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Jai Hind


1757 General Clive won the major victory at the battle of Plassey in Calcutta ... Best interest of groups in Calcutta and Bombay in calcatta and Bombay: land ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jai Hind

Jai Hind
  • At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the
    world sleeps, India will awake to life and
  • Jawaharlal Nehru, Tryst With Destiny, 8-14-1947

Part 1Background of Indian History
  • Presented By Hikari

  • India before the British colonization 17th
    18th Century
  • India was fragmented and multi-lingual, with 15
    major languages and around 720 dialects
  • Mid-18th Century
  • The British settlements - British East India
  • the Mughals allowed the Company to build trading
    posts in India in return for goods from Europe.
    The Company traded in such commodities as cotton,
    silk, saltpetre, indigo, and tea?By the
    mid-1600s, the Company had established trading
    posts or "factories" in major Indian cities, such
    as Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras in addition to
    their first factory at Surat (built in 1612).
  • Purposes for trading luxuries
  • 1757 General Clive won the major victory at the
    battle of Plassey in Calcutta
  • After this, the entire province of Bengal was
    passed to the British East India ompany, and this
    battle is today seen as one of the pivotal
    battles leading to the British Empire in India
  • - Leading to the British Empire in India
  • Britain not only as a trader but also as a ruler
    Shrewd diplomacy
  • Influences of British colonization that lasted
    nearly 100 (until 1947)

  • The British decisioon to educate Indians in a
    Western fashion
  • English as the language (in order to consolidate
    British hold on Inida through the same language)
  • Ironically, this allowed separate cultural and
    ethnic groups to identify with one another
    towards nationalist ideas
  • Publication of magazines and journals in English
    had a great influence on the rise of Indian
  • Although most Indians received nationalist ideas
    orally, these journals allowed Indians who were
    literate in English to come into contact with the
    ideas of social and political reformers.
  • Social Life- Ethnic traditions were denied.

  • India had their own trading ports, factories and
    small production centers where raw materials were
    gathered and processed were built up along the
    coasts in India
  • Heavy taxation on landlords, traders, exports
    from India
  • Lower tariffs for imports from England
  • Materials produced in India were processed in
    England, and the products were imported to Indian
    where Indians had to buy them.
  • Local industires collapsed.
  • 18th and early 19th century
  • Mughal Emperor Marathas and Punjab region fell
    under British control
  • Mid-19c
  • Britain had begun a process of gradual
    colonization starting with military aid to
    traders then finally to military conquest.
  • Last region the Sheik Kingdom in the Punjab fell
    in late 1840s
  • Nearly 100 years control by the British over
    India (until 1947)

Rise of Indian Nationalism
  • Nationalism evolved to general strategy
    involving many social groups
  • Landmark- The first movement of Indian
    nationalism was the mutiny that took place in
  • 1857 Mutiny
  • Indian soldiers in the army were required to bite
    the ends off gun cartridges that contained pig
    fat and cow fat, which offended both Muslims and
  • Mutiny Against British officers of Bengal army
    (see the attachment)
  • Rebellions were humiliated and jailed.
  • Generated anarchy
  • Sepoy Mutiny Indias first nationalism movement
  • Small group to Delhi (Mughal Emperor) The emperor
    (under the British control) refused to endorse
    the mutiny
  • Killing Christians and Europeans - Turned Delhi
    into chaotic
  • Spread throughout the rural area -
  • - Anarchy in India
  • September
  • A series of battles to regain Deli
  • Dehli fell

The rise of Indian nationalism (MUTINY)
  • 1857 Mutiny
  • Took many forms and diverse social ramifications
  • Took off some momentum which participated range
    of grievances
  • Explanation
  • Leaders like Bahadur Shah Zafar (behind Mutinies
    from the beginning) to throw out British
  • To see the events in the Merut (Bengal) region
    organize to get rid of Britain
  • R. C Mhaumdar Mutinies Spontaneously occurred.
    so They lost momentums
  • Theory
  • oThere is no evidence
  • Motive
  • o Anti-colonialism
  • o Anti-authoritarian
  • o Anti-Britishism
  • o Anti-Christan sentiments
  • o
  • What Revolt does in rural areas
  • o It reflects dislocation of traditional
    patterns established by the British
  • o Exploitation of land - the dislocation of
    traditional patterns of influence and the
    ownership of the soil land led to great deal of

The Rise of Indian Nationalism (Sepoy Mutiny)
  • Sepoy Mutiny
  • ? Legacy
  • o Generate martyrs
  • o Failed but succeed in establishing the
    tradition of political resistance to British
  • o Movement 1850-1885
  • Beginning of Indian nationalism
  • The Indian National Congress that met once a year
    had joined the effort to discuss Indian issues
  • ? After 19c (after Sepoy mutiny)
  • ? Increasing sense of identifying one another
  • ? Highly elite group, economically prosperous
  • ? Influenced by Western institutions
  • British policy which
    produced this western institution had modeled
    democracy of enlightened rationalism. The British
    to be perceived to be fair and democratic
  • ? Nation coming alive was the establishment of
    Indian national congress. A combination of
    processes of pressures as a result of Sepoi
  • ? National organization educational elite was
    becoming confident, and seeking political
  • ? Nationalism is outcropping of different social
    organization that comes with capitalism new
    groups that requires self-expression
  • ? The world changed its attitudes. Best interest
    of groups in Calcutta and Bombay in calcatta and
    Bombay land owners / zamiges. Western educated
    - liberal radical political ideas.
  • Sepoy Mutiny
  • ? Legacy
  • o Generate martyrs
  • o Failed but succeed in establishing the
    tradition of political resistance to British
  • o Movement 1850-1885
  • Beginning of Indian nationalism
  • The Indian National Congress that met once a year
    had joined the effort to discuss Indian issues
  • ? After 19c (after Sepoy mutiny)
  • ? Increasing sense of identifying one another
  • ? Highly elite group, economically prosperous
  • ? Influenced by Western institutions
  • British policy which
    produced this western institution had modeled
    democracy of enlightened rationalism. The British
    to be perceived to be fair and democratic
  • ? Nation coming alive was the establishment of
    Indian national congress. A combination of
    processes of pressures as a result of Sepoi
  • ? National organization educational elite was
    becoming confident, and seeking political
  • ? Nationalism is outcropping of different social
    organization that comes with capitalism new
    groups that requires self-expression
  • ? The world changed its attitudes. Best interest
    of groups in Calcutta and Bombay in calcatta and
    Bombay land owners / zamiges. Western educated
    - liberal radical political ideas.

By the Late 19th Century
  • ? Borgeor land owner classes begin to make their
    voices by taking on particular administrative
  • ? Began service in lower-level administrative way
  • ? some of Indian press was sizable
  • ? Literacy was growing
  • ? The development of civil service was self
    propelling they were able to benefit from the
    system. Served their own indigenous population
  • ? Machinery of the government
  • o Less exclusive and less secret
  • o Individuals engage in these institutions these
    bureaucracy local governments fed into National
  • o They were proto-nationalists, pre-nationalists
  • o Some were directly associated with mutiny
  • o Indian Government became more responsible
  • Dadabhai Scheme Dadabhai Naoroji
  • Dadabhai an early Indian political leader.
    Naoroji was a staunch moderate within the
    Congress, during the phase when opinion in the
    party was split between the moderates and
  • By the time of his death in 1917, Naoroji was
    known as the 'Grand Old Man of India', a mentor
    to Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Dadabhai Scheme concerted united actions within
    those who are responsible to reporting back to
    the national congress Coordination between
  • ? Indian national congress had been the
    association which lead public resources - Hindu
    and Muslim relationship
  • ? Dadabhai Naoroji
  • Indian resources are drained (to Britain)
  • ? Imperialism
  • ? Great expectation (Gladstone Prime Minister
    of UK)
  • ? Promoting local self government institute in
  • ? Ultimately Indians were disappointed
  • ? Mid 80s Dadabhai general development lead to
    Indian national congress
  • Social Reforms 1885-92
  • o To promote industrialization locally
  • o Education
  • o Main concern was the preservation of
    dissatisfied crowd of Indians and British. which
    changed greatly with the advancement of WWI.
  • WWI and after Hindu militancy and extreme
    politics against Muslim leagues
  • Move towards unification
  • o Rise of Gandhi (in next lecture)
  • One of the leading figures from the british
  • ? Alan Octavian Hume
  • ? National Congress should be formed
  • ? Establishing the structure of the national
  • ? Making it viable
  • ? Sympathy for the congress
  • ? Aware that British rule over India is danger
  • ? Congress is a safety vow
  • ? Based on Irish nationalism movement
  • ? 70 representatives
  • ? Hume7s model was from the Irish movement
    formulated by Gladstone (William Gladstone)
  • ? The India national congress did move around the
  • ? There werent permanent secretariat
  • ? Gave the maintaining the
  • ? Support was significant ideas civil liberty,
  • ? British umpiring role

Part 2Indian Nationalism Hindu Muslim
  • Presented By Leigh Anne

De-colonization (1857)
  • Jim Sallas (Historian)
  • Idea of coming together
  • Moving toward unity bases on nationalism
  • Process
  • Removing identitarian politics
  • Removing racial labeling
  • Indian National Congress emerge the opposition to
    this identitarian political perspective
  • Moving to develop political enlightenment/
    National consciousness

  • Opposition
  • National Congress begins to take place
  • Many aspects of society/regions within India were
    not happy with the inability to express their
    political views
  • Internally the class structures represented
    within the Congress made the process of decisions
    making adhering to cultural essentialism
  • Opposition developed in Indian society against
    the Indian National Congress or at least moved to
    change the internal and external make up of that
  • Political challenges were make against local
  • Attempts to mobilize opinions and the use of
    symbols associated with that mobilization

  • Tilak
  • Re-established the cultural identity of the
    Indian peoples
  • 1st time a voice for the identitarian perspective
    that was purely Indian
  • Age of Consent Act
  • Indian practice shouldnt be related to the
    British enlighten philosophers
  • Thought there were no differences between the
    religious world and the daily life world
  • Rhetoric of Blame
  • Suggested that British were alienating and
    dividing the ordinary Indian

  • Turn of the Century (1897-1900)
  • A.Tripathi
  • Argues that the extremists represented movements
    in direct opposition to the cultural Subagitation
    of the west
  • Spiritually under going a threat on
    Christianity trying to re-enforce Hindi and
    Muslim heratage
  • Boycotts, undeclared war between the people and
    the government,Boycotts of British goods and
  • Panic mode by 1906
  • New party came into existence
  • Moderates moving towards Swaraj (Self-Rule)
  • Split in Indian politics
  • 1911-movements by the Muslim population to have
    their voice and concerns heard
  • Establishment of All Indian Muslim League
  • One cause of De-colonization
  • Petition of Pakistan in 1947
  • Demoralized by the inactivity of the Indian
    National Congress
  • Congress seen as a primarly Hindi organization
  • Promoting Hindi interests and adopting British

  • Muhammas Ali Jinnah
  • First leader of the independent Pakistan
  • Push to promote education among Muslims
  • Need for Western Education to be able to compete
    for government positions and to be able to
  • Mix with the west
  • Not just one Muslim view
  • Need to regenerate Muslims
  • Promote common unity/objective
  • Muslims faced difficulty having to object
    democratic policy
  • Always a minority
  • Vote not helping their cause
  • Hoping that Jinnah would adopt the view that they
    should agitate for the petition of the areas
  • Increasing Extremist views
  • Home Rule Leagues Movement

  • A.Bissant
  • 2 Tactics
  • Try to get the British to concede to Home Rule
    for the Indians
  • Trying to get the extremist back into the
    national organizations
  • By 1914-15-Big support for Home Rule Perspective
  • Once in jail, triggered great support
  • Out of jail- totally lost control of the movement
    she was trying to establish
  • Divisions instead of the coming together of views
  • General atmosphere of discontent
  • Gandhi
  • New Leadership
  • Indian Nationalism
  • Special manor brought together many of the
    various sections of discontent
  • In the inter-war years
  • Very effective
  • Tactics were well suited for and leading up to
    the de-colonization of India

Gandhism and the rise of Nehru 1917-1927
  • Indian Nationalism Part 3
  • By Corrie Tetterton

The Montford Reforms 1917, 1918, 1919
  • Declaration by the British of their policies
  • They mainly set up a diarchy
  • Transferred certain areas of the government to
    the Indians, while keeping others reserved for
    the British
  • Government of India Act
  • Argued that there was still too much British
    control on the politicians

The Impact of War
  • The strains of war further sharpened the
    differences between Indian British interests
  • Decline in industry, heavy taxes war loans
  • Army expanded expenditure increased
  • Decreased standards of living
  • Establishment of labor unions
  • Strikes became popular
  • Mass Awakening
  • Soldiers brought back the soviet sense of a
    worldwide revolution and nationalism
  • These things were important to Gandhis leading
    role in nationalism

The Appeal of Gandhi
  • He saw himself as an ALL-Indian leader
  • Saw Ahimsa (non-violence) as the goal for all
  • Believed that life could be improved through
    village reconstruction
  • Everything run at the local level
  • Swadesih
  • His simplicity won him over to many
  • Used non-violent strikes
  • At times the hunger strike proved effective

The British and Muslim Responses
  • Rowllat Act 1919
  • Limited civil rights of Indians who demonstrated
    during the war
  • Added to social and economic problems
  • British were brutal repressive
  • Indians began winning the moral battle
  • Muslims didnt want unity because they would be
    the minority
  • Wanted to call off non-violence aspect
  • Kept tensions high between the groups

The Emergence of Nehru
  • By the early 20s Nehru had a sound position
  • He mildly supported Gandhi
  • The Chauri Chaura Incident 1922 tested the faith
    in non-violence
  • A non-violent mass movement was becoming hard for
    Gandhi to control
  • Living conditions were decreasing
  • Peasants lost touch with leadership by 1927 there
    were more radical groups springing up
  • Created more violence
  • By 1927 Gandhi was withdrawing and Nehru was on
    the rise

Indian NationalismPart 4 The Impact of World War
  • Years1945-1947
  • Presented by Caroline McGough

Political Impact
  • World War II led to a massive increase in
    popular movements
  • Gandhi insisted that they should unite until the
    Pakistan crisis could be sorted out which was
    another effect politically.
  • The political government meant that a center
    base, an Indian National Congress and Muslim lead
    Coalition, which center Indian energies in a more
    profitable channel.
  • Nehru was the Key player in establishing the
    Indian Nation. He was the choice because he was
    not going to tolerate and he formally expelled
    the communist members in the congress of 1942.
    Though socialist, there was never any doubt of
    political ideology that Nehru would follow a
    moderate soft line.

Economic Impact
  • There were growth in militant elements. There was
    a clear concern for resolution but there was no
    resolution found and a lot stayed the same like
    the hierarchy situation, which was another effect
    for the Indians, which indeed led to strikes.
  • Indias freedom was put pressure on from the
    United States. They didnt want them to become
    communists and develop democratic institutions
    but lack of success of economic policies, the
    central plan that Nehru adopted would result in
    World War II.

Social Impact
  • Key effects of World War II militarily for India
    were an increasing concern of Gandhi belief of
    loss of control of the international army.
  • He was concerned that the Indians returning to
    India (the military that is) wanted Independence
    although they didnt create a national movement
    but a renewed enthusiasm for the military to put
    pressure on the system.
  • In 1944 before the war, Gandhi had proposed talks
    with Jinnah (Muslim League) and certainly where
    Muslim majority would make India take a different
  • Towards the end, Communist advances gained ground
    especially at Telengena. Another outcropping of
    the war was the Mount Batten Plan and created
    two Central Governments to complete Independence.

Part 5 The Breakthrough
  • Indian Nationalism The Transfer of Power
  • 1939-1947
  • Presented by Manas

World War II In The Foray
  • Impact on Asia
  • Nationalism
  • Ambivalence Who Should India Support?
  • Unified Opposition Against Nazism, Fascism,
  • Yet Against British Fighting For Freedom -
  • Principle of Nonviolence Under Gandhi Nehru
  • Another Side Violence Under Subhash Chandra Bose
  • His Indian National Army Supported the Axis
  • Promise to Aid British Exchange for
  • British 1940 Declaration
  • India initially forced into war under
  • Army Rose from 205,000 to 2.5 million, the
    largest volunteer force in WWII Which fought
    against the Japanese

Quit India
  • Gandhi Out Of and In of Congress
  • Not going to be satisfied with anything short of
    independencedo or die. Gandhi (August 8, 1942)
  • Quit India Resolution (August 8, 1942 All India
    Congress Committee in Bombay)
  • Response to failed Stafford Cripps Mission in
  • Mass Civil Disobedience
  • Shops suspended, telegraph wires cut, mailboxes
    burned, refusal to pay taxes, salt stopped, shops
    picketed, public meetings, rail reliance
    sabotage, buses and trams destroyed, offices
  • The British Response 100,000s Arrests
  • A Success?
  • Movement Faded By 1943
  • Britain Had Not Been Forced Out of India
  • Sapped A Lot of the Political, Military,
    Economic Life-Force of the Empire
  • Congress Lost Leaders and Influence
  • Growth of Support for a Partition

Satyagraha Active, Non-Violent Persistence in
the Pursuit of Truth and Justice In The Face of
the Exercise of Alien or Unjust Authority. Paul
Keeping Their Word
  • Indian Independence Act of 1947
  • On June 3, 1947, Viceroy Lord Mountbatten
    Announced the Independenceand Partition of India
  • 565 Different Princely States Would have to
    Accede to India
  • The draft of the constitution was complete in
    1949, and first elections were held in 1952
  • India was and still is the worlds largest
  • The British Raj of India shall be terminated on
    the midnight of August 15, 1947
  • An independent dominion of India shall be created
    out of the United Provinces, Central Provinces,
    Bombay Presidency, Madras Presidency, the
    Carnatic, East Punjab, West Bengal, Assam and the
    Northeast Frontier Agency. The territories of the
    Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the Lakshadweep
    Islands are also turned over to the Indian
  • An independent dominion of Pakistan shall be
    created out of the provinces of West Punjab, East
    Bengal, Baluchistan and Sindh.
  • That all Indian princely states shall be released
    from their official commitments and treaty
    relationships with the British Empire, and will
    be free to join either dominion.
  • Both Dominions will be completely self-governing
    in their internal affairs, foreign affairs and
    national security, but the British monarch will
    continue to be their head of state, represented
    by the Governor-General of India and a new
    Governor-General of Pakistan. Both Dominions
    shall convene their Constituent Assemblies and
    write their respective constitutions.
  • Both Dominions will be members of the British
    Commonwealth, but free to leave whenever they
  • The British monarch shall be permitted to remove
    the title of Emperor of India from the Royal
    Style and Titles. King George VI subsequently
    removed the title by Order in council on June 22,

Why Give It Up?The British Perspective
  • Ideological Inclinations to Grant Independence
  • Economy in Great Britain in Dire Straits
  • Growing Public Opinion Innenpolitik
  • Losing Control in India
  • Demoralized Troops
  • Machiavellian Leave India Fragmented and in

Continuity and Discontinuity
  • Indian Independence An Evolution
  • Indian Councils Act of 1861
  • Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909
  • Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919
  • Govt of India Act of 1935
  • Independence Act of 1947
  • Continuity Through
  • Keeping Federal Government
  • Indian Civil Service ? Indian Administrative
    Service (Authority and Administration)
  • Whats New?
  • Fundamental Rights Explicitly Addressed
  • Universal Adult Suffrage
  • Actually Decided to Keep Some State Control on
  • Integrated Influence

Today All-pervasive instrumentalism that washes
away party manifestos, rhetoric, and effective
implementation of policies in an unending
competition for power, status, and profit. Paul
  • The Conflict
  • Can British-American Principles of Liberalism and
    Democracy Work Within the Framework of Indian
  • Caste System
  • General Electorate, Reserve Spots for Lower Caste
    Members, Special Privileges
  • Issues With Women, Issues With Pakistan

Legacies? Through Postcolonialism, Government of
India Act of 1935, Nationalist Movement, Existing
Social Order, Tradition and Culture Preceding
English Rule
Part 6 Jawaharlal Nehru Presented By Jennifer
  • Nehru was a major influence in organizing
    nationalist rebellions and spreading the
    popularity of the nationalist cause to India's
  • Gandhi was his mentor and agree with Gandhis way
    of thinking
  • Jawaharlal became one of the most popular
    political leaders in northern India
  • Hoped for social justice and equality
  • Gained popularity with Muslims, women, and other
  • In 1924, he was elected president of the
    municipal corporation of Allahabad
  • Served for 2 years as the citys chief executive
  • Angered with the British and the corruption they
  • So he resigned
  • In the late 1920s, Nehru was elected president of
    the All India Trade Unions Congress
  • Wanted political independence for India
  • Gained popularity in the youth because of this
  • In 1929, Nehru was elected as Congress President
    by the AICCI
  • Gandhi like Nehru for his ideas in equality and
    because of his appeal to India's masses,
    minorities, women and youth
  • Still surprised many that Nehru was elected
    instead of Gandhi or someone they believed was
    more suitable

Nehrus Leadership Grows
  • Elections held in 1952
  • First elections allowing universal male suffrage
    in India
  • Nehru nominated by Working Committee
  • Nehru became Indias first prime minister on
    August 15, 1947
  • Nehru election surprised many people and became a
    source of controversy
  • Believed that Indian society had become
    degenerated and that the causes of this
    degeneration lied deep within the structure of
    Indias society
  • The heavy burden of the past crushes it. Nehru
  • Felt India could catch up with the advancing
    Western nations and become once again a great

I am prime minister accidentally, if I may say
so, or in a sense in a non-political way. I was
thrust into politics because of the force of
circumstances, and not because of any free will.
And there I remain because of the circumstances
continued, and there I suppose, I shall remain
for some time more because it is difficult to
leave. Jawaharlal Nehru
Economic and Social Reform for India
  • Social
  • Nehru was a huge advocate for education in India
  • Oversaw the establishment of many institutions of
    higher learning
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian
    Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of
  • Included in his 5-year plan was a commitment for
    guaranteed free primary education to all of
    India's children
  • Launched initiatives such as the provision of
    free milk and meals to children in order to fight
  • Adult education centers, vocational and technical
    schools were also organized for adults
  • Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu
    law to criminalize caste discrimination and
    increase the legal rights and social freedoms of
  • Modernized Indian customs to allow women to get
    divorce and inherit property
  • Economics
  • Nehru applied his socialist vision by introducing
    a modified, "Indian" version of state planning
    and control over the economy
  • Five Year Plan in 1951
  • Charted the government's investments in
    industries and agriculture
  • Nehru hoped for a mixed economy
  • He perused land redistribution
  • Programs to build irrigation canals, dams and
    spread the use of fertilizers to increase
    agricultural production were launched
  • Program for nuclear energy was created so that
    India could advance
  • Nehru's industrial policies encouraged the growth
    of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries,
    yet state planning, controls and regulations
    impaired productivity, quality and profitability
  • Succeeded in extending water and electricity
    supply, health care, roads and infrastructure to
    a large degree for India's vast rural population

Nehrus Foreign Policy
  • Nehru pioneered the policy of non-alignment and
    co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations
    allowing neutrality between the rival blocs of
    nations led by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R
  • Nehru sought to establish warm and friendly
    relations with the Peoples Republic of China
  • Hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the
    gulf and tensions between the communist states
    and the Western bloc
  • Tried to maintain close relationship with other
    nations that were emerging from the
    decolonization process into a non-militaristic
    grouping of their own
  • Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse
    global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons
  • In 1962, Chinese invasion of northeastern India
    exposed the weaknesses of India's military as
    Chinese forces came as far as Assam
  • Forced to accept U.S military aid
  • Nehrus health began to decline in 1963 and he
    suffered a stroke and a heart attack
  • Died on May 27, 1964

Views of Nehru
  • Criticism
  • Nehru has been criticized for refusing to accept
    Vallabhbhai Patel as the Congress nominee to lead
    India's government
  • For establishing an era of socialist policies
    that created a burgeoning, inefficient
    bureaucracy and curbed free enterprise and
    productivity while failing to significantly
    eliminate poverty, shortages and poor living
  • Also blamed for ignoring the needs of India's
    military services and failing to acknowledge the
    threat posed by the People's Republic of China
    and Pakistan
  • Appraisement
  • He is praised for creating a system providing
    universal primary education reaching children in
    the farthest corners of rural India
  • Nehru is credited for establishing a widespread
    system of affirmative action to provide equal
    opportunities and rights for India's ethnic
    groups, minorities, and women
  • Pioneering non-alignment and encouraging a global
    environment of peace and security amidst
    escalating Cold War tensions
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