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Title: Introduction%20into%20Urban%20Air%20Quality%20in%20Asia:%20Status,%20Impact%20and%20its%20Management

Introduction into Urban Air Quality in Asia
Status, Impact and its Management
Cornie Huizenga, May Ajero and Herbert Fabian
Head of Secretariat Clean Air Initiative for
Asian Cities
June 2005 Brussels
Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia)
Part 1
CAI-Asia Goals
The Clean Air Initiative promotes and
demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air
quality of Asian Cities through sharing
experiences and building partnerships
  • Sharing knowledge and experiences on air quality
  • Capacity building
  • Improving policy and regulatory frameworks at the
    regional level
  • Assisting cities in formulating and implementing
    integrated air quality management systems
  • Piloting projects to encourage innovation

Creating an Air Quality Management Community in
CAI-Asia Membership
CITIES Bangkok,Thailand Chiang Mai,Thailand Chengd
u,PRC Chittagong,Bangladesh Chongqing,PRC Colombo,
Sri Lanka Dhaka, Bangladesh Guangzhou,PRC Haiphong
, Viet Nam Hangzhou,PRC Hanoi,Viet
Nam Harbin,PRC Ho Chi Minh City,Viet
Nam Hyderabad, India Islamabad,Pakistan Kathmandu,
Nepal Lahore, Pakistan Makati,Philippines Metro
Manila, Philippines Mumbai, India Naga,Philippines
Phnom Penh,Cambodia Pune, India Singapore,
(NEA) Surabaya,Indonesia Tianjin,PRC Ulaanbaatar,
Mongolia Yogyakarta,Indonesia
GAs Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board,
India Australia Department of Environment and
Heritage Balochistan EPA, Pakistan Central
Pollution Control Board, India Department of
Environment, Bangladesh Department of Forests,
Ecology and Envt, Karnataka State,
India Department of Environment and Natural
Resources, Philippines Department of Energy,
Philippines Department of Transportation and
Communications, Philippines Dhaka Transport
Coordination Board, Bangladesh Environmental
Management Bureau, Ministry of Environment,
Japan Environment Protection Department, Hong
Kong, SAR Environmental Protection Agency
Karachi, Pakistan Ministry of Environment,
Cambodia Ministry of Environment,
Indonesia Ministry of Public Works and Transport,
Cambodia Ministry of Road Transport and
Highways, India Pollution Control Department,
Thailand State Environmental Protection
Administration (PRC focal point) Viet Nam
Register, Viet Nam
  • 54 NGOs and Academic Institutions in the Region

Bank Australian Department for Environment and
Heritage German Agency for Technical
Cooperation The William and Flora Hewlett
Foundation United States-Asia Environmental
Partnership Sida World Bank
Shell Clean Diesel Tech. Inc. ASSOCIATE
Cerulean IPIECA Matthey MAHA SGS

Part 2
  • Review of Status of AQM in Asia

Drivers Urbanization
Source United Nations, World Urbanization
Prospects, The 1999 Revision
Drivers Population growth
East Asia
Southeast Asia
Population millions
South Asia
  • More than one billion extra from 1980 2002
  • South Asia growing most rapidly

Drivers Motorization
Vehicle growth scenario China
Source ADB 2002. Policy Guidelines to Reduce
Vehicle Emissions
Source Dongquan He, Energy Foundation 2004
Drivers Increase in 2 3 wheelers in Asia
The Global Market for New Motorcycles and Mopeds
Source CAI-Asia, 2004
Drivers Energy consumption
Source BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2004
  • 1/3 of world energy consumption is attributed to
  • Since 2000, coal share in energy mix is
    increasing by 1 percent in lieu of oil
  • 57 of the increase from 2002 to 2003 energy use
    is attributed to China
  • 2/3 of the the world coal consumption increase
    is located in China, but the demand for coal
    grows almost everywhere

Drivers Energy consumption
Primary energy consumption growth 1990-2001
3.0/a 2001-2002 9.9 2002-2003 13.2
GDP Growth 1990-2001 9.9/a 2001-2002
8.9 2002-2003 9.1 Energy elasticity
1990-2001 0.30 2001-2002 1.11 2002-2003
Source International Energy Annual 2002 by
  • China has seen great improvements in energy
    intensity (energy/GDP output) in the past two
  • in the more recent years however, energy
    consumption is growing faster than GDP again in

Source Wu Zongxin, 2005 Paper Presented 25
February at the CTI Industry Joint Seminar on
technology Diffusion of Energy Efficiency in
Asian Countries Note Wu is from the 3E Research
Institute, Tsinghua University.
State Average Annual Air Pollution Concentration
in selected Asian Cities (2000-2003)
SO2 Guideline 50 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999)
SPM Guidelines 60-90 µg/m3 (WHO, 1979)
NO2 Guideline 40 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999)
PM10 Limit 50 µg/m3 (USEPA, 1997)
Source CAI-Asia, 2004
State 20002003 compared with 19901999 Air
Quality Data
  • Most of the cities have been able to reduce
    levels of SO2 to safe levels with the exception
    of Beijing and Hanoi
  • NO2 levels gradually increasing levels and just
    above the WHO guidelines
  • Almost all cities have been able to reduce levels
    of SPM and PM10 compared to the 90s level,
    however levels continue to remain above the
    guidelines except those of the more developed

Bangkok gt lt lt
Beijing lt ? ? lt
Busan lt gt ?
Colombo gt lt ?
Hong Kong gt lt lt lt
Kolkata lt gt lt lt
Manila ? ? lt ?
Mumbai lt lt lt lt
New Delhi lt lt lt lt
Seoul lt gt lt lt
Shanghai lt lt lt ?
Taipei,China lt lt ? gt
Tokyo lt ? lt
Notes - about 5 increase
- about 5decrease ?
data not available
Source CAI-Asia Research, 2004
State Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of SO2
for selected Asian Cities (1993 2003)
  • Notes
  • The graph shows the aggregated average of the
    annual averages of major criteria pollutants The
    range of data is shown by the vertical lines for
    each year, the maximum and minimum values are
    marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom
    most part of the line.
  • The quality for each data point varies
    corresponding to the number of cities where data
    is present

Source CAI-Asia, 2004
State Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of SPM
for selected Asian Cities (1993 2003)
Source CAI-Asia, 2004
  • Notes
  • The graph shows the aggregated average of the
    annual averages of major criteria pollutants The
    range of data is shown by the vertical lines for
    each year, the maximum and minimum values are
    marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom
    most part of the line.
  • The quality for each data point varies
    corresponding to the number of cities where data
    is present

State Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of
PM10 for selected Asian
Cities (1993 2003)
  • Notes
  • The graph shows the aggregated average of the
    annual averages of major criteria pollutants The
    range of data is shown by the vertical lines for
    each year, the maximum and minimum values are
    marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom
    most part of the line.
  • The quality for each data point varies
    corresponding to the number of cities where data
    is present

Source CAI-Asia, 2004
State Trend of Aggregated Annual Averages of NO2
for selected Asian Cities (1993 2003)
The high variability and wide range of values
requires additional analysis
  • Notes
  • The graph shows the aggregated average of the
    annual averages of major criteria pollutants The
    range of data is shown by the vertical lines for
    each year, the maximum and minimum values are
    marked by horizontal lines on the top and bottom
    most part of the line.
  • The quality for each data point varies
    corresponding to the number of cities where data
    is present

State Ambient versus Roadside
Bangkok Air Quality Trends (1993 2003)
Note SPM ambient annual standards 100
µg/m3 PM10 ambient annual standards 50 µg/m3
State Ambient versus Roadside
Hong Kong Air Quality (PM10) Trends (1993 2003)
Note PM10 ambient annual standards 55 µg/m3
State Ambient versus Roadside
Ho Chi Minh City Air Quality (PM10) Trends (2000
Note No standards for PM10
Ambient Air Quality in Major Asian Cities
Bangkok (1992 2003)
Hong Kong (1992 2003)
Source PCD, 2004
Source Hong Kong EPB, 2004
Shanghai (1992 2003)
New Delhi (1992 2003)
Source Shanghai EMC, 2004
Source ESMAP, 2004 Note Levels of SPM are all
above 350 µg/m3
Impacts Health Effects
Exposure Risks
Exposure Risks
Health Effects
Number of Premature Deaths
Outdoor Air
Outdoor Air
Indoor Air
Indoor Air
Source Greenbaum and OKeefe, BAQ 2003
Source WHO, 2002
Exposed to diesel exhaust
Exposed to clean air
Source NIES,
Impacts Epidemiological studies and Health Costs
  • Health Costs per year
  • Manila (2001)1 Chronic bronchitis (8,439) and
    excess deaths associated with PM10 (1,915) costs
  • Shanghai (2000)2 Chronic bronchitis (15,188) and
    premature deaths (7,261) associated with PM10
    costs US880M
  • Bangkok (2000)3 Chronic bronchitis (1,092) and
    excess deaths (4,550) associated with PM10 costs
  • India (2002)4 estimated annual health damage of
    pre-Euro emissions for the 25 Indian cities were
    from a low of US 14 million (Rs.679 crore) to a
    high of US 191.6 million
  • Jakarta (1998)5 estimated health effects from
    PM10 only is US 100 million


Worldbank (2002) Philippines Environment Monitor
2 Chen
(2002) Integrated Risk Assessment on Human Health
Ambient Air Pollution Shanghai 3
Worldbank (2002) Thailand Environment Monitor
4 Mashelkar Committee
(2002) India Auto Fuel Policy Report

5 Worldbank (2003) Indonesia Environment Monitor
Percent Change in Mean Number of Daily Deaths
from all causes per 10 µg/m3 increase in 24-hr
mean level of PM10
Source HEI, 2004

Response Benchmarking AQM Capacity
  • AQM Profile
  • 15-20 page document
  • General information
  • Description of pollution sources
  • Air Quality Data
  • Impacts of air pollution
  • Policies, Programs and Projects
  • Conclusions

AQM Questionnaire
25 scores each
AQM Indices applied to 84 cities
  • Review
  • Both city profile and questionnaire have been
    reviewed by air quality experts in the city

AQM Indicator Ratings
Response Benchmarking AQM Capacity
Emissions estimates
Air quality measurement capacity
Data assessment and availability
Management enabling capabilities
Assesses the ambient air monitoring taking place
in a city and the accuracy and precision and
representativeness of the data collected
Assesses how air data is processed to value and
provide information in a decision-relevant
format. It also assesses the extent to which
there is access to air quality information and
data through different media
Asseses the administrative and legislative
framework through which emission control
strategies are introduced to manage air quality
Assesses emission inventories undertaken to
determine the extent to which decision-relevant
information is available about source pollution
in the city
Response Overall AQM Capability
Response AQ Monitoring Capacity in Asia
City Manual Continuous
Bangkok 21
Beijing 24
Busan 14
Colombo 1
Delhi 11
Dhaka 1
Hanoi 7
Ho Chi Minh 9
Hong Kong 14
Jakarta 1 5
Kathmandu 6
City Manual Continuous
Kolkata 12 5
Manila 12 5
Mumbai 22
Osaka 14
Seoul 27
Shanghai 23 21
Singapore 16
Surabaya 5
Taipei 19
Tokyo 82
Yogyakarta 6
Status of AQ monitoring in Asia
Source Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality
Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities
of Asia Stage 2 (draft)
Response Online Ambient Air Quality Data of
Selected Asian Cities
Response AQ data analysis in Asia
  • Many cities have initiated development of
    Emission Inventories
  • BUT
  • Level of detail/ disaggregation varies greatly
  • Reliability of activity data on which
    inventories are based and Emission factors used
    is questionable for many of the cities
  • Inventories in many of the cases were conducted
    by outside groups academe or consulting firms
  • in formulating AQM policies based on current
    Emission Inventories

Response Ambient Air Quality Standards
Country Pollutants Remarks
Bangladesh TSP, CO, NOx, and SO2 1997 standards established for a few pollutants depending on land use category new standards are pending approval
China TSP, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, Pb Standards require cities to comply with Class I, II, or III standards. Class I standards more stringent than the WHO and USEPA limits
Hong Kong TSP, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, Pb, O3 Standards less stringent than WHO and USEPA limits
India TSP, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, Pb Established based on different land-use categories i.e. industrial, residential and sensitive areas.
Indonesia TSP, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, O3, Pb National and local (Jakarta) standards less stringent that WHO PM limits less stringent than USEPA
Japan CO, NO2, O3, SO2, TSP Comparable and to some extent more stringent than WHO guidelines with the exception of CO limits for an 8-hour exposure.
Nepal TSP, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, Pb, C6H6 Established only in 2003 standards less stringent than WHO PM limits less stringent than USEPA
Pakistan No legislated ambient air quality standards
Philippines TSP, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, O3, Pb based and comparable to WHO and USEPA (for PM10). Standards more lenient, selecting the higher/max allowable limits
Singapore PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, O3 Despite adopting only both WHO guidelines and USEPA limits, Singapore PSI reporting is very efficient
Sri-Lanka TSP, CO, SO2, NO2, O3, Pb TSP standards twice more lenient than USEPA, No annual standard for SO2, 24-hour limit for SO2, a slightly lenient O3 and NO2 compared with USEPA and WHO, respectively
Thailand TSP, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, O3, Pb TSP twice more lenient than USEPA SO2 and CO almost same as USEPA limit, stringent NO2 compared to WHO
Vietnam TSP, CO, SO2, NO2, O3, Pb Hourly limits for NO2 and CO are more lenient than WHO, no PM10 standards, the rest of the standards are almost same as WHO
  • Most countries have more lenient standards than
    those prescribed by WHO and USEPA
  • Standards for PM10 have been largely based on
    USEPA limits
  • There is a need to review current PM standards,
    considering Europes move to 50µg/m3 limit for
    24-hour averages of PM10
  • Standards for other air toxics e.g benzene
    should be legislated

Response Institutionalizing Vehicle Emissions
Standards (new light duty vehicles)
a Entire country b Delhi and other cities Euro 2
introduced in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai in
2001 Euro 2 in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Khampur,
Pune and Ahmedabad in 2003, Euro 3 to be
introduced in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai,
Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad in 2005 c
Beijing and Shanghai d Gasoline vehicles under
consideration e for gasoline vehicles f for
diesel vehicles g for all types of diesel
vehicles italicized to be confirmed
Source CAI-Asia, 2005
Response Institutionalizing Fuel Quality
Country Current Status Future Directions
Bangladesh Euro 1 under discussion No dialogue or plans to move beyond Euro 1
Cambodia No formal standards, still leaded No roadmap in place
China Euro 3 - Beijing and Shanghai Euro 2 - Rest of the country 11th Five Year Plan laying out road map for Euro 3 and Euro 4 for entire country
Hong Kong SAR Euro 4 in place ULSD and Euro 5 (diesel) under consideration for 2007
India Euro 3 for Metros and Euro 2 for the rest of the country Euro 4 for Metros and Euro 3 for the rest of country under discussion
Indonesia Euro 2 (?) Euro 3 gasoline by 2006 Euro 3 diesel after 2010
Japan Euro 4 Equivalent (S 50ppm) Ultra-low sulfur gasoline and diesel 2007
Korea Ultra-low sulfur gasoline and diesel by 2007?
Malaysia Euro 2 by 2005 Euro 4 by 2009-2010
Nepal Euro 1 still partly leaded No structured discussion on how to move ahead
Philippines Euro 1 500 ppm sulfur diesel Euro 2 mid 2005. Initial discussions on Euro 4 by 2010.
Singapore Euro 2 in place Euro 4 diesel in 2006, no plans for gasoline
Sri-Lanka Euro 1 in place No roadmap in place
Thailand Euro 3 gasoline and Euro 2 for Diesel Euro 4 for 2009 with discussion ongoing on ULSD in some locations
Vietnam Euro 3 in 2009 announced and under discussion Euro 2 in 2007 and Euro 4 in 2010 under discussion and tentatively scheduled for July 2005
Part 4
  • CAI-Asia Programs

Phase 2 CAI-Asia 2005 - 2007 Goals
  • Regional Coordination and Cooperation on Air
    Quality Management firmly established in Asia
  • Asian countries ability manage air quality is
  • Air quality is improved

  • Improved scientific understanding of air
    pollution in Asia
  • Better policies for air quality management in
  • Strengthened air quality governance in Asia
  • Improved implementation of air quality management
    policies and programs

Summary of Results Phase 1 Knowledge Management
  • Website http//
  • Largest on-line information source on AQM in Asia
  • Over 1100 daily visitors
  • High client satisfaction according to CAI-Asia

Listserv CAI-Asia has provided a platform and
bulletin board where air quality management
issues can be actively discussed CAI-Asia
Evaluation Report 2004
To join, send a blank email to
Summary of Results Phase 1 Capacity Building
  • CATNet-Asia Partnership of World Bank, USEPA and
    Pollution Control Department Thailand to
    strengthen capacity to deliver air quality
    management training http//
  • Distance Learning Course World Bank Institute
    Program to deliver Air Quality Management
    training http//
  • Fuel Quality Strategies Training Workshop ADB
    IFQC program to strengthen capacity of Asian
    countries to develop fuel quality improvement
    strategies http//
  • South-South Exchange Program Exchange of
    experiences among CAI-Asia member cities and

Summary of Results Phase 1 Regional Cooperation
  • Strategic Framework for Air Quality Management in
    Asia Joint activity with APMA Project to develop
    a high level conceptual approach to air quality
    management by Asian Cities. http//www.cleanairnet
  • Dialogue among other Regional Initiatives/
    Institutions with AQM Component Annual dialogue
    to promote the development and adoption common
    agendas on air quality management in Asia.
  • Benchmarking Study on UAQM Capability of selected
    Asian cities - 2nd Stage Assessment of air
    quality management capabilities among 20 Asian
    cities Initial Results - http//www.cleanairnet.or
  • CAI-Asia Oil Industry Dialogue for Cleaner
    Fuels in Asia Dialogue aimed to result in a
    joint roadmap for cleaner transportation fuels in
    Asia http//

Summary of Results Phase 1 Pilot Projects
  • Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA)
    2 million research and capacity building
    program to investigate impact of air pollution on
    public health in Asian cities http//www.cleanairn
  • Poverty and Air Pollution Ho Chi Minh based case
    study to develop methodology to assess linkage of
    air pollution and poverty in Asia.
  • Developing Integrated Emissions Strategies for
    Existing Land Transport (DIESEL) Bangkok based
    regional program to develop solutions to reduce
    emissions from in-use diesel vehicles
  • Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transportation
    in Asia Regional Partnership of ADB and EMBARQ
    to promote sustainable urban transport in Asia
    through policy dialogue and indicator
    development. http//
  • Emission Reduction Potential of Low Sulfur Diesel
    Fuels in Asia Studies in support of CAI-Asias
    activities on fuel quality improvement.

Summary of Results Phase 1 Workshops
  • The annual BAQ workshop has developed into an
    institution and is now the largest urban air
    quality event in Asia.
  • Better Air Quality 2002 16-19 December 2002.
    Hong Kong, SAR Hosted by the Hong Kong
    Polytechnic University and Environmental
    Protection Department and supported by the Air
    Pollution in the Mega-cities of Asia Project,
    CAI-Asia, and the California Air Resources Board
  • Better Air Quality 2003 17-19 December 2003.
    Manila, Philippines Hosted by the Air Pollution
    in the Mega-cities of Asia Project, the
    Partnership for Clean Air (Manila), and CAI-Asia
  • Better Air Quality 2004 6-8 December 2003. Agra,
    India. Hosted by Indias Ministry of Environment
    and Forests and CAI-Asia, and jointly organized
    by the Society of Indian Automobile
    Manufacturers, Central Pollution Control Board,
    and CAI-Asia http//

BAQ 2006
BAQ 2006 Yogyakarta, Indonesia September