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Bus Rapid Transit in Jakarta: evaluating the factors that impede or facilitate


Jakarta: capital of Indonesia, consists of 5 cities: Central, North, West, South ... BRT Jakarta: Inspired by Bogota. Bogota. Route 1: 13 km, 15 January 2004 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bus Rapid Transit in Jakarta: evaluating the factors that impede or facilitate

Bus Rapid Transit in Jakartaevaluating the
factors that impede or facilitate
  • Dr. Heru Sutomo
  • Centre for Transportation and Logistics Studies
  • Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • www.pustral-ugm.org

  • Jakarta capital of Indonesia, consists of 5
    cities Central, North, West, South East
  • Pop 7.5 mio, surrounded by towns Bogor,
    Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok pop 15.4 mio
  • Total Jabodetabek approx 22.7 mio.
  • Population density 11,300/km2
  • Share borders with West Java Banten

Greater Jakarta - Jabodetabek
Jakarta Transport Profile
  • Shifting from public transport dominated 57
    (85) to private transport 55 (00)
  • Motorcycles share keeps increasing (70)
  • In the peak of motorization
  • National sales peak in 2004 0.5 mio cars, 4.5
    mio motorcycles sold
  • Deteriorating traffic conditions, severe and
    unpredictable congestion, serious pollution
  • Economic Costs associated with PM10, NO2 and SO2
    181.4 Million USD (1998) would increase to
    402.64 Million USD (2015)

Types of Public Transport
  • Ojek motorcycle bicycle taxis (informal)
  • Bajaj-3wheeler 2stroke, approx 13,000
  • Taxis approx 22,000
  • Minibuses (8-12 pax) route basis approx 13,000
  • Metromini-Midibuses (30pax) route basis,
    approx 6,000
  • Buses (55pax) AC, economy, limited stop aprox
  • New BRT (85 pax) 3 lines approx 200
  • Heavy rail basis, 1067mm gauge, some elevated
  • Acting more as commuter train, connecting
    neighboring towns of Bekasi, Bogor, Depok,
    Tangerang, Serpong
  • Frequency 10-20 minutes
  • Heavily used, 67 illegal passengers, heavily
  • Old poorly maintained cars, poor service,

Problems of Urban Bus
Problems and Development of Bus System
  • Fully private government set fares, private take
    all the risk
  • License based on vehicle oversupply, corrupt
  • Severe competition within a route, between
    route, route violation
  • Low fares unable to renew fleet
  • Poorer service decreasing patronage
  • On board cash payment revenue losses
  • No ticketing system no revenue, patronage data
  • Weak supervision, no monitoring and control
  • Problem on security on bus and in the terminal
  • No service integration at all.

  • Congestion, even in the toll road
  • Pollution, private transport
  • Old, poorly maintained bus
  • Also smaller public transport

Source Swisscontact
Urban Bus Development
  • Started in mid 1970s following tram closure
  • Gen 1 fierce competition, small companies
  • Gen 2 1985 Merging by government into 5
    companies, 1 new public company
  • Gen 3 Using bigger buses double decker and
    articulated, but sustainability?
  • Gen 4 Priority- bus lanes many violation
  • Gen 5 BRT new era, government take the risk-
    major change- risk of (same) failure

Planning Stage
  • Crisis in 1998 badly hit public transport/bus
  • Fleet availability down to 60, no renewal
  • Business declining some gone bankrupt
  • Urgent need to save urban buses in 2000
  • The wave of reforms in all sectors
  • Masterplan study SITRAMP started in 2001
  • Decision to make new bus system cannot wait he

BRT Planning Process
Development of BRT
  • Commissioned new bus system mid 2001
  • Governor accept the scheme Dec, 2001
  • Approved by parliament funded Feb,2002
  • 6 months discussions deciding central lane
  • International support came ITDP, New York
  • Feb, 2003 visit training to Bogota (ITDP)
  • 2003 built infrastructure 74 buses (gov)
  • 15 January 2004 Route 1 (13km) launched

BRT Jakarta Inspired by Bogota
From idea to reality in just 2.5 years!
Route 1 13 km, 15 January 2004
Route 2 3 33.8 km, 15 January 2004
Fleet no. 124 Mercedez Benz and Hino
Fleet no. 72 Daewoo, CNG
  • New image, suitable for everybody
  • Fast, strong image of being given priority
  • Cut the travel time to nearly half 90 to 45 m
  • Route serves CBD and major employment
  • Attract workers and commuters
  • 15 shifts from car users
  • Reasonable fare Rp 3,500 (US 39cents)
  • Long service hours 5am-10pm, 3-5m h/way

7 Routes planned for 2007
Impeding factors
  • Many parties enjoying money in licensing issuance
    show reluctance
  • Old operators reluctant to follow the change,
    still feel have the right over route
  • Still use vehicle basis rather than route basis
  • Reveal the current poor management and
    maintenance system- a lot to be done
  • No competition for old operators
  • Feeder system is not planned accordingly

Facilitating Factors
  • Technologically appropriate
  • Using existing pedestrian bridges
  • Tested in a prestigious route risky but
    widespread when successful
  • Good public communication
  • Blended with median greenery
  • Bus fleet made available by government
  • Assistance from Bogota via ITDP
  • Secure planning process by vice Governor
  • Multi-stakeholder meeting each 2 weeks
  • Firm acceptance decision by Governor and then
    parliament the rest follow easily
  • Strong financial capacity (US 1.3 billion)
  • Timely in the effort to save public transport
  • Support from international community
  • Backed by evening restriction (3-in-1)

Closing Remarks
  • Economic crisis have given room for the adoption
    of a new bus system.
  • The idea of BRT in 2002 is very timely
  • Governors strong commitment has paved the way in
    developing new public support
  • Strong financial capacity of Provincial
    Government of Jakarta has made the speedy
    implementation possible.
  • Substantial role of international community such
    as ITDP in giving access to BRT knowledge from
  • The participative panning process created a
    strong ownership among government offices and the
    public of Jakarta.
  • Still focussed more on physical infrastructures.
  • Longer perspective should be formulated for the
    sustainability of providing the service in
    conjunction with other modes of public transport
    may be impaired.
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