/
75
http//www.deltur.cec.eu.int/english/eu-funded2004
-en.html
http//www.deltur.cec.eu.int/eu-funded2004-tr.html
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