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QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION

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... Quality and Technology Management, University of Punjab, Lahore ... Lahore May 10, 11, 2006. Presentation Plan. Introduction. Q.A. Needs & its Improvements ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION


1
QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION
  • By
  • Prof. Dr. Abdul Raouf, SI
  • Distinguished National Professor of Higher
    Education Commission, Pakistan
  • Patron and Professor, Institute of Quality and
    Technology Management, University of Punjab,
    Lahore

HEC Self Assessment Workshop Lahore May 10, 11,
2006
2
Presentation Plan
  • Introduction
  • Q.A. Needs its Improvements
  • Q.E.C. Functions and Organization.
  • Definitions
  • Assessment Need.
  • Current practice
  • Assessment model.
  • Criteria and standards.
  • Procedure.
  • Closing remarks

3
QUALITY DOES NOT HAPPEN BY ACCIDENT IT HAS TO
BE PLANNED
WE DO NOT HAVE TO HAVE QUALITY AS A
GOAL SURVIVAL IS NOT COMPULSORY
CONTINUING IMPROVEMENT
QUALITY IS NOT ANY SINGLE THING BUT AN AURA, AN
ATMOSPHERE, AN OVERPOWERING FEELING THAT THE
INSTITUTION IS DOING EVERYTHING WITH EXCELLENCE
4
Continuous Improvement
  • Means to be Running to be Stationary
  • Grouping of Organizations

BULK
Upper 10th Percentile
Lower 10th Percentile
Running Hard to Remain In the Group
Running Harder to Join Those Who are Ahead
Running Hard to Survive
5
Continuous Improvement Through Quality
Management
  • Models of Excellence
  • BALDRIGE (National Quality Award)
  • EFQM ( Excellence Model to Improve Performance)
  • ISO STANDARDS
  • These are applicable to Manufacturing as well
    as Service Industries. Basis for these are Self
    Assessment.

6
QAA OPERATIONS An OUTLINE
Selection of Peers. Peer Orientation
University Rating Standards and Evaluation
Guidelines
Program Self Assessment Guidelines
Q.E.C
Q.E.C
University Self Assessment
QAC
Programs
QAA
Self Assessment / External Review By Councils
University Evaluation by External Peers (Council
Members)
Accreditation by External Bodies
QAA Reports Published
7
Q.E.C. Functions
  • The Quality Enhancement Cell (QEC) is to be
    headed by a Dean reporting directly to Vice
    Chancellor/Rector. He is to be the correspondent
    with the outside bodies.
  • QEC is responsible for promoting public
    confidence that the quality and standards of the
    award of degrees are enhanced and safeguarded.
  • QEC is responsible for the review of quality
    standards and the quality of teaching and
    learning in each subject area.
  • QEC is responsible for the review of academic
    affiliations with other institutions in terms of
    effective management of standards and quality of
    programs.
  • QEC is responsible for defining clear and
    explicit standards as points of reference to the
    reviews to be carried out. It should also help
    the employees to know as to what they could
    expect from candidates.

8
  • QEC is responsible to develop qualifications
    framework by setting out the attributes and
    abilities that can be expected from the holder of
    a qualification, i.e. Bachelors, Bachelor with
    Honors, Masters, M. Phil., Doctoral.
  • QEC is responsible to develop program
    specifications. These are standard set of
    information clarifying what knowledge,
    understanding, skills and other attributes a
    student will have developed on successfully
    completing a specific program.
  • QEC is responsible to develop quality assurance
    processes and methods of evaluation to affirm
    that the quality of provision and the standard of
    awards are being maintained and to foster
    curriculum, subject and staff development,
    together with research and other scholarly
    activities.

9
  • QEC is responsible to ensure that the
    universitys quality assurance procedures are
    designed to fit in with the arrangements in place
    nationally for maintaining and improving the
    quality of Higher Education.
  • QEC is responsible to develop procedures for the
    following
  • Approval of new programs
  • Annual monitoring and evaluation including
    program monitoring, faculty monitoring, and
    students perception.
  • Departmental review
  • Student feedback
  • Employer feedback
  • Quality assurance of Masters, M. Phil. And Ph.
    D. degree programs.
  • Subject review
  • Institutional assessment
  • Program specifications
  • Qualification framework

10
QEC Organizations
V.C.
HEC
QEC
TEACHING AND LEARNING CETNER
EXTERNAL AFFAIRS CENTER
PROGRAM ASSESSMENT CENTER
  • Promoting Public Confidence
  • Affiliations
  • Entrance Exams.
  • Organizing Workshops on Test Construction
    Techniques
  • Studying Students Pre-University Performance and
    Performance in Specific University Subjects.
  • Fostering an Environment of Continuous Academic
    Development
  • Assisting Faculty Members to Attain Highest
    Standards in Teaching Research
  • Assisting New Faculty in learning techniques for
    teaching
  • Promote Culture of Assessment
  • Improve and maintain highest Academic Standards
  • Enhance Student Learning
  • Provide Feedback for Quality Assurance
  • Program Accreditation by Councils

11
Assessment
  • Assessment is a systematic process of gathering,
    reviewing and using important quantitative and
    qualitative data and information from multiple
    and diverse sources about educational programs,
    for the purpose of improving student learning,
    and evaluating whether academic and learning
    standards are being met.

12
Self Assessment
  • Self assessment is an assessment conducted by
    the institution to assess whether programs meet
    their educational objectives and outcomes with
    the purpose to improve programs quality and
    enhancing students learning.

13
The elements of a successful assessment
  • Purpose identification
  • Outcomes identification
  • Measurements and evaluation design
  • Data collection
  • Analysis and evaluation
  • Decision-making regarding actions to be taken.

14
Self Assessment Desired Outcome
  • To be proactive than reactive.
  • Initiate improvements to achieve academic
    excellence.
  • Systematize the process of self assessment.
  • To be current and take a leadership role in the
    country.
  • Assist in preparing professionals of tomorrow.

15
Accreditation Bodies Requirements
  • At the core of ABET Engineering criteria 2000 is
    an outcome assessment component that requires
    each engineering program seeking accreditation or
    re-accreditation to establish its own internal
    assessment process which in turn will be assessed
    by ABET.
  • The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of
    Business (ACCSB) requires each business school
    seeking accreditation or re-accreditation to
    establish its own internal assessment process,
    which in turn will be assessed by ACCSB

16
Accreditation bodies requirements
  • Computer Science Accreditation Board (CSAB)
    requires programs seeking accreditation or
    re-accreditation to establish their internal
    assessment process, which will be assessed by
    CSAB.
  • Pakistan Engineering Council, Pakistan Medical
    and Dental Councils and Councils established for
    accrediting educational Programs .
  • The core requirement of all these bodies
    is Self Assessment of Programs
    by Institutions.

17
Current Practice Who is doing it?
  • 94 percent of institutions in the United States
    had assessment activities under way and 90
    percent had increased their activities compared
    to five years ago. Rather than depending on
    nationally available assessment instruments, most
    institutions (86 percent) reported using local
    measures and nearly 70 percent were developing
    their own portfolios.

18
Current Practice Who is doing it?
  • A sample of these universities include MIT,
    University of Michigan, University of Illinois at
    Urbana, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Texas
    A M University, University of Texas at Austin,
    Purdue University, University of Tennessee,
    Knoxville, Al Ain University at UAE, King Fahd
    University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran and
    many others.

19
Objectives of Self Assessment
  •     Improve and maintain academic
    standards
  •     Enhance students learning.
  •     Verify that the existing programs meet their
    objectives and institutional goals.
  •     Provide feedback for quality assurance of
    academic programs.

20
Inputs
Output
Students
Curriculum
Graduates that Perform Outcomes that Achieve
Educational Objectives
Faculty
Processing Delivery
Laboratories, Computing and Library Facilities
Processes
Institutional Facilities
Institutional Support
Assessment/Feedback
Assessment Model
21
Components of The Self Assessment Process
  • Criteria Eight Criteria for Self assessment.
  • Procedure Specifies the process of initiating,
    conducting, and implementing the assessment.

22
Criteria
  • Each criterion has an intent A statement of
    requirements to be met.
  • Each criterion has several standards They
    describe how the intents are minimally met

23
Criteria and Standards
  • 1.  Program Mission, Objectives and Outcomes ( 3
    standards).
  • 2.  Curriculum Design and Organization(7).
  • 3.  Laboratories and Computing Facilities (2).
  • 4.  Student Support and Guidance (3)

24
Criteria and Standards
  • 5.  Process Control ( 5 )
  • 6.  Faculty ( 2)
  • 7.  Institutional Facilities ( 2 )
  • 8. Institutional Support ( 3)

25
Criterion 1 Program Mission, Objectives and
Outcomes
  • Intent Each program must have a mission,
    quantifiable measurable objectives and expected
    outcomes for graduates. Outcomes include
    competency and tasks graduates are expected to
    perform after completing the program. A strategic
    plan must be in place to achieve the program
    objectives. The extent to which these objectives
    are achieved through continuous assessment and
    improvements must be demonstrated.

26
Criterion 1 Standards
  • Standard 1-1 The program must have documented
    measurable objectives that support departmental
    and institution mission statements

27
Meeting Standard 1-1
  • Document institution, departmental and program
    mission statements.
  • State program objectives.
  • Describe how each objective is aligned with
    program, departmental and institution mission
    statements.
  • Outline the main elements of the strategic plan
    to achieve the program mission and objectives.
  • Provide for each objective how it was measured,
    when it was measured and improvements identified
    and made

28
Criterion 1 Standards
  • Standard 1-2 The program must have documented
    outcomes for graduating students. It must be
    demonstrated that the outcomes support the
    program objectives and that graduating students
    are capable of performing these outcomes.

29
Meeting Standard 1-2
  • Describe the means for assessing the extent to
    which graduates are performing the stated program
    outcomes/learning objectives.
  • 1.   Conducting a survey of graduating seniors
    every semester.
  • 2.    Conduct a survey of alumni every two
    years.
  • 3.    Conduct a survey of employers every two
    years.

30
Meeting Standard 1-2
  • 4.   Carefully designed questions asked
    during cap-stone design projects
    presentations.
  • 5. Outcome assessment examination

31
Criterion 1 Standards
  • Standard 1-3 The results of programs assessment
    and the extent to which they are used to improve
    the program must be documented.
  •  

32
Meeting Standard 1-3
  • Describe the actions taken based on the results
    of periodic assessments.
  • Describe major future program improvements plans
    based on recent assessments.

33
Criterion 2 Curriculum Design and Organization
  • Intent The curriculum must be designed and
    organized to achieve the programs objectives and
    outcomes. Also course objectives must be in line
    with program outcomes. The breakdown of the
    curriculum must satisfy the standards specified
    in this section. Curriculum standards are
    specified in terms of credit hours of study. A
    semester credit hour equals one class hour or two
    to three laboratory hours per week. The semester
    is approximately fifteen weeks.

34
Criterion 2 Standards
  • Standard 2-1 The curriculum must be consistent
    and support the programs documented objectives.

35
Meeting Standard 2-1
  • Describe how the program content (courses)
    meets the program objectives
  • Complete the matrix shown in Table 4.4 linking
    courses to program outcomes. List the courses and
    tick against relevant outcomes.

36
Meeting Standard 1-2
Courses Vs. Program Outcomes
37
Criterion 2 Standards
  • Standard 2-2 Theoretical background, problems
    analysis and solution design must be stressed
    within the programs core material.

38
Meeting Standard 2-2
  • Indicate which courses contain a significant
    portion (more than 30) of the elements in
    standard 2-2 in the following table.

Standard 2-2 Requirement
39
Criterion 2 Standards
  • Standard 2-3 The curriculum must satisfy the
    mathematics and basic sciences requirements for
    the program, as specified by the respective
    accreditation body.
  • Standard 2-4 The curriculum must satisfy the
    major requirements for the program as specified
    by the respective accreditation body.

40
Criterion 2 Standards
  • Standard 2-5 The curriculum must satisfy
    humanities, social sciences, arts, ethical,
    professional and other discipline requirements
    for the program, as specified by the respective
    accreditation body.
  • Standard 2-6 Information technology component
    of the curriculum must be integrated throughout
    the program.
  • Standard 2-7 Oral and written communication
    skills of the student must be developed and
    applied in the program.

41
Meeting Standards 2-6 and 2-7
  • Indicate the courses within the program that
    will satisfy the standard.
  • Describe how they are applied and integrated
    through out the program.
  • Indicate the courses within the program that
    will satisfy the standard.
  • Describe how they are applied.

42
Criterion 3 Laboratories and Computing Facilities
  • Intent Laboratories and computing facilities
    must be adequately available and accessible to
    faculty members and students to support teaching
    and research activities. To meet this criterion
    the standards in this section must be satisfied.
    In addition departments may benchmark with
    similar departments in reputable institutions to
    identify their shortcomings if any.

43
Criterion 3 Standards
  • Standard 3-1 Lab manuals / documentation /
    instructions for experiments must be available
    and readily accessible to faculty and students.
  • Standard 3-2 There must be adequate support
    personnel for instruction and maintaining the
    laboratories.
  • Standard 3-3 The University computing
    infrastructure and facilities must be adequate to
    support programs objectives.

44
Criterion 5 Process Control
  • The processes by which major functions are
    delivered must be in place, controlled,
    periodically reviewed, evaluated and continuously
    improved. To meet this criterion a set of
    standards must be satisfied.

45
Criterion 5 Standards
  • Standard 5-1 The process by which students are
    admitted to the program must be based on
    quantitative and qualitative criteria and
    clearly documented This process must be
    periodically evaluated to ensure that it is
    meeting its objectives.

46
Criterion 5 Standards
  • Standard 5-2 The process by which students are
    registered in the program and monitoring of
    students progress to ensure timely completion of
    the program must be documented This process must
    be periodically evaluated to ensure that it is
    meeting its objectives.

47
Criterion 5 Standards
  • Standard 5-3 The process of recruiting and
    retaining highly qualified faculty members must
    be in place and clearly documented. Also
    processes and procedures for faculty evaluation,
    promotion must be consistent with institution
    mission statement. These processes must be
    periodically evaluated to ensure that it is
    meeting its objectives.

48
Criterion 5 Standards
  • Standard 5-4 The process and procedures used
    to ensure that teaching and delivery of course
    material to the students emphasizes active
    learning and that course learning outcomes are
    met . The process must be periodically evaluated
    to ensure that it is meeting its objectives.

49
Criterion 5 Standards
  • Standard 5-5 The process that ensures that
    graduates have completed the requirements of the
    program must be based on standards, effective
    procedures and clearly documented. This process
    must be periodically evaluated to ensure that it
    is meeting its objectives.

50
Criterion 6 Faculty
  • Intent Faculty members must be current and
    active in their discipline and have the necessary
    technical depth and breadth to support the
    program. There must be enough faculty members to
    provide continuity and stability, to cover the
    curriculum adequately and effectively, and to
    allow for scholarly activities. To meet this
    criterion the standards in this section must be
    satisfied

51
Standard 6-1
  • There must be enough full time faculty who are
    committed to the program to provide adequate
    coverage of the program areas/courses, continuity
    and stability. The interests and qualifications
    of all faculty members must be sufficient to
    teach all courses, plan, modify and update
    courses and curricula. All faculty members must
    have a level of competence that would normally be
    obtained through graduate work in the discipline.
    The majority of the faculty must hold a Ph.D. in
    the discipline.

52
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53
Standard 6-2
  • All faculty members must remain current in the
    discipline and sufficient time must be provided
    for scholarly activities and professional
    development. Also, effective programs for faculty
    development must be in place.

54
Meeting Standard 6-2
  • State criteria for faculty to be deemed current
    in the discipline and, based on theses criteria
    and information in the faculty members resumes,
    what percentage of the faculty members are
    current. The criteria should be developed by the
    department.
  • Describe the means for ensuring that full time
    faculty members have sufficient time for
    scholarly and professional development.

55
Meeting Standard 6-2
  • Describe existing faculty development programs at
    the departmental and university level.
    Demonstrate their effectiveness in achieving
    faculty development.
  • Indicate how frequently faculty programs are
    evaluated and if the evaluation results are used
    for improvement.

56
Criterion 7 Institutional Facilities
  • Institutional facilities, including library,
    computing facilities, classrooms and offices must
    be adequate to support the objective of the
    program. To satisfy this criterion a number of
    standards must be met.

57
Criterion 7 Standards
  • Standard 7-1 The institution must have the
    infrastructure to support new trends in learning
    such as e-learning.
  • Standard 7-2 The library must possess an
    up-to-date technical collection relevant to the
    program and must be adequately staffed with
    professional personnel.

58
Criterion 7 Standards
  • Standard 7-3 Class-rooms must be adequately
    equipped and offices must be adequate to enable
    faculty to carry out their responsibilities.

59
Criterion 8 Institutional Support
  • Intent The institutions support and the
    financial resources for the program must be
    sufficient to provide an environment in which the
    program can achieve its objectives and retain its
    strength.

60
Criterion 8 Standards
  • Standard 8-1 There must be sufficient support
    and financial resources to attract and retain
    high quality faculty and provide the means for
    them to maintain competence as teachers and
    scholars.
  • Standard 8-2 There must be an adequate number
    of high quality graduate students, research
    assistants and Ph.D. students.

61
Criterion 8 Standards
  • Standard 8-3 Financial resources must be
    provided to acquire and maintain Library
    holdings, laboratories and computing facilities.

62
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE
QEC initiates Assessment one semester prior to
the assessment through the dean.
Department forms Performance Team that will be
responsible for preparing Self Evaluation.

QEC reviews the Documentation within one month
No
Is Self Assessment Report Complete
Yes
VC/Dean QEC forms Assessment Team in consultation
with the dean based on the recommendation of QEC
63
QEC plans and fixes Assessment Team visit
Assessment Team conducts assessment and presents
its findings to QEC, Dean, Performance Team and
Dept. Faculty
QEC submits an executive summary to V.C.
Department prepares implementation plan summary
Follow- up of the implementation plan by QEC
64
Assessment Results Implementation Plan Summary
65
Concluding Remarks
  • Establishing measurable objectives and
    evaluating their outcomes are sophisticated
    activities that are essential to assess if
    programs meet their educational objectives.
  • Conducting self assessment is expected to
    enhance learning.

66
Concluding Remarks
  • Self assessment will provide feedback from
    employers and Alumni and will enable Universities
    to improve quality and respond effectively to
    market needs.
  • Assessment will require dedication from faculty
    members and commitment from University
    Administration.

67
Concluding Remarks
  • Assessing academic programs must be supported by
    other types of assessment.
  • The Dean QEC should take the lead in making
    faculty members and Administration aware of the
    big role assessment plays in Education.

68
Conclusion
  • Achieving Quality
  • and Enhancing it
  • by
  • Continuous Improvement
  • Through
  • Self Assessment Which Forms The Basic for
    External Assessment.

69
Thank you Any questions/Comments
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